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THE WORKS 



I 8 ■■■ IS 



OF 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE. 



INCLUDING 

HIS UNPUBLISHED CORRESPONDENCE, £i 
AND A MEMOIR. 



EDITED BY SIMON WILKIN, F.L.S, 



VOL. IV. 



LONDON: 
HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1846. 



CONTENTS TO VOLUME FOURTH. 



PAGE 

Editor's preface i to ii 

REPERTORIUM, &c 1 to 32 

Editor's preface to Repertorium .... 3 

A LETTER TO A FRIEND, &c 37 to 52 

Editor's preface to Letter, &c 35 

CHRISTIAN MORALS, &c 53 to 114 

Editor's preface to Christian Morals ... 55 

Dedication to the Earl of Buchan ... 57 

Archdeacon Jeffery's preface 58 

Christian Morals 59 to 114 

CERTAIN MISCELLANY TRACTS, also 

MISCELLANIES, &c 115 

Editor's preface 117 to 118 

The publisher (Dr. Tenison) to the reader 119 to 120 

Tract 1. Observations upon several plants men- 
tioned in scripture 121 to 173 

Tract 2. Of garlands and coronary plants 174 to 178 

Tract 3. Of the fishes eaten by our Saviour 
with his Disciples after his resurrection from 
the dead 179 to 181 

Tract 4. In answer to certain queries relating 

to fishes, birds, and insects . . . . 182 to 185 

Tract 5. Of hawks and falconry, ancient and 

modern . . 186 to 190 

<H Tract 6. Of cymbals, &c 191 to 192 

Tract 7. Of ropalic or gradual verses, &c. 193 to 194 



VI 

PACiE 



Tract 8. Of languages, and particularly of the 

Saxon tongue 195 to 212 

Tract 9. Of artificial hills, mounts, or burrows, 
in many parts of England ; what they are, 
to what end raised, and by what nations 213 to 216 

Tract 10. Of Troas, what place is meant by 
that name. Also of the situations of Sodom, 
Gomorrha, Admah, Zeboim, in the Red Sea 217 to 222 

Tract 11. Of the answers of the oracle of 

Apollo at Delphos to Croesus king of Lydia 223 to 230 

Tract 12. A prophecy concerning the future 
state of several nations, in a letter written 
upon occasion of an old prophecy sent to the 
author from a friend, with a request that he 
would consider it . . 231 to 238 

Tract 13. Musaeum Clausum, or Bibliotheca 
Abscondita ; containing some remarkable 
books, antiquities, pictures, and rarities of 
several kinds, scarce or never seen by any 

man now living 239 to 250 

Miscellanies : — viz. concerning the too nice curi- 
osity of censuring the present, or judging 
into future dispensations 251 to 252 

Upon reading Hudibras 253 

An account of Island (alias Iceland,) in the 

year 1662 254 to 256 

Latin letters from Theodore Jonas, pastor of 
Hitterdale, in Iceland, to Dr. Browne, 1651, 
1656, and 1664 256 to 270 

UNPUBLISHED PAPERS 271 to 456 

Fragment on Mummies (from transcript by Jas. 

Crossley, Esq.) . . . . '. . . 273 to 276 
De Peste(from MS. Sloan. No. 1827, fol. 44-48)277 to 280 
A brief reply to several queries (lb. 1827, 

fol. 49) 281 to 286 

Naval fights (lb. 1827, fol. 59-60) . . 287 to 289 
Amico opus arduum meditanti (lb. 1827, fol. 

61-64) 290 to 293 

Naumachia (lb. 1827, fol. 65-68) . . . 294 to 297 



vn 

PACE 



De Astragalo aut Talo (lb. 1827, f'ol. 69-70) 298 to 299 
Nonnulla a lectione Atheneei scripta (lb. 1827, 

fol. 71-77) 300 to 304 

Nonnulla a lectione Athenaei, Platinas, Apicii 

de Re Culinaria, conscripta (lb. 1827, fol. 

77-81) 305 to 308 

Amico Clarissimo, de enecante Garrulo Suo 

(lb. 1827, fol. 83 ad fine) . . . . 309 to 312 
An account of Birds found in Norfolk (lb. 1830, 

fol. 5-22 and 31) , 313 to 321 

An account of Fishes, &c. found in Norfolk, 

and on the coast (lb. 1830, fol. 23-30; 

32-38 : and 1882, fol. 145-6) ... 325 to 336 
On the ostrich (lb. 1830, fol. 10-11; and 

1847) 337 to 339 

Boulimia Centenaria (lb. 1133; and MS. 

Rawl. 58) 340 

Upon the dark thick mist happening on the 

27th of November, 1674 (lb. 1833, fol. 

136) 341 to 342 

Oratio Anniversaria Harveiana (lb. 1833, fol. 

146-150; and 1839, fol. 299-316) . 343 to 352 
Account of a thunder-storm at Norwich, 1665 

(lb. 1866, fol. 96) 353 to 354 

On dreams (lb. 1874, fol. 112-120) . . 355 to 359 
NotEe in Aristotelem (lb. 1874, fol. 81) . 360 to 366 
Observations on grafting (lb. 1848, fol. 44-48: 

1882, fol. 136-137 ; and Add. MSS. 5233, 

fol. 58) 367 to 371 

Fragments (MS. Rawl. 58, fol. 5 and 15) 372 to 374 

Of Greenland (lb. 391) 375 

Extracts from Commonplace Books, from MSS. 

1843, 1848, 1862, 1866, 1869, 1874,1875, 

1882, 1885 376 to 456 

1/TDEX . 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. 



In completing this volume, I wish to offer some observations, 
partly in addition to the brief notices which precede several 
of the pieces it contains, and partly with reference to those 
which are now first printed from the original MSS. of the 
author. 

I omitted to remark, respecting the Posthumous Works, 
and the Christian Morals, that copies are in existence with 
reprint titles — that contemptible form of lying under which 
publishers have endeavoured to persuade the public of the 
rapidity of their sales. This was especially the case with the 
former work, which was first published in 1712. 1 In the 



1 With this title : — Posthumous Works of the learned Sir Thomas Browne, Knt. 
M.D. late of Norwich, printed from his Original Manuscripts, viz. I. Repertorium ,■ 
or, the Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Norwich. II. An Account of some 
Urnes, §"c. found at Brampton in Norfolk, Anno. 1667. III. Letters between Sir 
William Dugdale and Sir Thomas Browne. IV. Miscellanies. To which is prefixed 
his Life. There is also added Antiquitates Capellce D. Johannis Evangelistce ; hodie 
Schola Regies Norwicensis. Authore Johanne Burton, A.M. ejusdem Ludimagistro. 
Illustrated with Prospects, Portraitures, Draughts of Tombs, Monuments, S(C. Lon- 
don, printed for E. Curll, at the Dial and Bible ; and R. Gosling, at the Mitre in 
Fleetstreet. 1712. Price 6s. 

In a copy which belonged to Mr. John Ives, (the author of Garianonum, &c.) 
occurs, in his hand, writing, the following list of plates, which a perfect copy ought 
to contain. It is remarkable, however, that he has not mentioned the portrait by 
Vander Gucht, published with the volume, but wanting in his copy, which has in- 
stead of it a copy of White's portrait, engraved for the folio of 1686. 

" Plates in this volume, originally belonging to the book ; — 

PAGE. 

The Author's Monument xix 

Prospect of the Cathedral 1 

Parkhurst's Monument 3 

Hobart's Chapel 4 

Goldwell's Monument 6 

Sir Thomas Erpingham and his Wives • S 

Boleyne's Arms, &c 14 

Bp. Redman's Herse 16 

Plate of Arms 20 

Ditto 22 

VOL. IV. b 



libraries of the Royal Institution, and of E. H. Barker, Esq. 
are copies (the former on large paper) having a reprint title 
with this imprint : — Printed for W. Mears, at the Lamb with- 
out Temple Bar, and I. Hooke, at the Flower-de-Luce against 
St. Dunstans Church, in Fleetstreet. mdccxxiii. (Price six 
shillings.) Others are mentioned of the dates 1715, 1721, 
and 1722 : — the latter said to be "edited by Owen Brigstock, 
Esq." An assertion which was probably occasioned by a 
passage in Curll's preface. 2 

We are informed that the Posthumous Works was a specu- 
lation of Curll's, by the following passage in a letter from Dr. 
(afterwards Bp.) Tanner, to Dr. Charlet, the master of Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, Oct. 20, 1712. " Curll, the book- 
seller, has bought, of Dr. Browne's executors, some papers of 
Sir Thomas Browne, one of which is some account of the 
Cathedral, which he is printing under the title of the Anti- 
quities of Nonvich. If I had perfectly liked the thing, I 
should not have been backward to have given a cut ; but it 
was hurried by him into the press, without advising with any 
body here, or with Mr. Le Neve, who has great collections 
that way. However, out of regard to Mr. Hase, the herald, 
the Dean has suffered them to reprint his catalogue of 
Bishops, Deans, and Prebendaries, and, I think, to send a 
list of the Chancellours and Archdeacons." Ballard's MS. 
Letters in the Bodleian Library, vol. iv, p. 58. 



PAGU. 

Gate into the Close 24 

West End of the Cathedral 26 

Bp. Scambler's Monument 38 

Mrs. Astley's ditto 11 

Bp. Overall's ditto 48 

Dr. Pepper's ditto 51 

Bp. Reynolds's ditto 73 

Inglott'sditto 62 

Parsley's ditto - . . 67 

Bp. Sparrow's ditto 74 

Roman Urn (Miscellanies) 10 

Free School 56 

Besides these Mr. Ives inserted in his copy a number of other engravings, and I 
apprehend that the enumeration of plates given in Mr. Upcott's Topography, as be- 
longing to this volume, may have been taken from a similarly illustrated copy, or 
perhaps collected from several. 

2 a passage in Curll's preface."} " The public is here presented with those other 
remains of the learned Sir Thomas Browne, so long since promised, (and for which 
we are obliged to Owen Brigstock, Esq. grandson by marriage to the author.)" 



XI 



It may be presumed, that the Repertorium was too slight a 
sketch to satisfy " perfectly " the antiquarian taste and know- 
ledge of Tanner. May we not, however, fairly urge in ex- 
tenuation, a similar plea to that which has been offered by 
D'Israeli, in defence of Dugdale, Sir Thomas's learned friend 
and correspondent? — "He hurried on his itinerant labours 
of taking draughts and transcribing inscriptions, as he says, 
to preserve them for future and better times. Posterity owes 
to the prescient spirit of Dugdale, the ancient monuments of 
England, which bear the marks of the haste, as well as the 
zeal, which have perpetuated them." Curiosities, §c. Second 
Series, Chapter on Prediction. Kippis says (on what autho- 
rity does not appear) that the work was printed in Norwich. 

Of the Christian Morals I have a copy which belonged to 
Archdeacon Wrangham, with reprint title, dated 1761 ; 3 and 
I believe there are such copies dated 1765. 

I will take this opportunity to correct an error in my preface 
to the Christian Morals, at p. 55. It was not Dodsley, as I 
have there inadvertently said, but Payjie, who published the 
second edition of that work, and for whom Dr. Johnson wrote 
his biographical sketch. In the first volume, p. 141, of The 
Literary Magazine, or Universal Review, (not Register, as 
stated by Mr. Croker in his edition of BostveWs Life of John- 
son,) I have recently met with the Doctor's review of the 
work ; — if that can be called a review, which comprises in the 
following few words all that is offered by way of stricture or 
opinion on the work reviewed: — "This little volume consists 
of short essays, written with great vigour of sentiment, variety 
of learning, and vehemence of style." A quotation of two 
pages from the Life, closes this article. In 1773 Davies re- 
published, the Life, with those of Blake, the King of Prussia, 
and others, in his Fugitive and Miscellaneous Pieces, 3 vols, 
8vo. vol. ii, p. 254. 

In the half title to Miscellany Tracts and Miscellanies, I 



3 The half title is, True Christian Morals : by Sir Thomas Browne, M.D. Title, 
True Christian Morals: by Sir Thomas Browne, M.D. Author of Religio Medici, fyc. 
with his Life written by the celebrated Author of the Rambler; and explanatory 
Notes. The Third Edition. There is an engraved vignette of a Iamb browsing in 
a hedge, and this imprint below : — London ; printed for, and sold by Z, Stuart, at 
the Lamb in Paternoster Row, jibccjlxi. 



have omitted to number the present as the third edition of 
the former and second of the latter. I have also erroneously 
assigned to the former 1684 as the date of its first appear- 
ance. I have a copy of it bearing the date 1688, which be- 
longed to John Evelyn, and contains several important, though 
brief, MS. notes by himself, with his autograph and motto, 
" Catalogo J. Evelyni inscriptus ; — Meliora Retinete" in- 
scribed above the portrait ; which is by Vander Banc, and 
was, without doubt, published with the volume. I am in- 
clined, however, to think, that only a few early copies were 
thus dated, and that 1684 was the date of the impression. I 
have already remarked Browne's habit of multiplying tran- 
scripts of his compositions in MS. On the fly leaf of one of his 
volumes (MS. Sloan. No. 1827, folio,) I find two small square 
parchment labels, probably cut from the original cover, giving 
(in autograph) brief titles to the vol. with this addition, "Also 
in 4<to." 4 As No. 1827 contains copies, more or less com- 
plete, of a greater number of the pieces published under the 
title of Miscellany Tracts, than are to be found in any other 
of his MSS. now remaining, it may be supposed that the 
copy " also in 4/o." is not in existence, having been that from 
which the vol. was printed. Of several, however, there still re- 
main in MS. two or three copies, each differing from the other. 
I have collated these with some care, and have inserted the 
most remarkable variations ; but two sheets of copy containing 
some of these collations were mislaid, so that they could not 
be inserted in their place. I shall therefore give them at the 
close of this preface. 

Respecting the hitherto unpublished portion of the present 
volume, I shall say but little. Whether it was judicious to pub- 
lish so much, and of a character so miscellaneous, must be left 
to the reader to determine. I readily admit, that the greater 
part was not intended by its author to meet the public eye ; 

4 two small square, fyc.~] The one thus: 
Of Oracles 
De lie Accipitra, fyc. 
Also in 4<o. 
The other label runs thus : 

Amieo Ardua Med. 

fa 
Ys in 4lo. also. 



and none perhaps were prepared for that purpose (unless we 
except the Harveian Oration, which was intended for his 
son's use.) But on the other hand, it must be allowed, that 
the papers on Natural History, the fragments on Dreams, and 
on Mummies, with some others, are fully as characteristic^ 
and as interesting as several of those printed by Abp. Tenison. 
But the especial object which I have had in view in my selec- 
tion, is to exhibit, as far as possible, the literary and scientific 
character, pursuits, and habits of my author : in natural 
science, his unwearied love of experiment and observation ; — • 
in literature, his laborious reading, and his constant habit of 
accumulating treasure for future use ; — in every thing, that 
intellectual life and activity which never flagged, that play of 
fancy and imagination which was ever on the wing. Now all 
these, it seems to me, will be as strikingly displayed by his 
commonplace books, and occasional sketches, as by his more 
digested or systematic productions, — if not much more so. 

With these observations and explanations, I leave my work 
to the judgment of those who may care to read it. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES TO TRACTS. 



Tract ix. p. 215, line 8. England.'] 
The following paragraphs occur here in 
MS. Sloan. 1827. fol. 41. 

"And whereas these are observed in the 
fen lands, it is not impossible that some 
hereof may be the monuments of the no- 
blest of the Girvii, or fen inhabitants ; 
for that there were princes and mighty 
men among them, you cannot doubt, 
from historical records, and while you 
read of Tombert, prince of the Southern 
Girvii, or fen men, whose daughter 
Audrie was married to the Northumbrian 
King, and whose name is yet observable 
in these and other parts. . 

However probable it is that this part 
of the land hath been the seat of many 
notable exploits, not only since the Nor- 
mans, but in the time of Saxons, Danes, 
and also of the Romans in their conquest 
of the Britons, and their own civil dis- 
sentions; this being a fast and retiring 
place in ali ages. 

Nor wholly improbable that the dust of 
Boadicea, the famous queen of the Iceni, 
may lye about these quarters, whither 
after her overthrow by the Romans she 
might best retreat, and where not long 
after, the surviving Britons might honor- 
ably inter her, although not after this 
hilly and submontaneous sepulture ; for 
according to the account of . ..? the his- 
torian, before the battle she told the Bri- 
tons that if they went against them, they 
would retire into the fens where the 
enemy should neither take nor find them ; 
and that they should be able to swim 
over those rivers and waters which the 
Romans could hardly pass with boats." 
p. 215, line 23. Danes.] MS. Sloan. 
1827, ends with the following continua- 
tion of the present passage : " and there- 
fore, though some might conceive that 
these hills might be raised in this low 
drowned country, as a retiring place 
unto men and cattle, upon great floods 
and inundations, yet, in regard of the 



former customs of the fore-mentioned na- 
tions, we rather entertain them in the 
acception of sepulchral and funereal 
mountains." 

p. 217, line 12. and Groiius.'] Gro- 
tius and Vadianus. MS. Sloan. 1827. 

p. 217, line 17. and this, 8fC.~\ In- 
stead of this sentence, the following oc- 
curs in MS. Sloan. 1 827 : — 

"And even in some scripture relations, 
as that of the going of St. Paul from 
Mysia unto Troas, as Vadianus acknow- 
ledgeth, some region may be understood. 
And even in our texts alledged this sense 
may seem sufficient to salve the intention 
of the description when he came to or 
went from Troas, and may also seem 
strange unto many, how St. Paul should 
be said to go from that city, which all 
wriiers had laid in ashes about a thou- 
sand years ago." 

p. 218, line 13. Straoo.] 'and the 
tables of Ptolemy.' MS. Sloan. 1827. 

p. 218, line 26. which from Antigonus, 
S[C.] MS- Sloan. 1827, reads instead ; 
"set down by Ptolemy under the name 
of Alexandria-Troas, together with Lec- 
tum and Assum. It was also called, &c. 
Tract x, p. 221, line 13.] The pre- 
ceding pait of these remarks on the Dead 
sea resembles the copies in the MAS'. 
Sloan, very nearly ; but these are so 
much more copious, and they differ so 
considerably from the printed copy, that 
I give them at length. 

" It is also probable, that the cities were 
built on some rising and eminent parts 
of the valley ; because it was watered 
like Egypt, where we find they contrive 
their habitations on such parts. 

Whether any of the cities should be 
set in or near the bottom of the lake, 
some question may be made ; for Jordan 
and other rivers running always into the 
valley, without any manifest effluxion or 
discharge, and Jordan also yearly over- 
flowing, it is not improbable the waters 



gathered into a lake, or great water, 
towards the bottom or lower part, and 
was thereabout absorbed and drunk up 
by the subterraneous receptacles : but, 
where distinctly to place this absorption, 
there is no authentic decision ; yet the 
most probable place may be the south- 
ward and lower part, after the rivers 
from the eastern and western shores have 
met with Jordan in the valley : some- 
what agreeable unto the account which 
Brocardus received from Saracens living 
near the lake. Jordanem ingredi mare 
mortuum et rursum egredi, sed post exi- 
guum intervallum a terra absorberi. And 
from about these parts the learned Kir- 
cherus hath drawn his conjectured sub- 
terraneous channel unto Eltor, unto the 
Arabian side of the Red Sea, where this 
bituminous lake is conceived to discharge 
and vent at least some part of itself. 

Though the destruction of the cities 
and valley, with all living things, be only 
mentioned in this text, Gen. xix, yet the 
superinduction of the lake is also con- 
siderable in this story. The destruction 
of the cities and all things in the plain, 
and even the plain itself burnt and cover- 
ed with ashes, was performed by the 
showers of brimstone and fire sent down 
by the hand of God, according to the sin- 
gular expression of the text. " The 
Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah 
brimstone and fire from the Lord out of 



heaven ; and he overthrew those cities, 
and all the plain, and all the inhabitants 
of the cities, and that which grew upon 
the ground. 

The continuation and consummation 
of his judgment was performed by the 
lake, without which if the cities and plain 
had been only burnt and destroyed by 
these fiery showers, time might have 
restored the place to a tolerable habita- 
tion again ; for, besides the rains which 
would have fallen upon it, the rivers and 
brooks which run into it, and Jordan 
which yearly overflowed it, might, in 
process of time, have made a new mould 
upon it, and so have restored it to some 
fertility and habitable uses again. 

And therefore, to leave a lasting mo- 
nument of his wrath, and that it might 
never become the seat of man and living 
things again, God let loose the salt and 
bituminous treasures below it, which, in 
a small and competent measure, shewed 
themselves before, and might have lain 
quiet unto all time; continued still by 
salt and bituminous supplies, which are 
not like to fail ; which, whether he 
opened by these fiery showers setting the 
slime-pits on fire, and by the holes and 
channels where the river went down, 
only splitting and opening the earth by 
these piercing storms of fire, by earth- 
quake, or otherwise, is not yet deter- 
mined." 



OR SOME ACCOUNT 
OF THE TOMBS AND MONUMENTS IN THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OP NORWICH. 



SECOND EDITION. 



VITH NOTES 



BY MR. SAMUEL WOODWARD, 



HONORARY MEMBER OF THE YORKSHIRE PHI 



ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 

1712. 



VOL. IV. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



The Repertorium was one of the very last of Sir Tho- 
mas's productions ; his especial object in drawing it up, was, 
to preserve from oblivion, as far as possible, the monuments 
in the Cathedral of Norwich, many of which had been de- 
faced during the civil wars. It pretends not to the character 
of a history of the antiquities of the church, and therefore 
neither deserves the sneer bestowed by Bagford, (in his MS. 
collections in the British Museum, No. 8858,) that " it rather 
feared than deserved publication ; " nor justified the anxiety of 
the author's friends to prevent its publication, on the ground 
alleged by Archbishop Tenison, (Preface to Miscellany 
Tracts,) that " matter equal to the skill of the antiquary was 
not afforded." The volume containing it has afforded a 
favourite subject of illustration for topographers : the list of 
monuments was continued to the date of publication by the 
editor, (said 1 to have been John Hase, Esq., Richmond 
Herald,) and very many copies exist with numerous manu- 
script additional continuations and notes, some of which I 
have availed myself of. The most valuable is that of the late 
Mr. John Kirkpatrick, 2 now in the hands of Dr. Sutton, to 

1 On the authority of a MS. note in a copy which had belonged to Thomas Raw- 
linson, Esq. and was presented, by his brother, Dr. Richard Rawlinson, to the 
Bodleian Library. 

2 This gentleman, who was a merchant of Norwich, was indefatigable in his ex- 
ertions in collecting materials, and making drawings of public buildings, to form a 
History of Norwich ; which, had he lived to digest it properly, would have been most 
complete and invaluable. He died the 20th of August, 1728, aged 42. (See 
Blomefield's Norwich, part 2nd, p. 379, Edit, of 1806.) In his Will, dated 17th of 
July, 1727, (preserved in the Bishop's Office,) he says, " / give to my brother, 
Thomas Kirkpatrick, all my MSS. books and papers (which I have with no small 
pains and expense collected and purchased) relating to the History of Norwich, to 

B 2 



4< EDITORS PREFACE. 

whom I beg to offer my thanks for his kindness in affording 
me the use of it. My object, however, has been to give that 
only which proceeded from the pen of Sir Thomas himself; 
and I have, therefore, not re-printed either the continuation 
or Burton's History of the Free School, &c. 

I have great pleasure in acknowledging the kind assistance 
of my friend, Mr. S. Woodward, 3 in preparing explanatory 
and corrective notes throughout, and in giving a very in- 
teresting graphic and descriptive illustration of the notice at 
page 32, of the green yard, in which the combination ser- 
mons were of old preached. 

On the recommendation of Mr. Woodward, I have not 
re-engraved all the plates which adorned the Posthumous 
Works, but a selection only ; with the addition of his plan of 
the green yard. 

enjoy the same during his natural life, and after his death I give them all to the 
mayor, sheriffs, citizens, and commonalty, of the said city, to be kept in the City 
Treasury, in the Guild Hall there, as well for their use and service on occasions, as 
that some citizen hereafter, being a skilful antiquary, may from the same have, an 
opportunity of completing and publishing the said History, or such part of it as my 
said brother shall not publish." We are not aware that Mr. Thomas Kirkpatrick 
ever published any of these interesting collections, except the large North-east view 
of the city, which has been so frequently copied. The MSS. referred to were some 
years ago in the possession of the corporation, as were also Mr. K.'s fine collection 
of "Medals and Ancient Coins of Silver and Brass;" but we fear the original in- 
tention of the donor has been lost sight of, and that these valuable MSS. are for 
ever lost to the lover of local antiquities. Mr. Kirkpatrick's father was a native of 
Closeburn, near Dumfries, and we believe Col. Harvey, of Thorpe Lodge, is a de- 
scendant in the female line. 

3 Who has paid considerable attention to the local antiquities of his native city, 
and made several interesting communications to the Society of Antiquaries ; some 
of which are published in the Archaologia. He has also published " A Synoptical 
Table of British Organic Remains." 



IN the time of the late civil wars, there were about an 
hundred brass inscriptions stolen and taken away from grave- 
stones and tombs, in the cathedral church of Norwich; as I 
was informed by John Wright, one of the clerks, above eighty 
years old, and Mr. John Sandlin, one of the choir, who 
lived eighty-nine years ; and, as I remember, told me that he 
was a chorister in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Hereby the distinct places of the burials of many noble 
and considerable persons become unknown ; and, lest they 
should be quite buried in oblivion, I shall, of so many, set 
down only these following that are most noted to passengers, 
with some that have been erected since those unhappy times. 

First, 1 in the body of the church, between the pillars of 
the south aisle, stands a tomb, covered with a kind of touch- 
stone; which is the monument of Miles Spencer, LL.D. 
and Chancellor of Norwich, who lived unto ninety years. 
The top stone was entire, but now quite broken, split, and 
depressed by blows. There was more special notice taken of 
this stone, because men used to try their money upon it ; and 
that the chapter demanded certain rents to be paid on it. 
He was lord of the manor of Bowthorp and Colney, which 
came unto the Yaxleys from him ; also owner of Chapel in 
the Field. 

The next monument is that of Bishop Richard Nicks, alias 
Nix, or the Blind Bishop, being quite dark many years be- 

1 First.~\ Beginning from the west end. — Kirkpatrick. 



6 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 



fore he died. He sat in this see thirty-six years, in the reigns 
of King Henry VII. and Henry VIII. The arches are 
beautified above and beside it, where are to be seen the arms 
of the see of Norwich, impaling his own, viz., a chevron be- 
tween three leopards' heads. The same coat of arms is on 
the roof of the north and south cross aisle ; which roofs he 
either rebuilt, or repaired. The tomb is low, and broad, 2 
and 'tis said there was an altar at the bottom of the eastern 
pillar. The iron-work, whereon the bell hung, is yet visible 
on the side of the western pillar. 

Then the tomb of Bishop John Parkhurst, with a legible 
inscription on the pillar, set up by Dean Gardiner, running 
thus: 



Johannes Parkhurst, Theol. Professor, Guilfordiae natus, 
Oxoniae educatus, temporibus Mariae Reginae pro 
Nitida conscientia tuenda Tigurinae vixit exul 
Voluntarius : Postea presul factus, sanctissime 
Hanc rexit Ecclesiam per 16 an. Obiit secundo die 
Febr. 1574. 



A person he was of great esteem and veneration in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. His coat of arms is on the pillars, 
visible at the going out of the bishop's hall. 3 

Between the two uppermost pillars, on the same side, stood 
a handsome monument of Bishop Edmund Seamier, thus : 



Natus apud Gressingham, in Com. Lane. SS. Theol. Prof, 
apud Cantabrigienses. Obiit JEtat. 85. an. 1594 nonis Maii. 

He was household chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and died 1594. The monument was above a yard and a half 
high, with his effigies in alabaster, and all enclosed with a 

2 broad.'] It fills up all the space be- was buried in the nave of the cathedral, 
tween the two pillars, and on the two on the south side, between the eighth 
sides there was a rail of iron, the going and ninth pillars. Against the west 
up (on the platform of the monument,) part of the latter is a monument erected 
was at the west end of the south side. — to his memory, engraved by Hulsberg, 
Kirkp. in Browne's posthumous works ; but his 

3 bishop's hall.'] Bishop Parkhurst figure in a gown and square cap, with 
"having lived much at his palace, at his hands in a praying posture, and the 
Norwich, which he beautified and re- following inscription (that in the text) 
paired, placing arms on the pillars going was taken away in the civil war." — 
out of the hall, which lately were visible Gents. Mag. 1807, vol. 77, p. 510. 
there, he died February 2, 1574, and 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 7 

high iron grate. In the late times the grate was taken away, 
the statue broken, and the free-stone pulled down as far as 
the inward brick-work ; which being unsightly, was after- 
wards taken away, and the space between the pillars left 
void, as it now remaineth. 

In the south side of this aisle, according as the inscription 
denoteth, was buried George Gardiner, sometime Dean. 

Georgius Gardiner Barvici natus, Cantabrigise educatus, 
Primo minor Canonicus, secundo Praebendarius, tertio Archbidiaconus 
Nordovici, et demum 28 Nov. an. 1573, factus est Sacellanus 
Dominae Reginae, et Decanus hujus Ecclesiae, in quo loco per 16 
Annos rexit. 

Somewhat higher is a monument for Dr. Edmund Porter, 
a learned prebendary sometime of this church. 

Between two pillars of the north aisle in the body of the 
church, stands the monument of Sir James Hobart, Attor- 
ney-General to King Henry VII. and VIII. He built Lod- 
don church, St. Olave's bridge, and made the causeway ad- 
joining upon the south side. On the upper part is the 
achievement of the Hobarts, and below are their arms ; as 
also of the Nantons, (viz., three marlets) his second lady 
being of that family. It is a close monument, made up of 
handsome stone work : and this enclosure might have been 
employed as an oratory. 4 Some of the family of the Hobarts 
have been buried near this monument ; as Mr, James Hobart 
of Holt. On the south side, two young sons and a daughter 
of Dean Herbert Astley, who married Barbara, daughter of 
John, only son of Sir John Hobart, of Hales. 

In the middle aisle, under a very large stone, almost over 
which a branch for lights hangeth, 5 was buried Sir Francis 



4 oratory."] The enclosure to this mo- in the star a crescent for difference, and 

nument was of stone work, in the- form on the dexter side of the shield a bull 

of windows, having an entrance on the (the crest of Hobart,) as one supporter, 

north side, the south side was sur- and on the sinister, a martlet from the 

mounted by the arms which are now Nanton's coat as the other supporter, 
placed against the inside the pillar op- 5 hangeth.] This branch must have 

posite the monument; the tomb was also hung opposite Bishop Nix's monument, 

visible on this side, having an arch or and directly in front of the ancient stone 

canopy over, the upright wall of which pulpit, the remains of which are still 

was covered with stars, on the top the visible against the pillar, at the east end 

arms of Hobart, sab. a star of eight of the said monument, 
points, or between two flaunches erm., 



8 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

Southwell, descended from those of great name and estate in 
Norfolk, who formerly possessed Woodrising. 

Under a fair stone, by Bishop Parkhurst's tomb, was 
buried Dr. Masters, Chancellor. 

Gul. Maister, LL. Doctor Curias Cons. Epatus Norwicen. 
Officialis principalis. Obiit 2 Feb. 15S9. 

At the upper end of the middle aisle, under a large stone, 
was buried Bishop Walter de Hart, alias le Hart, 6 or Lyg- 
hard. He was bishop twenty-six years, in the times of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. He built the transverse stope 
partition or rood loft, on which the great crucifix was placed, 
beautified the roof of the body of the church, and paved it. 
Towards the north side of the partition wall are his arms, the 
bull, and towards the south side, a hart in water, as a rebus 
©f his name, Walter Hart. Upon the door, under the rood 
loft, was a plate of brass, containing these verses : 

Hie jacet absconsus sub marmore presul honestus. 
Anno milleno C quater cum septuageno 
Annexis binis instabat ei prope finis. 
Septima cum decima lux Maij sit numerata 
Ipsius est aniina de corpore tunc separata. 

Between this partition 7 and the choir on the north side, is 
the monument of Dame Elizabeth Calthorpe, wife of Sir 
Francis Calthorpe, and afterwards wife of John Colepepper, 8 
Esq. 

In the same partition, behind the dean's stall, was buried 
John Crofts, lately dean, son of Sir Henry Crofts, of Suffolk, 
and brother to the Lord William Crofts. He was sometime 
fellow of All-Souls college, in Oxford, and the first dean 
after the restoration of His Majesty King Charles II., whose 
predecessor, Dr. John Hassal, who was dean many years, 
was not buried in this church, but in that of Creek. He was 
of New college, in Oxford, and chaplain to the Lady Eliza- 
beth, Queen of Bohemia, who obtained this deanery for him. 

6 le Hart.'] Spelt Hert, or dc Mert, merit removed to the north aisle of the 

in MS. Sloan. 1885. choir near the confessional. 

''partition.'] This partition was taken 8 Cult'irppcr.] Cullpeper on the mo- 

away in 180G, (when the interior of the nument. 
church was repaired,) and the monu- 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 9 

On the south side of the choir, between two pillars, stands 
the monument of Bishop James Goldwell, Dean of Salisbury, 
and secretary to King Edward IV., who sat in this see 
twenty-five years. His effigies is in stone, with a lion at his 
feet, which was his arms, as appears on his coat above the 
tomb, on the choir side. His arms are also to be seen in the 
sixth escutcheon, in the west side over the choir ; as also in 
St. Andrew's church, at the deanery, in a window ; at Trowse, 
Newton Hall, and at Charta-magna, in Kent, the place of his 
nativity ; where he also built or repaired the chapel. He is 
said to have much repaired the east end of this church ; did 
many good works, lived in great esteem, and died Ann. 1498 
or 1499. 

Next above Bishop Goldwell, where the iron grates yet 
stand, Bishop John Wakering is said to have been buried. 
He was bishop in the reign of King Henry V. and was sent 
to the council of Constance : he is said also to have built the 
cloister in the bishop's palace, which led into it from the 
church door, which was covered with a handsome roof, 
before the late civil war. Also reported to have built the 
chapter-house, which being ruinous is now demolished, and 
the decayed parts above and about it handsomely repaired, 
or new built. The arms of the see impaling his own coat, 
the three Fleur des Lys, are yet visible upon the wall by the 
door. 9 He lived in great reputation, and died 1426, and is 
said to have been buried before St. George's altar. 

On the north side of the choir, between the two arches, 
next to Queen Elizabeth's seat, were buried 1 Sir Thomas 
Erpingham, and his wives the Lady Joan, &c. whose pictures 
were in the painted glass windows, next unto this place, with 
the arms of the Erpinghams. The insides of both the pil- 
lars were painted in red colours, with divers figures and in- 
scriptions, from the top almost to the bottom, which are now 

9 The arms, fyc.~] By him within the Goodall, in 1781, a tombstone, thought 

rayles under two great marble stones, to be that of Sir Thomas Erpingham, was 

lye two of the family of the Bulleyns, of found, with its face downward; it is of 

which family Queen Elizabeth was. — purbeck marble, ridge formed, and hav- 

MS. note in Bodleian copy. ing a Calvary cross on the ridge ; the 

1 were buried.] In removing the pave- rivets of' a brass inscription on the edge 

ment of the North aisle (near this place) of the stone are still visible : it remains 

to make a vault for the remains of Dr. near the place where it was found. 



10 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

washed out by the late whiting of the pillars. He was a 
Knight of the Garter in the time of Henry IV. and some part 
of Henry V., and I find his name in the list of the Lord War- 
dens of the Cinque-Ports. He is said to have built the Black 
Friars church, or steeple, or both, now called New-Hall stee- 
ple. His arms are often on the steeple, which are an escut- 
cheon within an Orle of Martlets, and also upon the out-side 
of the gate, 2 next the school-house. There was a long brass 
inscription about the tomb-stone, which was torn away in the 
late times, and the name of Erpingham only remaining, Jo- 
hannes Dominus de Erpingham, Miles, was buried in the 
parish church of Erpingham, as the inscription still declareth. 

In the north aisle, near to the door, leading towards Jesus' 
chapel, was buried Sir William Denny, recorder of Nor- 
wich, and one of the counsellors at law to King Charles I. 

In Jesus' chapel stands a large tomb (which is said to have 
been translated from our Lady's chapel, when that grew 
ruinous, and was taken down), whereof the brass inscription 
about it is taken away ; but old Mr. Spendlow, who was a 
prebendary 50 years, and Mr. Sandlin, used to say, that it 
was the tombstone of the Windhams ; and, in all probability, 
might have belonged to Sir Thomas Windham, one of King 
Henry VIII.'s counsellors, of his guard, and vice admiral ; for 
I find that there hath been such an inscription upon the 
tomb of a Windham in this church. 3 

Orate pro anima Thome Windham, militis, Elianore, et Domine 
Elizabethe, uxorumejus, &c. qui quidem Thomas fuit unus consiliariorum 
Regis Henrici VIII. et unus militum pro corpore, ejusdem Domini, 
nee non Vice Admirallus. 

And according to the number of the three persons in the in- 
scription, 4 there are three figures upon the tomb. 



2 gate.~\ In a nich of the wall above would have a tomb for him, with his 
the gates is an armed knight on his arms and badges, and his two wives, if his 
knees. — MS. note in a copy in Bib. Bod/, wife Elizabeth will be there buried, &c. 

3 In Jesus' chapel, <§r.] "That Sir See his will among my papers of Felbryge." 
Thomas Windham, Knight, by his will, — MS. Note in. Bodl. Copy. 

dated 22 Oct. 13 H. 8. 1521, willed that 4 inscription.'] Weever saith that this 

his body be buried in the middle of the (in his time maimed) inscription was 

chapel of the blessed virgin, within the upon a goodly tomb in the Chapter- 

scite of the monastery of the holy Trin- house. — Kirkp. MS. 
ity of the city of Norwich ; where he 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 11 

On the north wall of Jesus' chapel there is a legible brass 
inscription in latin verses ; and at the last line Pater Noster. 5 
This was the monument of Randulfus Pulvertqft, custos 
caronelle. Above the inscription was his coat of arms, viz. 
six ears of wheat with a border of cinque-foils ; but now 
washed out, since the wall was whitened. 

At the entrance of St. Luke's chapel, on the left hand, is 
an arched monument, said to belong to one of the family of 
the Bosvile's or Boswill, sometime prior of the convent. At 
the east end of the monument are the arms of the church 
(the cross) and on the west end another (three bolt arrows), 
which is supposed to be his paternal coat. The same coat 
is to be seen in the sixth escutcheon of the south side, under 
the belfry. Some inscriptions upon this monument were 
washed out when the church was lately whitened ; as among 
the rest, O morieris ! O morieris ! O morieris ! The three 
bolts are the known arms of the Bosomes, 6 an ancient family 
in Norfolk ; but whether of the Bosviles, or no, I am uncer- 
tain. 

Next unto it is the monument of Richard Brome, Esq. 
whose arms thereon are ermines ; and for the crest, a bunch 
or branch of broom with golden flowers. This might be 
Richard Brome, Esq. whose daughter married the heir of 
the Yaxleys of Yaxley, in the time of Henry VII. And one 
of the same name founded a chapel in the field in Norwich. 

There are also in St. Luke's chapel, amongst the seats on 
the south side, two substantial marble and crossed tombs, 
very ancient, said to be two priors of this convent. 7 

At the entrance into the cloister, by the upper door on the 
right hand, next the stairs, was a handsome monument on 
the wall, which was pulled down in the late times, and a void 
place still remaineth. Upon this stone were the figures of 

brass inscription.! Inserted from Crimina multa feram fuerant mea quando re 



cessi, 



Burton's Account of the Freeschool, p. 22. Pulvertoft Radulphus eram Custos Caronelle, 

Christe Deus pro me passus mea crimina pelle, 

En morior, prodest michi quid prius hoc quod Sic exoro petaj qui mea scripta legas, Pater 

habebam, noster. 

Preterit omne quod est, eo nudus. sic venie- 6 d „. n r> %ra * ■ 

bam, Bosomes. J Bozouns. — MS. note m 

Sola michi requies manet, hie non sunt mea Bodl. copy. 

Antea nulla quies, modo pro nichilo michi 7 There are also, #c] Taken away 

c * 1 ?' j * z- , •, , about 1738 to make room for seats. — 

Sed neo, dum fueram modicum vel ml bene ,.„ . . „ ,, 

gessi Mo. note in Bodl. copy. 



12 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

two persons in a praying posture, on their knees. I was told 
by Mr. Sandlin, that it was said to be the monument for one 
of the Bigots, who built or beautified that arch by it, which 
leadeth into the church. 

In the choir towards the high altar, and below the ascents, 
there is an old tomb, which hath been generally said to have 
been the monument of Bishop William Herbert, founder of 
the church, and commonly known by the name of the foun- 
der's tomb. This was above an ell high ; but when the pul- 
pit, in the late confusion, was placed at the pillar, where 
Bishop Overall's monument now is, and the aldermen's seats 
were at the east end, and the mayor's seat in the middle at 
the high altar, the height of the tomb being a hindrance unto 
the people, it was taken down to such a lowness as it now 
remains in. 8 He was born at Oxford, 9 in good favour with 
King William Rufus, and King Henry I. removed the epis- 
copal see from Thetford to Norwich, built the priory for 60 
monks, the cathedral church, the bishop's palace, the church 
of St. Leonard, whose ruins still remain upon the brow of 
Mousehold hill ; the church of St. Nicholas at Yarmouth, of 
St. Margaret at Lynn, of St. Mary at Elmham, and instituted 
the Cluniack monks at Thetford. Malmsbury saith he was 
vir pecuniosus, which his great works declare, and had always 
this good saying of St. Hierom in his mouth, erravimus ju- 
venes, emendemus senes. 

Many bishops of old might be buried about, or not far from 
the founder, as William Turbus, a Norman, the third bishop 
of Norwich, and John of Oxford the fourth, accounted among 
the learned men of his time, who built Trinity church in Ips- 
wich, and died in the reign of King John ; and it is delivered, 
that these two bishops were buried near to Bishop Herbert, 
the founder. 

In the same row, not far off, was buried Bishop Henry le 
Spencer, as lost brass inscriptions have declared. And Mr. 



8 as it 7imv remains in.'] The present Momrficld 's History of Norwich, part 1, 

tomb was built by the dean and prebend- p. 471. 

aries in 1682, and the latin inscription ° Oxford.'} The present inscription 

thereon is said to have been composed says, "qui O.ximi in Normania natus;" 

by the learned Dr. Prideaux, who was at this is understood to allude to Iliems near 

that time one of the prebendaries. — See Caen. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 13 

Sandlin told me, that he had seen an inscription on a grave- 
stone thereabouts, with the name of Henricus de, or le Spen- 
cer : a he came young unto the see, and sat longer in it than 
any before or after him : but his time might have been shorter, 
if he had not escaped in the fray at Lennam 2 (a town of which 
he was lord), where forcing the magistrate's tipstaff to be car- 
ried before him, the people with staves, stones, and arrows, 
wounded, and put his servants to flight. He was also wound- 
ed, and left alone, as John Fox hath set it down out of the 
chronicle of St. Albans. 

In the same row, of late times, was buried Bishop Richard 
Montague, as the inscription, Depostum Montacutii JLpiscopi, 
doth declare. 

For his eminent knowledge in the Greek language, he was 
much countenanced by Sir Henry Savile, provost of Eaton 
college, and settled in a fellowship thereof: afterwards made 
Bishop of Chichester ; thence translated unto Norwich, where 
he lived about three years. He came unto Norwich with 
the evil effects of a quartan ague, which he had about a year 
before, and which accompanied him to his grave ; yet he 
studied and wrote very much, had an excellent library of 
books, and heaps of papers, fairly written with his own hand, 
concerning the ecclesiastical history. His books were sent 
to London ; and, as it was said, his papers against Baronius 
and others transmitted to Rome ; from whence they were 
never returned. 

On the other side was buried Bishop John Overall, fellow 
of Trinity college in Cambridge, master of Catherine Hall, 
regius professor, and dean of St. Paul's : and had the honour 
to be nominated one of the first governors of Sutton hospi- 
tal, by the founder himself, a person highly reverenced and 
beloved ; who being buried without any inscription, had a 



1 Spencer.'] The stoute and warlike coate of Spencer, upon an helmet, his 

Henry Spencer, Bishop of Norwich, who episcopall miter, and upon that Michael, 

supprest by his courriage and valour, that the archangel!, with a drawn sword. — 

dangerous rebellion; and about North Peachem's Compleat Gent. p. 164. Ed. 

Walsham, overthrew Litsterthe captaine, 1634. 

hath (as it is to be seene upon his monu- 2 Lennam.~\ Lynn. See Blomefield's 

ment in the body of the quire of Christ- Norwich, part 1, p. 516. 
church, in Norwich) over his proper 



14 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

monument lately erected for him by Dr. Cosin, Lord Bishop 
of Durham, upon the next pillar. 

Under the large sandy-coloured stone was buried Bishop 
Richard Corbet, a person of singular wit, and an eloquent 
preacher, who lived bishop of this see but three years, being 
before Dean of Christ-church, then Bishop of Oxford. The 
inscription is as follows : 

Richardus Corbet Theologiae Doctor, 
Ecclesiae Cathedralis Christi Oxoniensis 
Primum alumnus, inde Decanus, exinde 
Episcopus, illinc hue translatus, et 
Hinc in ccelum, Jul. 28, Ann. 1635. 

The arms on it, are the see of Norwich, impaling, or. a raven 
sab. Corbet. 

Towards the upper end of the choir, and on the south side, 
under a fair large stone, was interred Sir William Boleyn, or 
Bullen, great grandfather to Queen Elizabeth. The inscrip- 
tion hath been long lost, which was this : 

Hie jacet corpus Willelmi Boleyn, militis, 
Qui obiit x Octobris, Ann. Dom. MCCCCCV. 

And I find in a good manuscript of the ancient gentry of 
Norfolk and Suffolk these words. Sir William Boleyn, heir 
unto Sir Thomas Boleyn, who married Margaret, daughter 
and heir of Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormond, died in the year 
1505, and was buried on the south side of the chancel of 
Christ-church in Norwich. And surely the arms of few 
families have been more often found in any church, than those 
of the Boleyns, on the walls, and in the windows of the east 
part of this church. Many others of this noble family were 
buried in Blickling church. 

Many other bishops might be buried in this church, as we 
find it so asserted by some historical accounts ; but no history 
or tradition remaining of the place of their interment, in vain 
we endeavour to design and point out the same. 

As of Bishop Johannes de Gray, who, as it is delivered, 
was interred in this church, was a favourite of King John, and 
sent by him to the pope : he was also Lord Deputy of Ireland, 
and a person of great reputation, and built Gaywood Hall, 
by Lynn. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 15 

As also of Bishop Roger Skerewyng [or de Skerning], in 
whose time happened that bloody contention between the 
monks and citizens, begun at a fair kept 3 before the gate ; 
when the church was fired : to compose which, King Henry 
III. came to Norwich, and William de Brunham, prior, was 
much to blame.— See Holingshed, fyc. 

Or of Bishop William Middleton, who succeeded him, and 
was buried in this church ; in whose time the church that 
was burnt while Skerewyng sat was repaired and consecrated, 
in the presence of King Edward I. 

Or of Bishop John Salmon, sometime Lord Chancellor of 
England, who died 1325, and was here interred ; his works 
were noble. He built the great hall in the bishop's palace ; 
the bishop's long chapel on the east side of the palace, which 
was no ordinary fabric ; and a strong handsome chapel at the 
west end of the church, 4 and appointed four priests for the 
daily service therein. Unto which great works he was the 
better enabled by obtaining a grant of the first fruits from 
Pope Clement. 

Or of Bishop Thomas Percy, brother to the Earl of 
Northumberland, in the reign of Richard II., who gave unto 
a chantry the lands about Carlton, Kimberly, and Wickle- 
wood ; in whose time the steeple and belfry were blown 
down, and rebuilt by him and a contribution from the clergy. 

Or of Bishop Anthony de Beck, a person of an unquiet 
spirit, very much hated, and poisoned by his servants. 

Or likewise of Bishop Thomas Browne, who, being bishop 
of Rochester, was chosen bishop of Norwich, while he was 
at the council of Basil, in the reign of King Henry VI., was 
a strenuous assertor of the rights of the church against the 
citizens. 

Or of Bishop William Rugge, 5 in whose last year happen- 
ed Kett's rebellion, in the reign of Edward VI. I find his 
name Guil. Norwicensis among the bishops, who subscribed 



3 fair kept.'] This occurred on the end of the church.] St. John's Chapel, 
9th August, 1272. — See Blomefield's now the Freeschool. 

Norwich, part 1, p. 53. s Rugge.] He lies in the midst of the 

4 a strong handsome chapel at the west choir. — MS. in Bodl. copy. 



16 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

unto a declaration against the pope's supremacy, in the time 
of Henry VIII. 

Or of Bishop John Hopton, who was bishop in the time 
of Queen Mary, and died the same year with her. He is 
mentioned, together with his Chancellor, Dunning, by John 
Fox, in his Martyr ology. 

Or lastly, of Bishop William Redman, of Trinity College, 
in Cambridge, who was archdeacon of Canterbury. His 
arms are upon a board on the north side of the choir, near to 
the pulpit. 

Of the four bishops in Queen Elizabeth's reign, Parkhurst, 
Freake, Seamier, and Redman, Sir John Harrington, in his 
History of the Bishops in her Time, writeth thus : — For the 
four bishops in the queen's days, they liv'd as bishops should 
do, and were not warriours, like Bishop Spencer, their pre- 
decessor. 

Some bishops were buried neither in the body of the 
church nor in the choir, but in our Lady's chapel, at the east 
end of the church, built by Bishop Walter de Suthfield, 6 (in 
the reign of Henry III.) wherein he was buried, and miracles 
said to be wrought at his tomb, he being a person of great 
charity and piety. 

Wherein also was buried Bishop Simeon de Wanton, vel 
Walton, and Bishop Alexander, who had been prior of the 
convent ; and also, as some think, Bishop Roger Skerewyng, 
and probably other bishops and persons of quality, whose 
tombs and monuments we now in vain enquire after in the 
church. 

This was a handsome chapel ; and there was a fair entrance 
into it out of the church, of a considerable height also, as may 
be seen by the outside, where it adjoined unto the wall of the 
church. But, being ruinous, it was, as I have heard, de- 
molished in the time of Dean Gardiner ; but what became of 
the tombs, monuments, and grave-stones, we have no account. 
In this chapel the bishop's consistory, or court, might be kept 
in old time : for we find in Fox's Martyrology, that divers 
persons accused of heresy were examined by the bishop, or 

6 Suthfield,'] or Suffield. — S. Wd. Norwich, p. l. n.—MS. vote by Le Neve, 

He built the hospital of St. Giles in in Bodl. Copy. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 17 

his chancellor, in St. Mary's chapel. This famous bishop, 
Walter de Suthfeild, who built this chapel, is also said to have 
built the hospital 7 not far off. 

Again, divers bishops sat in this see, who left not their 
bones in this church ; for some died not here, but at distant 
places; some were translated to other bishopricks; and 
some, though they lived and died here, were not buried in this 
church. 

Some died at distant places, as Bishop Richard Courtney, 
Chancellor of Oxford, and in great favour with King Henry V. 
by whom he was sent unto the king of France, to challenge 
his right unto that crown ; but he dying in France, his body 
was brought into England, and interred in Westminster-abbey, 
among the kings. 

Bishop William Bateman, LL.D., born in Norwich, who 
founded Trinity-hall, in Cambridge, and persuaded Gonvil to 
build Gonvil-college, died at Avignon, in France, being sent 
by the king to Rome, 8 and was buried in that city. 

Bishop William Ayermin died near London. 

Bishop Thomas Thirlby, doctor of law, died in Archbishop 
Matthew Parker's house, and was buried at Lambeth, with 
this inscription : — Hie jacet Thomas Thirlby, olim Episcopus 
Eliensis, qui obiit 26 die Augusti, Anno Domini 1570. 

Bishop Thomas Jann, who was Prior of Ely, died at Folk- 
ston-abbey, near Dover, in Kent. 9 

Some were translated unto other bishopricks ; as Bishop 
William Ralegh was removed unto Winchester, by King 
Henry III. 

Bishop Ralph de Walpole was translated to Ely, in the 
time of Edward I. ; he is said to have begun the building of 
the cloister, which is esteemed the fairest in England. 

Bishop William Alnwick built the church gates at the 
west end of the church, and the great window, and was trans- 
lated to Lincoln, in the reign of Henry VI. 



7 hospital.'] Saint Giles's Hospital, Clement VI., who lived at Avignon." 
Bishopsgate Street. 9 Kent.] In Blomefield's Norwich 

8 to Rome.] Kirkpatrick, in his copy, (part I, p. 543) it is stated, that what is 
has struck out these words, and substi- here said of his having been prior of Ely, 
tuted " thither," adding the following and in Le Neve's Fasti of his dying at 
explanatory observation, " viz. to Pope Folkston-abbey, is a mistake. 

VOL. IV. C 



18 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

And of later time, Bishop Edmund Freake, who succeeded 
Bishop Parkhurst, was removed unto Worcester, and there 
lieth entombed. 

Bishop Samuel Harsnet, master of Pembroke-hall, in Cam- 
bridge, and bishop of Chichester, was thence translated to York. 

Bishop Francis White, almoner unto the king, formerly 
bishop of Carlisle, translated unto Ely. 

Bishop Matthew Wren, dean of the chapel, translated also 
to Ely, and was not buried here. 

Bishop John Jegon, who died 1617, was buried at Aylsham, 
near Norwich. He was master of Bennet-college, and dean of 
Norwich, whose arms, two chevrons with an eagle on a canton, 
are yet to be seen on the west side of the bishop's throne. 

My honoured friend, Bishop Joseph Hall, dean of Wor- 
cester, and bishop of Exon, translated to Norwich, was buried 
at Heigham, near Norwich, where he hath a monument. 
When the revenues of the church were alienated, he retired 
unto that suburban parish, and there ended his days, being 
above 80 years of age. A person of singular humility, 
patience, and piety : his own works are the best monument 
and character of himself, which was also very lively drawn in 
his excellent funeral sermon, preached by my learned and 
faithful old friend, John Whitefoot, rector of Heigham, a 
very deserving clerk of the convocation of Norfolk. His 
arms, in the Register Office of Norwich, are sable three 
talbots' heads erased argent. 

My honoured friend also, Bishop Edward Reynolds, was 
not buried in the church, but in the bishop's chapel ; which 
was built by himself. He was born at Southampton, brought 
up at Merton-college, in Oxford, and the first bishop of Nor- 
wich after the king's restoration : a person much of the 
temper of his predecessor, Dr. Joseph Hall, of singular affa- 
bility, meekness, and humility ; of great learning ; a frequent 
preacher, and constant resident. He sat in this see about 17 
years; and, though buried in his private chapel, yet his 
funeral sermon was preached in the cathedral, by Mr. Bene- 
dict Rively, now minister of St. Andrews. He was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Anthony Sparrow, our worthy and honoured 
diocesan. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 19 

It is thought that some bishops were buried in the old 
bishop's chapel, said to be built by Bishop John Salmon, [de- 
molished in the time of the late war,] for therein were many 
grave-stones, and some plain monuments. This old chapel 
was higher, broader, and much larger than the said new 
chapel built by Bishop Reynolds; but being covered with 
lead, the lead was sold, and taken away in the late rebellious 
times; and, the fabric growing ruinous and useless, it was 
taken down, and some of the stones made use of in the build- 
ing of the new chapel. 

Now, whereas, there have been so many noble and ancient 
families in these parts, yet we find not more of them to have 
been buried in this, the mother church. It may be considered, 
that no small numbers of them were interred in the churches 
and chapels of the monasteries and religious houses of this 
city, especially in three thereof; the Austin-friars, the Black- 
friars, the Carmelite, or White-friars ; for therein were buried 
many persons of both sexes, of great and good families, 
whereof there are few or no memorials in the cathedral. And 
in the best preserved registers of such interments of old, from 
monuments and inscriptions, v/e find the names of men and 
women of many ancient families; as of Ufford, Hastings, 
Radcliffe, Morley, Windham, Geney, Clifton, Pigot, Hen- 
grave, Garney, Howell, Ferris, Bacon, Boys, Wichingham, 
Soterley ; of Falstolph, Ingham, Felbrigge, Talbot, Harsick, 
Pagrave, Berney, Woodhouse, Howldich ; of Argenton, 
Somerton, Gros, Benhall, Banyard, Paston, Crunthorpe, 
Withe, Colet, Gerbrigge, Berry, Calthorpe, Everard, Hether- 
set, Wachesham. All lords, knights, and esquires, with divers 
others. Beside the great and noble families of the Bigots, 
Mowbrays, Howards, were the most part interred at Thet- 
ford, in the religious houses of which they were founders or 
benefactors. The Mortimers were buyied at Attleburgh ; 
the Aubeneys at Wymondham, in the priory or abbey founded 
by them. And Camden says, that a great part of the nobility 
and gentry of those parts were buried at Pentney abbey. 
Many others were buried dispersedly in churches or religious 
houses, founded or endowed by themselves ; and, therefore, 
it is the less to be wondered at, that so many great and con- 

C 2 



20 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

siderable persons of this country were not interred in this 
church. 

There are twenty-four escutcheons, 1 viz., six on a side on 
the inside of the steeple over the choir, with several coats of 
arms, most whereof are memorials of things, persons, and 
families, well-wishers, patrons, benefactors, or such as were in 
special veneration, honour, and respect, from the church. As 
particularly the arms of England, of Edward the Confessor ; 
an hieroglyphical escutcheon of the Trinity, unto which this 
church was dedicated. Three cups within a wreath of thorns, 
the arms of Ely, the arms of the see of Canterbury impaling 
the coat of the famous and magnified John Morton, archbishop 
of Canterbury, who was bishop of Ely before ; of bishop 
James Goldwell, that honoured bishop of Norwich. The 
three lions of England, St. George's cross, the arms of the 
church impaled with Prior Bosviles' coat, the arms of the 
church impaled with the private coats of three priors, the 
arms of the city of Norwich. 

There are here likewise the coats of some great and wor- 
thy families ; as of Vere, Stanley, De la Pole, Wingfleld, 
Heydon, Townshend, Bedingfield, Bruce, Clere ; which be- 
ing little taken notice of, and time being still like to obscure, 
and make them past knowledge, I would not omit to have a 
draught thereof set down, which I keep by me. 



1 escutcheons.] These are now cover- 9. Vere, Earl of Oxford. 

ed by the painted ceiling. In Blom- 10. Townshend. 

field's Norwich the author complains 11. Bedingfield. 

that these escutcheons are "misplaced, 12. Clere impaling Dovedale. 
and wrong described ; " the arrange- west side. 

ment on the annexed plate, and in the 13. Priory impaling Prior Spynk (1488). 

following description, has consequently 14. Priory impaling Prior Bozoun(1471). 

been adopted : — 15. Norwich. 



EAST SIDE. 



16. St. George. 



. „ , „ , , . , 17. Priory impaling Prior Molet (1453). 

1. France and England quarterly. io r> ■ • r r> ■ u i j 
„ .,, . .. „ *> e ^ J 18. Priory impaling Prior Heverlond 

2. Edward the Confessor. . M4"?n 

3. Emblem of the Trinity. * „„„«,„ ..,.,,. 

a I? ui r.u c NORTH SIDE. 

4. hmblem of the Sacrament. m r> ■ i- n u v. 

_ -, . .. IV. nrewse impaling Debenham. 

/ „ . i c. i- n/r 20. Wingfield quartering Bovill. 

6. Canterbury bee impaling Moreton. 21 H d 

south side. 22. Stanley and his quarterings, and 

7. Stanley, Earl of Derby, and his quar- Plais quartering Ufford. 
terings ; impaling France and Eng- 23. De la Pole impaling Burwash. 
land quarterly. 24. Norwich See impaling Bishop Gold- 

8. England. well's coat and devices. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 21 

There are also many coats of arms on the walls, and in 
the windows of the east end of the church ; but none so 
often as those of the Boleyns, viz. in a field Arg. a Chev. 
Gul. between three bulls heads' couped sab. armed or ; 
whereof some are quartered with the arms of noble fami- 
lies. As also about the church, the arms of Hastings, De 
la Pole, Heydon, Stapleton, Windham, Wichingham, Clifton, 
Heveningham, Bokenham, Inglos. 

In the north window of Jesus' chapel are the arms of 
Radcliff and Cecil ; and in the east window of the same 
chapel the coats of Branch and of Beale. 

There are several escutcheon boards fastened to the upper 
seats of the choir : upon the three lowest on the south side 
are the arms of Bishop Jegon, of the Pastons, and of the 
Hobarts ; and in one above the arms of the Howards. On 
the board on the north side are the arms of Bishop Redmayn; 
and of the Howards. 

Upon the outside of the gate, next to the school, are the 
escutcheons and arms of Erpingham, who built the gates. 
[Also the coats of Clopton and Walton,] being an orle of 
martlets ; or such families who married with the Erpinghams. 
The word poena" often upon the gates, shews it to have 
been built upon penance. 

At the west end of the church are chiefly observable the 
figure of King William Rufus, or King Henry I., and a 
bishop on his knees receiving the charter from him: or else 
of King Henry VI., in whose reign this gate and fair window 
were built. Also the maimed statues of bishops, whose 
copes are garnished and charged with a cross moline : and at 
their feet, escutcheons, with the arms of the church ; and 
also escutcheons with crosses molines. That these, or some 
of them, were the statues of Bishop William Alnwick, seems 
more than probable ; for he built the three gates, and the 
great window 3 at the west end of the church ; and where the 

2 poena.'] This word is not Poena but his tombstone. — See Blomefield's Nor- 

Uf HR the old way of writing think, wich > P art U > P- 39 > and Britton's Nor- 
,.,. ,. ' . , . ,. , . t. wich Cathedral. 

(this was first suggested by the late Or. 

Bayers,) it appears to have been intend- 3 the g reat window.] The great west 
ed for his motto ; as was also the word window has been found on a late survey 
ISefoar on a brass label at the corner of t0 llave been P ut in !ike a fr ame into the 



22 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

arms of the see are in a roundele, are these words, 

Orate pro anima Domini Willelmi Alnwyk. ■ — Also in 

another escutcheon, charged with a cross moline, there is the 
same motto round about it. 

Upon the wooden door on the outside, there are also the 
three mitres, which are the arms of the see upon one leaf, 
and a cross moline on the other. 

Upon the outside of the end of the north cross aisle, there 
is a statue of an old person ; which, being formerly covered 
and obscured by plaster and mortar over it, was discovered 
upon the late reparation or whitening of that end of the aisle. 
This may probably be the statue of Bishop Richard Nicks, 4 or 
the Blind Bishop ; for he built the aisle, or that part thereof, 
and also the roof, where his arms are to be seen, a chevron 
between three leopards' heads gules. 

The roof of the church is noble and adorned with figures. 
In the roof of the body of the church there are no coats of 
arms, but representations from scripture story, as the story 
of Pharaoh ; of Sampson towards the east end ; figures of 
the last supper, and of our Saviour on the cross, towards the 
west end ; 5 besides others of foliage and the like ornamental 
figures. 

The north wall of the cloister was handsomely beautified, 
with the arms of some of the nobility in their proper colours, 
with their crests, mantlings, supporters, and the whole 
achievement quartered with the several coats of their matches, 
drawn very large from the upper part of the wall, and took up 
about half of the wall. They are eleven in number, parti- 
cularly these. 1. An empty escutcheon. 2. The achieve- 
ment of Howard, Duke of Norfolk. 3. Of Clinton. 4. 
Russel. 5. Cheyney. 6. The Queen's achievement. 7. 
Hastings. 8. Dudley. 9. Cecil. 10. Carey. 11. Hatton. 



west front, and being ready to fall out field's History of Norwich, part I, p. 

was fastened with irons ; Dean Bullock, 546". 

about 1748, chipt off all the outer or- 5 end.'] This part was done in the 

nament of the west front and new cased time of, if not by Bishop Lyhert, as ap- 

it. — MS. note probably by Ives. pears by his arms and his rebus altcr- 

4 Nicks.] Bishop Nix only re-built nately upon the pillars on each side, 

the roof, the effigy is of Herbert, the where the foundations of the vaulted 

founder, it being exactly in the same roof begin upon the old work. — Kirk* 

manner as that on his seal. — Bhmw- patric/c's MS. utiles. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 23 

They were made soon after Queen Elizabeth came to Nor- 
wich, ami. 1578, where she remained a week, and lodged at 
the bishop's palace, in the time of Bishop Freake, attended by 
many of the nobility, and particularly by those whose arms 
are here set down. 

They made a very handsome show, especially at that time, 
when the cloister windows were painted unto the cross bars. 
The figures of those coats, in their distinguishable and dis- 
cernable colours, are not beyond my remembrance. But in 
the late times, when the lead was faulty and the stone work 
decayed, the rain falling upon the wall washed them away. 

The pavement also of the cloister on the same side was 
broken and the stones taken away, a floor of dust remaining : 
but that side is now handsomely paved by the beneficence of 
my worthy friend William Burleigh, Esq. 

At the stone cistern 6 in the cloister, there is yet perceivable 
a Hon rampant, argent, in a field sable, which coat is now 
quartered in the arms of the Howards. 

In the painted glass in the cloister, which hath been above 
the cross bars, there are several coats. And I find by an 
account taken thereof and set down in their proper colours, 
that here were these following, viz. the arms of Morley, 
Shelton, Scales, Erpingham, Gournay, Mowbray, Savage 
now Rivers, three coats of Thorpe's and one of a lion rampant, 
gules in a field or, not well known to what family it belongeth. 

Between the lately demolished chapter-house and St. 
Luke's chapel, there is an handsome chapel, wherein the 
consistory or bishop's court is kept, with a noble gilded roof. 
This goeth under no name, but may well be called Beauch- 
ampe's chapel or the chapel of our Lady and All Saints, as 
being built by William Beauchampe, according to this in- 
scription 7 — In honor e Beate Marie Virginis, et omnium 



6 cistern.] The lavatories at the south- Second's time, as out of the records of 
west angle. the church may be collected. The said 

7 inscription.] Kirkpatrick, in his William Bauchun being often mentioned 
MS. notes to his copy of the Posthumous therein, but Beauchamp never." It 
Works, (now in the possession of Dr. also appears from Kirkpatrick's sketch 
Sutton,) says, "that it was certainly of the inscription, that there was not 
William Bauchun who was the founder sufficient space on the stone for more 
of this chapel and gaue lands to it, in than "Bauchun." 

the latter end of King Edward the 



24 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

sanctorum Willelmus Beauchampe capellam hanc ordinavit, 
et ex propriis sumptibus construxit. This incription is in old 
letters on the outside of the wall, at the south side of the 
chapel, and almost obliterated. He was buried under an arch 
in the wall which was richly gilded ; and some part of the 
gilding is yet to be perceived, though obscured and blinded 
by the bench on the inside. I have heard there is a vault 
below gilded like the roof of the chapel. The founder of 
this chapel, William Beauchampe or de Bello Campo, might 
be one of the Beauchampes, who were Lords of Aberga- 
venny ; for William Lord Abergavenny had lands and manors 
in this country. And in the register of institutions it is to be 
seen, that William Beauchampe, Lord of Abergavenny, was 
lord patron of Berg cum Apton, five miles distant from Nor- 
wich, and presented clerks to that living, 1406, and after- 
ward : so that if he lived a few years after, he might be 
buried in the latter end of Henry IV., or in the reign of 
Henry V., or in the beginning of Henry VI. Where to find 
Heydon's chapel 8 is more obscure, if not altogether unknown; 
for such a place there was, and known by the name of Hey- 
don's chapel, as I find in a manuscript concerning some an- 
cient families of Norfolk, in these words; — John Heydon of 
Baconsthorpe, Esq. died in the reign of Edward IV., ann. 
1479. He built a chapel on the south side of the cathedral 
church of Norwich, where he was buried. He was in great 
favour with King Henry VI., and took part with the house 
of Lancaster against that of York. 

Henry Heydon, Knight, his heir, built the church of Salt- 
house, and made the causey between Thursford and Wal- 
singham, at his own charge. He died in the time of Henry 
VII., and was buried in Heydon's chapel, joining to the ca- 
thedral aforesaid. The arms of the Heydons are argent, and 
gules a cross engrailed counter-changed, make the third 
escutcheon in the north-row over the choir, and are in several 
places in the glass windows, especially on the south side, and 
once in the deanery. 



K Heydon's chapel."] This chapel is or Bachun's chapel ; see plan in Bloinc- 
placed on the west side of Beauchampe's field's Norwich. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 25 

There was a chapel 9 to the south side of the gaol or prison, 
into which there is one door out of the entry of the cloister ; 
and there was another out of the cloister itself, which is now 
made up of brick work : the stone work which remaineth on 
the inside is strong and handsome. This seems to have been 
a much frequented chapel of the priory by the wearing of the 
steppings unto it, which are on the cloister side. 

Many other chapels there were within the walls and circuit 
of the priory, as of St. Mary of the Marsh, of St. Ethel- 
bert, and others. 1 But a strong and handsome fabric of one 
is still remaining, which is the chapel of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, said to have been founded by Bishop John Salmon, 
who died ann. 1325, and four priests were entertained for the 
daily service therein : that which was properly the chapel, is 
now the free school: the adjoining buildings made up the 
refectory, chambers, and offices of the society. 

Under the chapel, there was a charnel-house, which was 
a remarkable one in former times, and the name is still re- 
tained. In an old manuscript of a sacrist of the church, com- 
municated to me by my worthy friend, Mr. John Burton, the 
learned and very deserving master of the free school, I find 
that the priests had a provisional allowance from the rectory 
of Westhall, in Suffolk. And of the charnel-house it is de- 
livered, that with the leave of the sacrist, the bones of such 
as were buried in Norwich, might be brought into it. In 
carnario subtus dictam capellam sancti Johannis constitute), 
ossa humana in civitate Norwici humata, cle licentia sacristce, 
qui clicti carnarii clavem et custodiam habebit specialem 
ut usque ad resurrectionem generalem honeste conserventur a 
carnibus integre denudata reponi volumus et obsignari. Pro- 
bably the bones were piled in good order, the skulls, arms, and 

9 There was, fyc.'] There can be lit- in the centre of which, in the intersect- 
tle doubt but that this was the original ing groins is a boss, containing the re- 
chapter-house ; its octangular east end presentation of the head of a king, 
and its situation corresponding with which I think can be no other than that 
those of the cathedrals of Durham, Here- of St. Edmund, and that we may with 
ford, Worcester, Gloucester, Lincoln, propriety consider this place as the 
&c. chapel dedicated to St. Edmund. Ad- 

1 and others.^ The chapel of St. joining this, north, was another chapel, 
Edmund has been placed by Blomefield with a semicircular east end ; correspond- 
on the site of the chapter-house. In ing with that on the east side of the 
the late repairs, part of the old gaol has north transept. This was probably the 
been appropriated to the dean's vestry, Priors' Chapel. 



26 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

leg bones, in their distinct rows and courses, as in many char- 
nel-houses. How these bones were afterwards disposed of 
we have no account ; or whether they had not the like re- 
moval with those in the charnel-house of St. Paul, kept 
under a chapel, on the north side of St. Paul's church-yard : 
for when the chapel was demolished, the bones which lay in 
the vault, amounting to more than a thousand cart loads, 
were conveyed into Finsbury Fields, and there laid in a 
moorish place, with so much soil to cover them as raised the 
ground for three windmills to stand on, which have since 
been built there, according as John Stow hath delivered in 
his survey of London. 

There was formerly a fair and large but plain organ in the 
church, and in the same place with this at present. (It was 
agreed in a chapter by the dean and prebends, that a new 
organ be made, and timber fitted to make a loft for it, June 
6, ann. 1607, repaired 1626, and £10. which Abel Colls 
gave to the church, was bestowed upon it.) That in the late 
tumultuous time was pulled down, broken, sold, and made 
away. But since his Majesty's restoration, another fair, well- 
tuned, plain organ, was set up by Dean Crofts and the chap- 
ter, 2 and afterwards painted, and beautifully adorned, by the 
care and cost of my honoured friend Dr. Herbert Astley, the 
present worthy dean. There were also five or six copes be- 
longing to the church ; which, though they looked somewhat 
old, were richly embroidered. These were formerly carried 
into the market-place ; 3 some blowing the organ pipes before 

2 another organ, fyc.~\ Finished in cost of the founder and skill of the ma- 
1664. — MS. Kirkp. son ; what piping on the destroyed organ 

3 Market place. ~\ This occurred on pipes; vestments, both copes and sur- 
the 9th March, 1044; of which the fol- plices, together with the leaden cross, 
lowing curious account is given in Bishop which had been newly sawed down from 
Hall's Hard Measure, p. 63. over the greenyard pulpit, and the sing- 

" It is tragical to relate the furious ing books and service books were carried 

sacrilege committed under the authority to the fire in the public market-place; a 

of Linsey, Tofts the sheriff, and Green- lewd wretch walking before the train in 

wood ; what clattering of glasses, what his cope trailing in the dirt, with a ser- 

beating down of walls, what tearing vice book in his hand, imitating, in an 

down of monuments, what pulling down impious scorn, the tune, and usurping 

of seats, and wresting out of irons and the words of the litany, the ordnance 

brass from the windows and graves; being discharged on the Guild day, the 

what defacing of arms, what demolishing cathedral was filled with musketeers, 

of curious stone-work, that had not any drinking and tobacconing as freely as if 

representation in the world, but of the it had turned alehouse." 




^PB r -\ 




S JO IS 

Scate I I i - i fat 

ELEVATION of the North Side of the CATHEDRAL. 




]i?IAH of the &EEE1"" iYAffi]Do 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 27 

them, and were cast into a fire provided for that purpose, 
with shouting and rejoicing : so that, at present, there is but 
one cope belonging to the church, which was presented 
thereunto by Philip Harbord, Esq. the present high sheriff 
of Norfolk, my honoured friend. 

Before the late times, the combination 4 sermons were 
preached in the summer time at the cross in the green-yard, 5 
where there was a good accommodation for the auditors. 
The mayor, aldermen, with their wives and officers, had a 
well-contrived place built against the wall of the bishop's 
palace, covered with lead ; so that they were not offended by 
rain. Upon the North-side of the church, 6 places were 
built gallery- wise, one above another ; where the dean, pre- 
bends, and their wives, gentlemen, and the better sort, very 
well heard the sermon : the rest either stood, or sat in the 
green, upon long forms provided for them, paying a penny, 
or halfpenny apiece, as they did at St. Paul's cross in Lon- 
don. The bishop and chancellor heard the sermons at the 
windows of the bishop's palace : the pulpit had a large cover- 
ing of lead over it, and a cross upon it ; and there were eight 
or ten stairs of stone about it, upon which the hospital boys 
and others stood. The preacher had his face to the South, 
and there was a painted board, of a foot and a half broad, 
and about a yard and a half long, hanging over his head 



4 combination.] Dr. Littleton thus G. Part built by Bishop Salmon, a.d. 
defines the word; "A combination, or 1320. 

circle of preachers in a cathedral or uni- H. Ditto by Bishop Reynolds, a.d. 1G60. 
versity church." — Vide Lai. Diet. 6 church.] See the elevation accom- 

The combination preachers were ap- panying the plan shewing the extent of 

pointed by the bishops from the clergy galleries. 

of the diocese ; to come and preach a I. Entrance to the green-yard, 

sermon in the cathedral, or its preaching K. Joist holes of the first floor, 

yard, at their own charges : the Suffolk L. Ditto of the second floor, 

preachers in the summer half-year and M. Presumed height of the roof, 

the Norfolk in the winter; which is still N. Series of holes, 4 inches by 3. 
continued. The galleries appear to have extended 

5 green-yard.'] See the annexed plan, nearly across the three compartments: 

A. North aisle of the cathedral. the masonry of the centre compartment 

B. Entrance to the green-yard. has been very much altered and disturb- 

C. Gallery of the dean and prebend- ed ; the double billet string-course is ob- 
aries. literated on each side of the window ; 

D. Ditto of the mayor and aldermen. two of the columns directly above the 

E. Presumed site of the pulpit. centre of the window are removed, ap- 

F. Remains of the palace built by Bi- parently to form a passage from the 
shop Herbert, a.d. 1100. church into the upper gallery. 



28 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

before, upon which were painted the arms of the benefactors 7 
towards the combination sermon, which he particularly com- 
memorated in his prayer, and they were these ; Sir John 
Suckling, Sir John Pettus, Edward Nuttel, Henry Fasset, 
John Myngay. But when the church was sequestered, and 
the service put down, this pulpit was taken down, and placed 
in New Hall green, which had been the artillery-yard, and 
the public sermon was there preached. But the heirs of the 
benefactors denying to pay the wonted beneficence for any 
sermon out of Christ-church, (the cathedral being now com- 
monly so called) some other ways were found to provide a 
minister, at a yearly salary, to preach every Sunday, either 
in that pulpit in the summer, or elsewhere in the winter. 

I must not omit to say something of the shaft or spire of 
this church, commonly called the pinnacle, as being a hand- 
some and well-proportioned fabric, and one of the highest 
in England, higher than the noted spires of Lichfield, Chi- 
chester, or Grantham, but lower than that at Salisbury, (at a 
general chapter, holden June 4, 1633, it was agreed that the 
steeple should be mended 8 ) for that spire being raised upon 
a very high tower, becomes higher from the ground ; but this 
spire, considered by itself, seems, at least, to equal that. It 
is an hundred and five yards and two feet from the top of the 
pinnacle unto the pavement of the choir under it. The 
spire is very strongly built, though the inside be of brick. 
The upper aperture, or window, is the highest ascent inward- 
ly ; out of which, sometimes a long streamer hath been hang- 
ed, upon the guild, or mayor's day. But at his Majesty's 
restoration, when the top was to be mended, and a new 
gilded weathercock was to be placed upon it, there were 
stayings made at the upper window, and divers persons went 
up to the top of the pinnacle. They first went up into the 
belfry, and then by eight ladders, on the inside of the spire, 
till they came to the upper hole, or window ; then went out 



7 benefactors.} These gentlemen, in each preacher is paid one guinea towards 

consideration of the expense necessarily his expences. 

incurred by the preachers in coming to 8 at a general chapter, fyc.~\ Christ- 
Norwich, devised certain estates, &c. to church pinnacle was re-edified 1C36. — 
the corporation in trust, out of which MS. Starling. Kirkp. 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 29 

unto the outside, where a staying was set, and so ascended 
up unto the top stone, on which the weathercock standeth. 

The cock is three quarters of a yard high, and one yard 
and two inches long ; as is also the cross bar, and top stone 
of the spire, which is not flat, but consists of a half globe 
and channel about it ; and from thence are eight leaves of 
stone spreading outward, under which begin the eight rows 
of crockets, which go down the spire at five feet distance. 

From the top there is a prospect all about the country. 
Mousehold hill seems low, and flat ground. The Castle hill, 
and high buildings, do very much diminish. The river looks 
like a ditch. The city, with the streets, make a pleasant 
show, like a garden with several walks in it. 9 

Though this church for its spire, may compare, in a man- 
ner, with any in England, yet in its tombs and monuments it 
is exceeded by many. 

No kings have honoured the same with their ashes, and 
but few with their presence. 1 And it is not without some 
wonder, that Norwich having been for a long time so consi- 
derable a place, so few kings have visited it ; of which num- 
ber, among so many monarchs since the conquest, we find but 
four, viz. King Henry III. Edward I. Queen Elizabeth, and 
our gracious Sovereign now reigning, King Charles II. of 
which I had particular reason to take notice. 2 

9 walks in it.'] The sea is also to be wich 1341, and was there again in 1342 

seen from the North-west towards Wells, and 1344. 

to the South-east off the Suffolk coast; Richard II. visited Norwich in 1383, 

and with the aid of a telescope, vessels according to Holingshed. 

are to be seen sailing along the coast Henry IV. visited the city in 1406 as 

between Happisburgh and Lowestoft. appears by the Norwich Assembly 

1 presence.] This is certainly an Book. — Blomefield. 

error : — Henry V. visited Norwich. — Kirkpa- 

Henry I. spent his Christmas at Nor- trick's MS. notes. 

wich. — Sax. Chron. 1122. Henry VI. visited Norwich in 1448 and 

Richard I. visited Norwich. — Kirkpa- 1449. — Blomefield. 

trick's MS. notes. Edward IV. was in Norwich in 1469. — 

King John was at his castle in Norwich Ibid. 

on the 12th and 13th October, 1205. Richard III. was in Norwich in 14S3. 

— Archceologia, vol. 22, p. 142. — Ibid. 

Henry III. visited Norwich, 1256 and Henry VII. kept his Christmas at Nor- 

1272.— See Blomefield. wich in 1486. — Ibid. 

Edward I. kept his Easter at Norwich, Elizabeth came on her progress to Nor- 

1277. — Stowe. wich in 1578. — Ibid. 

Edward II. was at Norwich in January, Charles II. visited Norwich in 1671, and is 

1327. — Blomefield. the last sovereign who visited that city. 

Edward III. held a tournament at Nor- 2 Sir Thomas being then knighted. 



30 THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 

The castle was taken by the forces of King William the 
Conqueror; but we find not that he was here. King Henry 
VII. by the way of Cambridge, made a pilgrimage unto Wal- 
singham ; but records tell us not that he was at Norwich. 3 
King James I. came sometimes to Thetford for his hunting 
recreation, but never vouchsafed to advance twenty miles 
farther. 

Not long after the writing of these papers, Dean Herbert 
Astley died, a civil, generous, and public-minded person, who 
had travelled in France, Italy, and Turkey, and was interred 
near the monument of Sir James Hobart : unto whom suc- 
ceeded my honoured friend Dr. John Sharpe, a prebend of 
this church, and rector of St. Giles's in the fields, London ; 
a person of singular worth, and deserved estimation, the ho- 
nour and love of all men ; in the first year of whose deanery, 
1681, the prebends were these : 

Mr. Joseph Loveland, ~) C Dr. William Smith, 
Dr. Hezekiah Burton, > ■< Mr. Nathaniel Hodges, 
Dr. William Hawkins, ) (. Mr. Humphrey Prideaux. 

(But Dr. Burton dying in that year, Mr. Richard Kidder 
succeeded,) worthy persons, learned men, and very good 
preachers. 

3 but records, &j-c.~] From the author- that this sovereign visited Norwich in 
ities cited by Blomefield (Norwich, part his way to Walsingham. 
I, p. 174) there can be no doubt but 



THE ANTIQUITIES OF NORWICH. 31 



ADDENDA. 



I have by me the picture of Chancellor Spencer, 4 drawn 
when he was ninety years old, as the inscription doth declare, 
which was sent unto me from Colney. 

Though Bishop Nix sat long in the see of Norwich, yet 
is not there much delivered of him : Fox in his Martyrology 
hath said something of him in the story of Thomas Bilney, 
who was burnt in Lollard's pit, without Bishopsgate, in his 
time. 

Bishop Spencer lived in the reign of Richard II. and Hen- 
ry IV., sat in the see of Norwich 37 years : of a soldier made 
a bishop, and sometimes exercising the life of a soldier in his 
episcopacy ; for he led an army into Flanders on the behalf 
of Pope Urban VI. in opposition to Clement the Anti-pope ; 
and also overcame the rebellious forces of Litster, the dyer, in 
Norfolk, by North Walsham, in the reign of King Richard II. 

Those that would know the names of the citizens who were 
chief actors in the tumult in Bishop Skerewyng's time, may 
find them set down in the bull of Pope Gregory X. 

Some bishops, though they lived and died here, might not 
be buried in this church, as some bishops probably of old, 
more certainly of later time. 

Here concludes Sir Thomas Browne's MS. 5 



4 the picture of Chancellor Spencer. ~\ of Norfolk's house in Norwich, A.D. 

P. L. Neve saw this picture in 1715, at 1715." 

the house of Mr. Statham MS. note in s Here concludes, SfC.~\ This is the 

his copy in the Bodleian. In Kirkpa- editor's memorandum in the Posthumous 

trick's copy occurs this note : " This Works. His continuations are omitted 

or another such picture is at the Duke in the present edition. 



iettertoajfrtentj, 



UPON OCCASION OF THE DEATH OF HIS INTIMATE FRIEND. 



THIRD EDITION. 



ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 

1690. 



VOL. IV. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



The Letter to a Friend was printed, after the author's 
death, by his son, as a folio pamphlet, in 1690. The only 
copy I ever saw is in the library of the British Museum. It 
was re-printed, in the Posthumous Works, in 1712; and the 
latter portion of it (from page 48, Posthumous Works,) was 
included in the Christian Morals, and for that reason is not 
here re-printed. 

From a collation with a MS. copy in the British Museum, 
(MS. Sloan. 1862,) several additional passages are given. 



D 2 



better to a jFrtentr* 



(jrlVE me leave to wonder that news of this nature should 
have such heavy wings that you should hear so little con- 
cerning your dearest friend, and that I must make that un- 
willing repetition to tell you, ad portam rigidos calces ex- 
tendit, that he is dead and buried, and by this time no puny 
among the mighty nations of the dead ; for though he left 
this world not very many days past, yet every hour you know 
largely addeth unto that dark society ; and considering the 
incessant mortality of mankind, you cannot conceive there 
dieth in the whole earth so few as a thousand an hour. 

Although at this distance you had no early account or par- 
ticular of his death, yet your affection may cease to wonder 
that you had not some secret sense or intimation thereof by 
dreams, thoughtful whisperings, mercurisms, airy nuncios or 
sympathetical insinuations, which many seem to have had at 
the death of their dearest friends : for since we find in that 
famous story, that spirits themselves were fain to tell their 
fellows at a distance that the great Antonio was dead, we 
have a sufficient excuse for our ignorance in such particulars, 
and must rest content with the common road, and Appian 
way of knowledge by information. Though the uncertainty 
of the end of this world hath confounded all human pre- 
dictions ; yet they who shall live to see the sun and moon 
darkened and the stars to fall from heaven, will hardly be de- 
ceived in the advent of the last day ; and therefore strange 
it is, that the common fallacy of consumptive persons, who 



3S 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 



feel not themselves dying, and therefore still hope to live, 
should also reach their friends in perfect health and judg- 
ment ; — that you should be so little acquainted with Plautus's 
sick complexion, or that almost an Hippocratical face should 
not alarum you to higher fears, or rather despair, of his con- 
tinuation in such an emaciated state, wherein medical predic- 
tions fail not, as sometimes in acute diseases, and wherein 'tis 
as dangerous to be sentenced by a physician as a judge. 

Upon my first visit I was bold to tell them who had not let 
fall all hopes of his recovery, that in my sad opinion he was 
not like to behold a grasshopper, much less to pluck another 
fig ; and in no long time after seemed to discover that odd 
mortal symptom in him not mentioned by Hippocrates, that 
is, to lose his own face, and look like some of his near re- 
lations; for he maintained not his proper countenance, but 
looked like his uncle, the lines of whose face lay deep and 
invisible in his healthful visage before : for as from our be- 
ginning we run through variety of looks, before we come to 
consistent and settled faces ; so before our end, by sick and 
languishing alterations, we put on new visages : and in our 
retreat to earth, may fall upon such looks which from com- 
munity of seminal originals were before latent in us. 

He was fruitlessly put in hope of advantage by change of 
air, and imbibing the pure aei'ial nitre of these parts ; and 
therefore, being so far spent, he quickly found Sardinia in 
Tivoli, 1 and the most healthful air of little effect, where 
death had set his broad arrow ; 2 for he lived not unto the 
middle of May, and confirmed the observation of Hippocra- 
tes 3 of that mortal time of the year when the leaves of the 
fig-tree resemble a daw's claw. He is happily seated who 
lives in places whose air, earth, and water, promote not the 
infirmities of his weaker parts, or is early removed into 
regions that correct them. He that is tabidly inclined, were 
unwise to pass his days in Portugal: cholical persons will find 
little comfort in Austria or Vienna : he that is weak-legged 
must not be in love with Rome, nor an infirm head with 

1 Tivoli.] Cum mors venerit, in rests they set the figure of a broad arrow 
medio Tibure Sardinia est. upon trees that are to be cut down. 

3 where death, fyc] In the king's fo- 3 observation of \ 8fc.~\ See Hip. Epidem. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 39 

Venice or Paris. Death hath not only particular stars in 
heaven, but malevolent places on earth, which single out our 
infirmities, and strike at our weaker parts ; in which concern, 
passager and migrant birds have the great advantages ; who 
are naturally constituted for distant habitations, whom no seas 
nor places limit, but in their appointed seasons will visit us 
from Greenland and Mount Atlas, and as some think, even 
from the Antipodes. 4 

Though we could not have his life, yet we missed not our 
desires in his soft departure, which was scarce an expiration ; 
and his end not unlike his beginning, when the salient point 
scarce affords a sensible motion, and his departure so like 
unto sheep, that he scarce needed the civil ceremony of 
closing his eyes ; contrary unto the common way, wherein 
death draws up, sheep let fall their eye-lids. With what 
strife and pains we came into the world we know not ; but 'tis 
commonly no easy matter to get out of it : yet if it could be 
made out, that such who have easy nativities have commonly 
hard deaths, and contrarily ; his departure was so easy, that 
we might justly suspect his birth was of another nature, and 
that some Juno sat cross-legged at his nativity. 

Besides his soft death, the incurable state of his disease 
might somewhat extenuate your sorrow, who know that 
monsters but seldom happen, miracles more rarely in physic. 5 
Angelus Victorius gives a serious account of a consumptive, 
hectical, phthisical woman, who was suddenly cured by the 
intercession of Ignatius. 6 We read not of any in scripture 
who in this case applied unto our Saviour, though some may 
be contained in that large expression, that he went about 
Galilee healing all manner of sickness and all manner of dis- 
eases. 7 Amulets, spells, sigils, and incantations, practised in 
other diseases, are seldom pretended in this ; and we find no 
sigil in the Archidoxis of Paracelsus to cure an extreme con- 
sumption or marasmus, which, if other diseases fail, will put 
a period unto long livers, and at last makes dust of all. And 



4 Antipodes.~\ Bellonius de Avibus. and rare escapes there happen sometimes 

5 who know that monsters but seldom in physic." 

happen, miracles, <^c] Monstra contin- 6 Angeli Victorii Consultationes. 

gunt in medicina. Hippoc. — "Strange 7 Matt, iv, 25, 



40 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

therefore the stoics could not but think that the fiery princi- 
ple would wear out all the rest, and at last make an end of 
the world, which notwithstanding without such a lingering 
period the Creator may effect at his pleasure : and to make 
an end of all things on earth, and our planetical system of 
the world, he need but put out the sun. 

I was not so curious to entitle the stars unto any concern of 
his death, yet could not but take notice that he died when 
the moon was in motion from the meridian ; at which time an 
old Italian long ago would persuade me that the greatest part 
of men died : but herein I confess I could never satisfy my 
curiosity ; although from the time of tides in places upon or 
near the sea, there may be considerable deductions; and 
Pliny 8 hath an odd and remarkable passage concerning the 
death of men and animals upon the recess or ebb of the sea. 
However, certain it is, he died in the dead and deep part of 
the night, when Nox might be most apprehensibly said to be 
the daughter of Chaos, the mother of sleep and death, ac- 
cording to old genealogy; and so went out of this world 
about that hour when our blessed Saviour entered it, and 
about what time many conceive he will return again unto it. 
Cardan hath a peculiar and no hard observation from a 
man's hand to know whether he was born in the day or night, 
which I confess holdeth in my own. And Scaliger to that 
purpose hath another from the tip of the ear: 9 most men are 
begotten in the night, animals in the day ; but whether more 
persons have been born in the night or the day, were a curi- 
osity undecidable, though more have perished by violent 
deaths in the day ; yet in natural dissolutions both times may 
hold an indifferency, at least but contingent inequality. The 
whole course of time runs out in the nativity and death of 
things ; which whether they happen by succession or coinci- 
dence, are best computed by the natural not artificial day. 

That Charles the Fifth was crowned upon the day of his 
nativity, it being in his own power so to order it, makes no 

8 Pliny."] Aristoteles nullum animal ! ' Scaliger, §c.~\ Amis pars pendula 

nisi astu recedente expirarc affirmat : ob- lobus dicitur, non omnibus ea pars est 

servatum id multum in Gallico Oceano et auribus; non enim iis qui noctunati sunt, 

duntaxat in homine compertum, lib. 2, sed qui interdiu, maxima ex parte. — 

cap. 101. Com. in Bristol, dc Animal, lib. 1. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 41 

singular animadversion ; but that he should also take King- 
Francis prisoner upon that day, was an unexpected coinci- 
dence, which made the same remarkable. Antipater who 
had an anniversary feast every year upon his birth-day, 
needed no astrological revolution to know what day he should 
die on. When the fixed stars have made a revolution unto 
the points from whence they first set out, some of the an- 
cients thought the world would have an end ; which was a kind 
of dying upon the day of its nativity. Now the disease pre- 
vailing and swiftly advancing about the time of his nativity, 
some were of opinion that he would leave the world on the 
day he entered into it : but this being a lingering disease, and 
creeping softly on, nothing critical was found or expected, 
and he died not before fifteen days after. Nothing is more 
common with infants than to die on the day of their nativity, 
to behold the worldly hours, and but the fractions thereof; 
and even to perish before their nativity in the hidden world of 
the womb, and before their good angel is conceived to under- 
take them. But in persons who out-live many years, and 
when there are no less than three hundred and sixty-five days 
to determine their lives in every year ; that the first day 
should make the last, that the tail of the snake should return 
into its mouth precisely at that time, and they should wind up 
upon the day of their nativity, 1 is indeed a remarkable coinci- 
dence, which, though astrology hath taken witty pains to 
salve, yet hath it been very wary in making predictions of it. 
In this consumptive condition and remarkable extenuation, 
he came to be almost half himself, and left a great part be- 
hind him, which he carried not to the grave. And though 
that story of Duke John Ernestus Mansfield £ be not so ea- 
sily swallowed, that at his death his heart was found not to 
be so big as a nut ; yet if the bones of a good skeleton weigh 
little more than twenty pounds, his inwards and flesh remain- 
ing could make no bouffage, 3 but a light bit for the grave. I 
never more lively beheld the starved characters of Dante * in 
any living face ; an aruspex might have read a lecture upon 

1 nativity.'] According to the Egyp- 3 bovffage.] Probably from bovffee, 
tian hieroglyphic. inflation. 

2 John Ernestus Mansfield.] Turkish 4 Dante.] In the poet Dante's de- 
history, scription. 



42 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

him without exenteration, his flesh being so consumed, that 
he might, in a manner, have discerned his bowels without 
opening of him: so that to be carried, sexta cervice, 5 to the 
grave, was but a civil unnecessity ; and the complements of 
the coffin might outweigh the subject of it. 

Omnihonus Ferrarius 6 in mortal dysenteries of children 
looks for a spot behind the ear ; in consumptive diseases some 
eye the complexion of moles ; Cardan eagerly views the nails, 
some the lines of the hand, the thenar or muscle of the thumb ; 
some are so curious as to observe the depth of the throat-pit, 
how the proportion varieth of the small of the legs unto the 
calf, or the compass of the neck unto the circumference of the 
head : but all these, with many more, were so drowned in a 
mortal visage, and last face of Hippocrates, that a weak 
physiognomist might say at first eye, this was a face of earth, 
and that Morta 7 had set her hard seal upon his temples, 
easily perceiving what caricatura^ draughts death makes 
upon pined faces, and unto what an unknown degree a man 
may live backward. 

Though the beard be only made a distinction of sex, and 
sign of masculine heat by Ulmus, 9 yet the precocity and early 
growth thereof in him, was not to be liked in reference unto 
long life. Lewis, that virtuous but unfortunate King of 
Hungary, who lost his life at the battle of Mohacz, was said 
to be born without a skin, to have bearded at fifteen, and to 
have shewn some grey hairs about twenty ; from whence the 
diviners conjectured that he would be spoiled of his kingdom, 
and have but a short life : but hairs make fallible predictions, 
and many temples early grey have out-lived the psalmist's 
period. 1 Hairs which have most amused me have not been 
in the face or head, but on the back, and not in men but 
children, as I long ago observed in that endemial distemper 
of little children in Languedoc, called the morgellons," 

5 sextd cervice.] i. e. " by six per- animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn 
sons." in caricatura. 

6 Omnihonus Ferrarius.] De Morbis ° Ulmus.] Ulmus de usu barbce hu- 
Puerorum. manee. 

7 Morta.] Morta, the deity of death ' period.] The life of a man is three- 
or fate. score and ten. 

8 caricatura.] When men's faces are 2 morgellons.] See Picolus de Rkeu- 
drawn with resemblance to some other matismo. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 43 

wherein they critically break out with harsh hairs en their 
backs, which takes off the unquiet symptoms of the disease, 
and delivers them from coughs and convulsions. 3 

The Egyptian mummies that I have seen, have had their 
mouths open, and somewhat gaping, which affordeth a good 
opportunity to view and observe their teeth, wherein 'tis not 
easy to find any wanting or decayed ; and therefore in Egypt, 
where one man practised but one operation, or the diseases 
but of single parts, it must needs be a barren profession to 
confine unto that of drawing of teeth, and little better than 
to have been tooth-drawer unto King Pyrrhus, 4 who had but 
two in his head. How the banyans of India maintain the in- 
tegrity of those parts, I find not particularly observed ; who 
notwithstanding have an advantage of their preservation by 
abstaining from all flesh, and employing their teeth in such 
food unto which they may seem at first framed, from their 
figure and conformation; but sharp and corroding rheums 
had so early mouldered those rocks and hardest parts of his 
fabric, that a man might well conceive that his years were 
never like to double or twice tell over his teeth. 5 Corruption 
had dealt more severely with them than sepulchral fires and 
smart flames with those of burnt bodies of old ; for in the 
burnt fragments of urns which I have enquired into, although 
I seem to find few incisors or shearers, yet the dog teeth and 
grinders do notably resist those fires. 6 

3 convulsions.'] The following occurs 5 teeth."] Twice tell over his teeth, 
in MS. Sloan, 1862: — 'Though hairs af- never live to threescore years. 

ford but fallible conjectures, yet we can- 6 fires.] In the MS. Sloan. 1862, oc- 
not but take notice of them. They grow curs the following paragraph : — 
not equally on bodies after death : wo- ' Affection had so blinded some of his 
men's skulls afford moss as well as men's, nearest relations, as to retain some hope 
and the best I have seen was upon a wo- of a postliminious life, and that he might 
man's skull, taken up and laid in a room come to life again, and therefore would 
after twenty-five years' burial. Though not have him coffined before the third 
the skin be made the place of hairs, yet day. Some such virbiasses, [so in MS.] I 
sometimes they are found on the heart confess, we find in story, and one or two I 
and inward parts. The plica or gluey remember myself, but they lived not long 
locks happen unto both sexes, and being after. Some contingent re-animations 
cut off will come again : but they are are to be hoped in diseases wherein the 
wary of cutting off the same, for fear of lamp of life is but puffed out and seeming- 
headache and other diseases.' — MS. Sloan, ly choaked, and not where the oil is 
1862. quite spent and exhausted. Though 

4 King Pyrrhus.] His upper and Nonnus will have it a fever, yet of what 
lower jaw being solid, and without dis- disease Lazarus first died, is uncertain 
tinct rows of teeth. from the text, as his second death from 



44- LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

In the years of his childhood he had languished under the 
disease of his country, the rickets ; after which, notwithstand- 
ing, many have become strong and active men ; but whether 
any have attained unto very great years, the disease is scarce 
so old as to afford good observation. Whether the children 
of the English plantations be subject unto the same infirmity, 
may be worth the observing. Whether lameness and halting 
do still increase among the inhabitants of Rovigno in Istria, 
I know not ; yet scarce twenty years ago Monsieur du Loyr 
observed that a third part of that people halted : but too cer- 
tain it is, that the rickets encreaseth among us ; the small-pox 
grows more pernicious than the great: the king's purse 
knows that the king's evil grows more common. Quartan 
agues are become no strangers in Ireland ; more common and 
mortal in England : and though the ancients gave that dis- 
ease 7 very good words, yet now that bell makes no strange 
sound which rings out for the effects thereof. 8 

Some think there were few consumptions in the old world, 
when men lived much upon milk ; and that the ancient inha- 
bitants of this island were less troubled with coughs when 
they went naked and slept in caves and woods, than men now 



good authentic history; but since some to live again as far from sin as death, and 
persons conceived to be dead do some- arise like our Saviour for ever, are the 
times return again unto evidence of life, only satisfactions of well-weighed expect- 
that miracle was wisely managed by our ations.' 

Saviour; forbad he not been dead four 7 disease.'} ' AspakeSrarog xal pyj'/G- 

days and under corruption, there had TO c t securissima et facillima. — Hippoc. 
not wanted enough who would have 8 that beU> ^-j p r0 febre quartana 

cavilled [at] the same, which the scrip- raro sonat campana . The f n owin g 

ture now puts out of doubt: and tradition paragraph occurs here in MS- S i oan , 

alsoconfirmeth, that he lived thirty years \§Q2: 

after, and being pursued by the Jews, < Some I observed to wonder how, in his 

came by sea into Provence, by Marseilles, consurnpt j ve state , his hair held on so 

with Mary Magdalen, Maximinus, and well, without that considerable defluvium 

others: where remarkable places carry which is one of the last sympt0 ms in 

their names unto this day. But to arise such diseases ; but they took not notice 

from the grave to return again into it, is of a mark in his facei which if he had 

but an uncomfortable reviction. Few lived was a pro bable security against 

men would be content to cradle it once baldness (if the observation of Aristotle 

again : except a man can lead his second w ;r] nold) that persons are i ess apt to be 

life better than the first, a man may be bald who are double-chinned), nor of the 

doubly condemned for living evilly twice, va ,.ious and knotted veins in his legs, 

which were but to make the second w hj c ], tl)ey that havC) in the sarae au _ 

death in scripture the third, and to ac- thor - s asscrt i ns, are less disposed to 

cumulate in the punishment of two bad baldness. (According as Theodorus Ga- 

hvers at the last day. To have perform- za ren d e rs it: though Scaliger renders 

ed the duty of corruption in the grave, tIlc text otherwise.)' 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 45 

in chambers and featherbeds. Plato will tell us, that there 
was no such disease as a catarrh in Homer's time, and that 
it was but new in Greece in his age. Polydore Virgil deliver- 
eth that pleurisies were rare in England, who lived but in the 
days of Henry the Eighth. Some will allow no diseases to 
be new, others think that many old ones are ceased : and that 
such which are esteemed new, will have but their time : how- 
ever, the mercy of God hath scattered the great heap of 
diseases, and not loaded any one country with all : some may 
be new in one country which have been old in another. New 
discoveries of the earth discover new diseases : for besides the 
common swarm, there are endemial and local infirmities pro- 
per unto certain regions, which in the whole earth make no 
small number : and if Asia, Africa, and America should bring 
in their list, Pandora's box would swell, and there must be a 
strange pathology. 

Most men expected to find a consumed kell, 9 empty and 
bladder-like guts, livid and marbled lungs, and a withered 
pericardium in this exsuccous corpse : but some seemed too 
much to wonder that two lobes of his. lungs adhered unto his 
side ; for the like I have often found in bodies of no suspected 
consumptions or difficulty of respiration. And the same more 
often happeneth in men than other animals ; and some think 
in women than in men ; but the most remarkable I have met 
with, was in a man, after a cough of almost fifty years, in 
whom all the lobes adhered unto the pleura, 1 and each lobe 
unto another ; who having also been much troubled with the 
gout, brake the rule of Cardan, 2 and died of the stone in the 
bladder. Aristotle makes a query, why some animals cough, 
as man ; some not, as oxen. If coughing be taken as it con- 
sisteth of a natural and voluntary motion, including expecto- 
ration and spitting out, it may be as proper unto man as 
bleeding at the nose ; otherwise we find that Vegetius and 
rural writers have not left so many medicines in vain against 
the coughs of cattle ; and men who perish by coughs die the 



9 kell.] The caul, or omentum. Podagrce, that they are delivered there- 

1 pleura.'] So A. F. by from the phthisis and stone in the 

2 Cardan.] Cardan in his Encomium bladder. 
Podagrcr reckoneth this among the Dona 



46 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

death of sheep, cats, and lions : and though birds have no mid- 
riff, yet we meet with divers remedies in Arrianus against the 
coughs of hawks. And though it might be thought that all 
animals who have lungs do cough ; yet in cetaceous fishes, who 
have large and strong lungs, the same is not observed ; nor 
yet in oviparous quadrupeds : and in the greatest thereof, the 
crocodile, although we read much of their tears, we find no- 
thing of that motion. 

From the thoughts of sleep, when the soul was conceived 
nearest unto divinity, the ancients erected an art of divination, 
wherein while they too widely expatiated in loose and incon- 
sequent conjectures, Hippocrates 3 wisely considered dreams 
as they presaged alterations in the body, and so afforded 
hints toward the preservation of health, and prevention of 
diseases ; and therein was so serious as to advise alteration of 
diet, exercise, sweating, bathing, and vomiting ; and also so 
religious as to order prayers and supplications unto respective 
deities, in good dreams unto Sol, Jupiter coelestis, Jupiter 
opulentus, Minerva, Mercurius, and Apollo ; in bad unto 
Tellus and the heroes. 

And therefore I could not but take notice how his female 
friends were irrationally curious so strictly to examine his 
dreams, and in this low state to hope for the phantasms of 
health. He was now past the healthful dreams of the sun, 
moon, and stars, in their clarity and proper courses. 'Twas 
too late to dream of flying, of limpid fountains, smooth waters, 
white vestments, and fruitful green trees, which are the visions 
of healthful sleeps, and at good distance from the grave. 

And they were also too deeply dejected that he should 
dream of his dead friends, inconsequently divining, that he 
would not be long from them ; for strange it was not that he 
should sometimes dream of the dead, whose thoughts run 
always upon death; beside, to dream of the dead, so they 
appear not in dark habits, and take nothing away from us, in 
Hippocrates' sense was of good signification : for we live by 
the dead, and every thing is or must be so before it becomes 
our nourishment. And Cardan, who dreamed that he dis- 
coursed with his dead father in the moon, made thereof no 
:l Hippocrates."] Hippoc rft> Insomniis. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 47 

mortal interpretation : and even to dream that we are dead, 
was no condemnable phantasm in old oneirocriticism, as having 
a signification of liberty, vacuity from cares, exemption and 
freedom from troubles unknown unto the dead. 

Some dreams I confess may admit of easy and feminine ex- 
position ; he who dreamed that he could not see his right 
shoulder, might easily fear to lose the sight of his right eye ; 
he that before a journey dreamed that his feet were cut ofF, 
had a plain warning not to undertake his intended journey. 
But why to dream of lettuce should presage some ensuing 
disease, why to eat figs should signify foolish talk, why to eat 
eggs great trouble, and to dream of blindness should be so 
highly commended, according to the oneirocritical verses of 
Astrampsychus and Nicephorus, I shall leave unto your 
divination. 

He was willing to quit the world alone and altogether, 
leaving no earnest behind him for corruption or after-grave, 
having small content in that common satisfaction to survive or 
live in another, but amply satisfied that his disease should die 
with himself, nor revive in a posterity to puzzle physic, and 
make sad mementos of their parent hereditary. Leprosy 
awakes not sometimes before forty, the gout and stone often 
later; but consumptive and tabid 4 roots sprout more early, and 
at the fairest make seventeen years of our life doubtful before 
that age. They that enter the world with original dieases as 
well as sin, have not only common mortality but sick traduc- 
tions to destroy them, make commonly short courses, and live 
not at length but in figures ; so that a sound Caesarean nati- 
vity 5 may out-last a natural birth, and a knife may sometimes 
make way for a more lasting fruit than a midwife ; which 
makes so few infants now able to endure the old test of the 
river, 6 and many to have feeble children who could scarce 
have been married at Sparta, and those provident states who 
studied strong and healthful generations ; which happen but 
contingently in mere pecuniary matches or marriages made by 
the candle, wherein notwithstanding there is little redress to 

4 tabid.~\ Tabes maxime contingunt child cut out of the body of the mother, 
ab anno decimo octavo ad trigesimum 6 river."]' Natos ad flumina primum 
quintum. — Hippoc. deferimus ssevoque gelu duramus et 

5 a sound Cesarean nativity.] A sound undis. 



48 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

be hoped from an astrologer or a lawyer, and a good discern- 
ing physician were like to prove the most successful counsellor. 

Julius Scaliger, who in a sleepless fit of the gout could 
make two hundred verses in a night, would have but five 7 
plain words upon his tomb. And this serious person, though 
no minor wit, left the poetry of his epitaph unto others ; 
either unwilling to commend himself or to be judged by a 
distich, and perhaps considering how unhappy great poets 
have been in versifying their own epitaphs : wherein Petrarca, 
Dante, and Ariosto, have so unhappily failed, that if their 
tombs should out-last their works, posterity would find so 
little of Apollo on them, as to mistake them for Ciceronian 
poets. 

In this deliberate and creeping progress unto the grave, 
he was somewhat too young and of too noble a mind, to fall 
upon that stupid symptom observable in divers persons near 
their journey's end, and which may be reckoned among the 
mortal symptoms of their last disease ; that is, to become 
more narrow minded, miserable, and tenacious, unready to 
part with any thing, when they are ready to part with all, and 
afraid to want when they have no time to spend ; mean while 
physicians, who know that many are mad but in a single de- 
praved imagination, and one prevalent decipiency ; and that 
beside and out of such single deliriums a man may meet with 
sober actions and good sense in bedlam ; cannot but smile to 
see the heirs and concerned relations gratulating themselves 
on the sober departure of their friends ; and though they be- 
hold such mad covetous passages, content to think they die in 
good understanding, and in their sober senses. 

Avarice, which is not only infidelity but idolatry, either from 
covetous progeny or questuary education, had no root in his 
breast, who made good works the expression of his faith, and 
was big with desires unto public and lasting charities ; and 
surely where good wishes and charitable intentions exceed 
abilities, theorical beneficency may be more than a dream. 
They build not castles in the air who would build churches 
on earth ; and though they leave no such structures here, 
may lay good foundations in heaven. In brief, his life and 

7 but five. 1 Julii Cnesaris Scaligeri quod fuit. — Joseph. Scaliger in vita palris. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 49 

death were such, that I could not blame them who wished 
the like, and almost to have been himself; almost, I say ; for 
though we may wish the prosperous appurtenances of others, 
or to be another in his happy accidents, yet so intrinsical is 
every man unto himself, that some doubt may be made, whe- 
ther any would exchange his being, or substantially become 
another man. 

He had wisely seen the world at home and abroad, and 
thereby observed under what variety men are deluded in the 
pursuit of that which is not here to be found. And although 
he had no opinion of reputed felicities below, and apprehend- 
ed men widely out in the estimate of such happiness ; yet his 
sober contempt of the world wrought no Democritism or Cy- 
nicism, no laughing or snarling at it, as well understanding 
there are not felicities in this world to satisfy a serious mind ; 
and therefore, to soften the stream of our lives, we are fain to 
take in the reputed contentions of this world, to unite with 
the crowd in their beatitudes, and to make ourselves happy 
by consortion, opinion, or co-existimation : for strictly to se- 
parate from received and customary felicities, and to confine 
unto the rigour of realities, were to contract the consolation 
of our beings unto too uncomfortable circumscriptions. 

Not to fear death, 8 nor desire it, was short of his resolution : 
to be dissolved, and be with Christ, was his dying ditty. He 
conceived his thread long, in no long course of years, and 
when he had scarce out-lived the second life of Lazarus ; 9 es- 
teeming it enough to approach the years of his Saviour, who 
so ordered his own human state, as not to be old upon earth. 

But to be content with death may be better than to desire 
it: a miserable life may make us wish for death, but a virtu- 
ous one to rest in it ; which is the advantage of those resolved 
christians, who looking on death not only as the sting, but 
the period and end of sin, the horizon and isthmus between 
this life and a better, and the death of this world but as a 
nativity of another, do contentedly submit unto the common 
necessity, and envy not Enoch or Elias. 

8 deathJ\ Sumnium nee metuas diem and tradition, is said to have lived thirty 
nee optes. years after he was raised by our Saviour. 

9 Lazarus.~[ Who upon some accounts, — Baronins. 

VOL. IV. E 



50 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 

Not to be content with life is the unsatisfactory state of 
those who destroy themselves ; 1 who being afraid to live, 
run blindly upon their own death, which no man fears by ex- 
perience : and the stoics had a notable doctrine to take away 
the fear thereof; that is, in such extremities, to desire that 
which is not to be avoided, and wish what might be feared ; 
and so made evils voluntary, and to suit with their own de- 
sires, which took off the terror of them. 

But the ancient martyrs were not encouraged by such fal- 
lacies ; who, though they feared not death, were afraid to be 
their own executioners ; and therefore thought it more wis- 
dom to crucify their lusts than their bodies, to circumcise 
than stab their hearts, and to mortify than kill themselves. 

His willingness to leave this world about that age, when 
most men think they may best enjoy it, though paradoxical 
unto worldly ears, was not strange unto mine, who have so 
often observed, that many, though old, oft stick fast unto the 
world, and seem to be drawn like Cacus's oxen, backward, 
with great struggling and reluctancy unto the grave. The 
long habit of living makes mere men more hardly to part with 
life, and all to be nothing, but what is to come. To live at 
the rate of the old world, when some could scarce remem- 
ber themselves young, may afford no better digested death 
than a more moderate period. Many would have thought 
it an happiness to have had their lot of life in some notable 
conjunctures of ages past; but the uncertainty of future times 
hath tempted few to make a part in ages to come. And sure- 
ly, he that hath taken the true altitude of things, and rightly 
calculated the degenerate state of this age, is not like to envy 
those that shall live in the next, much less three or four hun- 
dred years hence, when no man can comfortably imagine what 
face this world will carry : and therefore since every age 
makes a step unto the end of all things, and the scripture 
affords so hard a character of the last times ; quiet minds will 
be content with their generations, and rather bless ages past, 
than be ambitious of those to come. 

1 themselves.'] In the speech of Vul- cupias quodcunque nccesse est.' ' All fear 

teius in Lucan, animating his soldiers in is over, do but resolve to die, and make 

a great struggle to kill one another. — 'De- your desires meet necessity.' 
eernite lethum, et nietus omnis abest, 



LETTER TO A FRIEND. 51 

Though age had set no seal upon his face, yet a dim eye 
might clearly discover fifty in his actions ; and therefore, since 
wisdom is the grey hair, and an unspotted life old age ; al- 
though his years came short, he might have been said to have 
held up with longer livers, and to have been Solomon's ~ old 
man. And surely if we deduct all those days of our life 
which we might wish unlived, and which abate the comfort 
of those we now live ; if we reckon up only those days which 
God hath accepted of our lives, a life of good years will hard- 
ly be a span long : the son in this sense may out-live the father, 
and none be climacterically old. He that early arriveth unto 
the parts and prudence of age, is happily old without the un- 
comfortable attendants of it ; and 'tis superfluous to live unto 
grey hairs, when in a precocious temper we anticipate the vir- 
tues of them. In brief, he cannot be accounted young who 
out-liveth the old man. He that hath early arrived unto the 
measure of a perfect stature in Christ, hath already fulfilled 
the prime and longest intention of his being : and one day 
lived after the perfect rule of piety, is to be preferred before 
sinning immortality. 

Although he attained not unto the years of his predeces- 
sors, yet he wanted not those preserving virtues which confirm 
the thread of weaker constitutions. Cautelous chastity and 
crafty sobriety were far from him ; those jewels weveparago??, 
without flaw, hair, ice, or cloud in him : which affords me a 
hint to proceed in these good wishes, and few mementos unto 
you. 

2 Solomon's.'] Wisdom, cap. iv. 

*** The rest of this letter served as the basis for his larger work, the Christian 
Morals, in which having, with some few alterations, been included, it is here 
omitted. 



E 2 



Christian florals. 



PUBLISHED FROM THE ORIGINAL AND CORRECT MANUSCRIPT OF THE AUTHOR, 



BY JOHN JEFFERY, D.D. 

ARCHDHACON oy NORWICH. 



WITH NOTES, ADDED TO THE SECOND EDITION, 

BY DR. JOHNSON. 



THIRD EDITION. 



ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 

1716. 



EDITORS PREFACE. 



The original edition of the Christian Morals, by Arch- 
deacon Jeftery, was printed at Cambridge, in 1716; and is 
one of the rarer of Sir Thomas's detached works. Dodsley, 
in 1756, brought out a new edition, with additional notes, and 
a life by Dr. Johnson. It has been said that Dr. Johnson 
inserted in the Literary Magazine a review of the work, but 
I have not been able to find it. The sixth volume of Memoirs 
of Literature contains a meagre account of the Posthumous 
Works, but no notice of the Christian Morals. 

The latter portion of the Letter to a Friend is incorporated 
in various parts of the Christian Morals ; except some pas- 
sages, which are given in notes to the present edition; toge- 
ther with some various readings from MSS. in the British 
Museum. 



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 



DAVID, EARL OF BUCHAN, 



VISCOUNT AUCHTERHOUSE, LORD CARDROSS 

AND GLENDOYACIIIE, ONE OP THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OP POLICE, AND LORD LIEUTENANT 

OF THE COUNTIES OP STIRLING AND CLACKMANNAN IN NORTH BRITAIN. 



My Lord, 

The honour you have done our family obligeth us 
to make all just acknowledgments of it: and there is no form 
of acknowledgment in our power, more worthy of your lord- 
ship's acceptance, than this dedication of the last work of our 
honoured and learned father. Encouraged hereunto by the 
knowledge we have of your lordship's judicious relish of 
universal learning, and sublime virtue, we beg the favour of 
your acceptance of it, which will very much oblige our family 
in general, and her in particular, who is, 

My Lord, 

Your lordship's most humble servant, 

ELIZABETH LITTLETON. 



THE PREFACE. 



If any one, after he has read Religio Medici, and the 
ensuing discourse, can make doubt whether the same person 
was the author of them both, he may be assured, by the 
testimony of Mrs. Littleton, Sir Thomas Browne's daughter, 
who lived with her father when it was composed by him ; and 
who, at the time, read it written by his own hand : and also 
by the testimony of others (of whom I am one) who read the 
manuscript of the author, immediately after his death, and 
who have since read the same ; from which it hath been faith- 
fully and exactly transcribed for the press. The reason why 
it was not printed sooner is, because it was unhappily lost, by 
being mislaid among other manuscripts, for which search 
was lately made in the presence of the Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury, of which his Grace, by letter, informed Mrs. 
Littleton, when he sent the manuscript to her. There is 
nothing printed in the discourse, or in the short notes, but 
what is found in the original manuscript of the author, except 
only where an oversight had made the addition or transposi- 
tion of some words necessary. 

JOHN JEFFERY, 

Archdeacon of Norwich. 



Christian jMorate, 



PART THE FIRST. 

i A read softly and circumspectly in this funambulatory track 1 
and narrow path of goodness : pursue virtue virtuously : e 
leaven not good actions, nor render virtue disputable. Stain 
not fair acts with foul intentions : maim not uprightness by 
halting concomitances, nor circumstantially deprave substan- 
tial goodness. 

Consider 3 whereabout thou art in Cebes's 4 table, or that 
old philosophical pinax 5 of the life of man : whether thou 
art yet in the road of uncertainties ; whether thou hast yet 
entered the narrow gate, got up the hill and asperous way, 
which leadeth unto the house of sanity ; or taken that puri- 
I fying potion from the hand of sincere erudition, which may 
send thee clear and pure away unto a virtuous and happy 
life. 

In this virtuous voyage of thy life hull not about like the 
ark, without the use of rudder, mast, or sail, and bound for 



1 funambulatory track. ~\ Narrow, like paragraphs of the closing reflections to 
the walk of a rope-dancer. — Dr. J. the Letter to a Friend. 

2 Tread, <^c] This sentence begins 4 Cebes's table."] The table or picture 
the closing reflections to the Letter to a of Cebes, an allegorical representation of 
Friend, which were afterwards amplified the characters and conditions of man- 
into the Christian Morals, and, therefore, kind; which is translated by Mr. Col- 
have been omitted as duplicate in the lier, and added to the Meditations of 
present edition. Antoninus. — Dr. J. 

3 Consider, S j -c.'] The remainder of 5 pinax.~\ Picture. — Dr. J. 
this section comprises the 2nd and 3rd 



60 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

no port. Let not disappointment cause despondency, nor 
difficulty despair. Think not that you are sailing from Lima 
to Manilla, 6 when you may fasten up the rudder, and sleep 
before the wind ; but expect rough seas, flaws, 7 and contrary 
blasts : and 'tis well, if by many cross tacks and veerings, 
you arrive at the port ; for we sleep in lions' skins 8 in our 
progress unto virtue, and we slide not but climb unto it. 

Sit not down in the popular forms and common level of 
virtues. Offer not only peace-offerings but holocausts unto 
God : where all is due make no reserve, and cut not a cum- 
min-seed with the Almighty : to serve Him singly to serve 
ourselves, were too partial a piece of piety, not like 9 to place 
us in the illustrious mansions of glory. 

Sect, ii. 1 — Rest not in an ovation* but a triumph over thy 
passions. Let anger walk hanging down the head ; let 
malice go manacled, and envy fettered after thee. Behold 
within thee the long train of thy trophies, not without 
thee. Make the quarrelling Lapithytes sleep, and Centaurs 
within lie quiet. 2 Chain up the unruly legion of thy breast. 
Lead thine own captivity captive, and be Caesar within thy- 
self. 3 

* Ovation, a petty and minor kind of triumph. 

6 Lima to Manilla.'] Over the Paci- early batteries against those strong holds 
fie Ocean, in the course of the ship built upon the rock of nature, and make 
which now sails from Acapulco to Man- this a great part of the militia of thy life, 
ilia, perhaps formerly from Lima, or The politic nature of vice must be oppos- 
more properly from Callao, Lima not ed by policy, and therefore wiser hones- 
being a sea-port. — Dr. J. ties project and plot against sin; wherein 

7 flaws.'] Sudden gusts or violent at- notwithstanding we are not to rest in 
tacks of bad weather. — Dr. J. generals, or the trite stratagems of art : 

8 lions' skins, Sfc.] That is, in armour, that may succeed with one temper which 
in a state of military vigilance. One of may prove successless with another, 
the Grecian chiefs used to represent open There is no community or common- 
force by the lions' skin, and policy by wealth of virtue ; every man must study 
the fox's tail. — Dr. J. his own economy, and erect these rules 

9 like.] Likely. unto the figure of himself.' 

1 Sect, ii.] The first and last two 2 Make the quarrelling, §c] That is, 

sentences compose par. 1 7th of closing -thy turbulent and irascible passions. For 

reflections to the Letter to a Friend. The the Lapithytes and Centaurs, see Ovid. 

succeeding par. (18) is given here, hav- — Dr. J. 

ing been omitted in the Christian Morals: 3 thyself.] In MS. Sloan. 1848, I 

— ' Give no quarter unto those vices met with the following passage, which 

which are of thine inward family, and, may be fitly introduced as a continuation 

having a root in thy temper, plead a right to this section : — ' To restrain the rise of 

and property in thee. Examine well extravagances, and timely to ostracise 

thy complexional inclinations. Raise the mosl overgrowing enormities makes 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 61 

Sect, hi. 4 — He that is chaste and continent not to impair 
his strength, or honest for fear of contagion, will hardly be 
heroically virtuous. Adjourn not this virtue until that temper, 
when Cato 5 could lend out his wife, and impotent satyrs write 

i satires upon lust ; but be chaste in thy flaming days, when 
Alexander dared not trust his eyes upon the fair sisters of 
Darius, and when so many think there is no other way but 
Origen's. * 

Sect, iv. 6 — Show thy art in honesty, and lose not thy vir- 
tue by the bad managery of it. Be temperate and sober ; 
not to preserve your body in an ability for wanton ends ; not 

[ to avoid the infamy of common transgressors that way, and 
thereby to hope to expiate or palliate obscure and closer vices ; 
not to spare your purse, nor simply to enjoy health ; but, in 
one word, that thereby you may truly serve God, which every 
sickness will tell you you cannot well do without health. The 

i sick man's sacrifice is but a lame oblation. Pious treasures, 
laid up in healthful days, plead for sick non-performances : 
without which we must needs look back with anxiety upon 
the lost opportunities of health ; and may have cause rather 
to envy than pity the ends of penitent public sufferers, who 

j go with healthful prayers unto the last scene of their lives, 
and in the integrity of their faculties r return their spirit unto 
God that gave it. 

Sect. v. — Be charitable before wealth make thee covetous, 

and lose not the glory of the mite. If riches increase, let 

i 

* Who is said to have castrated himself. 

I 

I a calm and quiet state in the dominion of nate us here, and chiefly condemn us 

ourselves, for vices have their ambitions, hereafter, and will stand in capital letters 

I and will be above one another; but over our heads as the titles of our suffer- 
though many may possess us, yet is ings.' 

' there commonly one that hath the do- 4 Sect, hi.] The 4th paragraph of 

|i minion over us ; one that lordeth over closing reflections to the Letter to a 

i all, and the rest remain slaves unto the Friend. 

i humour of it. Such towering vices are 5 Cato.] The censor, who is frequent- 
not to be temporally exostracised, but ly confounded, and by Pope, amongst 
perpetually exiled, or rather to be served others, with Cato of Utica. — Dr. J. 
like the rank poppies in Tarquin's garden, 6 Sect, iv.] Except the first sen- 
and made shorter by the head ; for the tence, this section concludes the first 
sharpest arrows are to be let fly against paragraph of the concluding reflections 

S all such imperious vices, which, neither of Letter to a Friend. 

i enduring priority or equality, Cesarean 7 and in the integrity, 8(C.~\ With their 

or Pompeian primity, must be absolute faculties unimpaired. — Dr. J. 
over all ; for these opprobiously denomi- 



62 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

thy mind hold pace with them ; and think it not enough to 
be liberal, but munificent. Though a cup of cold water from 
some hand may not be without its reward, yet stick not thou 
for wine and oil for the wounds of the distressed ; and treat 
the poor, as our Saviour did the multitude, to the reliques of 
some baskets. 8 Diffuse thy beneficence early, and while thy 
treasures call thee master ; there may be an atropos 9 of thy 
fortunes before that of thy life, and thy wealth cut off before 
that hour, when all men shall be poor ; for the justice of death 
looks equally upon the dead, and Charon expects no more 
from Alexander than from Irus. 

Sect. vi. — Give not only unto seven, but also unto eight, 
that is unto more than many. * Though to give unto every 
one that asketh may seem severe advice, f yet give thou 
also before asking ; that is, where want is silently clamorous, 
and men's necessities not their tongues do loudly call for thy 
mercies. For though sometimes necessitousness be dumb, or 
misery speak not out, yet true charity is sagacious, and will 
find out hints for beneficence. Acquaint thyself with the 
physiognomy of want, and let the dead colours and first lines 
of necessity suffice to tell thee there is an object for thy 
bounty. Spare not where thou canst not easily be prodigal, 
and fear not to be undone by mercy ; for since he who hath 
pity on the poor lendeth unto the Almighty rewarder, who 
observes no ides 1 but every day for his payments, charity 
becomes pious usury, christian liberality the most thriving in- 
dustry ; and what we adventure in a cockboat may return in 
a carrack unto us. He who thus casts his bread upon the 
water shall surely find it again ; for though it falleth to the 
bottom, it sinks but like the axe of the prophet, to rise again 
unto him. 

* Ecclesiasticus. f Luke. 



8 lie charitable, cyr.] The preceding ' idea, fyc.~] The ides was the time 
part of this section constitutes the 5th when money lent out at interest was 
paragraph of the closing reflections of commonly repaid. 

Letter to a Friend. Fcenerator Alphius 

9 alropos.~\ Atropos is the lady of Suam relegit Idibus pecuniam, 
destiny that cuts the thread of life. — Quaerit calendis ponere. 

Dr. J. Hon.— 7)r. ./. 



christian Morals. 63 

Sect, vii. 2 — If avarice be thy vice, yet make it not thy 
punishment. Miserable men commiserate not themselves, 
bowelless unto others, and merciless unto their own bowels. 
Let the fruition of things bless the possession of them, and 
think it more satisfaction to live richly than die rich. For 
since thy good works, not thy goods, will follow thee ; since 
wealth is an appurtenance of life, and no dead man is rich ; to 
famish in plenty, and live poorly to die rich, were a multiply- 
ing improvement in madness, and use upon use in folly. 

Sect, viii. 3 — Trust not to the omnipotency of gold, and 
say not unto it, thou art my confidence. Kiss not thy hand 
to that terrestrial sun, nor bore thy ear unto its servitude. 
A slave unto mammon makes no servant unto God. Covet- 
ousness cracks the sinews of faith ; numbs the apprehension 
of any thing above sense ; and, only affected with the cer- 
tainty of things present, makes a peradventure of things to 
come; lives but unto one world, nor hopes but fears another; 
makes their own death sweet unto others, bitter unto them- 
selves ; brings formal sadness, scenical mourning, and no wet 
eyes at the grave. 

Sect, ix.* — Persons lightly dipt, not grained in generous 
honesty, 5 are but pale in goodness, and faint hued in integrity. 
But be thou what thou virtuously art, and let not the ocean 
wash away thy tincture. Stand magnetically upon that axis, 6 
when prudent simplicity hath flxt there ; and let no attraction 
invert the poles of thy honesty. That vice may be uneasy 
and even monstrous unto thee, let iterated good acts and 
long confirmed habits make virtue almost natural, or a second 
nature in thee. Since virtuous superstructions have com- 
. monly generous foundations, dive into thy inclinations, and 
early discover what nature bids thee to be or tells thee thou 
mayest be. They who thus timely descend into themselves, 
and cultivate the good seeds which nature hath set in them, 



2 Sect, vii.] Paragraph Tthofclos- deeply tinged, not dyed in grain.— Dr. J. 
ing reflections of Letter to a Friend. 6 that axis.~] That is, "with a po- 

3 Sect, viii.] Par. 6th of closing sition as immutable as that of the mag- 
reflections to the Letter to a Friend. netical axis," which is popularly sup- 

4 Sect, ix.] Par. 8th of closing re- posed to be invariably parallel to the 
flections to the Letter to a Friend. meridian, or to stand exactly north and 

5 not grained in generous, <^c.J Not south. — Dr. J. 



64 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

prove not shrubs but cedars in their generation. And to be 
in the form of the best of the bad* or the worst of the good, 
will be no satisfaction unto them. 

Sect, x. 7 — Make not the consequence of virtue the ends 
thereof. Be not beneficent for a name or cymbal of ap- 
plause ; nor exact and just in commerce for the advantages of 
trust and credit, which attend the reputation of true and 
punctual dealing : for these rewards, though unsought for, 
plain virtue will bring with her. To have other by-ends in 
good actions sours laudable performances, which must have 
deeper roots, motives, and instigations, to give them the 
stamp of virtues. 8 

Sect, xi. 9 — Let not the law of thy country be the non 
ultra of thy honesty; nor think that always good enough 
which the law will make good. Narrow not the law of cha- 
rity, equity, mercy. Join gospel righteousness with legal 
right. Be not a mere Gamaliel in the faith," but let the ser- 
mon in the mount be thy targum unto the law of Sinai. 1 

Sect. xii. — Live by old ethicks and the classical rules of 
honesty. Put no new names or notions upon authentic vir- 
tues and vices. 2 Think not, that morality is ambulatory; that 
vices in one age are not vices in another; or that virtues, 
which are under the everlasting seal of right reason, may be 
stamped by opinion. And therefore, though vicious times in- 
vert the opinions of things, and set up new ethicks against 
virtue, yet hold thou unto old morality ; and rather than fol- 

* Optimi malorum pessimi bonorum. 

7 Sect, x.] Par. 10th of closing re- of vice and iniquity, as not to find some 
flections to the Letter to a Friend. escape by a postern of recipiscency.' 

8 virtues.'] The following (11th par. 9 Sect, xi.] Par. 9th of closing re- 
of closing reflections to the Letter, Sj-c.) flections to the Letter to a Friend. 
seems to have been omitted in the ' targum, iyc] A paraphrase or am- 
Christian Morals: — -'Though human in- plification. 

firmity may betray thy heedless days 2 vices.] From MS. Sloan. 1 847, the 

into the popular ways of extravagancy, following clause is added : — ' Think not 

yet let not thine own depravity, or the modesty will never gild its like ; fortitude 

torrent of vicious times, carry thee into will not be degraded into audacity and 

desperate enormities in opinions, man- foolhardiness ; liberality will not be put 

ners, or actions : if thou hast dipped thy off with the name of prodigality, nor 

foot iiri the river, yet venture not over frugality exchange its name with avarice 

Rubicon;, run not into extremities from and solid parsimony, and so our vices be 

whence there is no regression, nor be exalted into virtues.' 
ever so closely shut up within the holds 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 65 

low a multitude to do evil, stand like Pompey's pillar conspi- 
cuous by thyself, and single in integrity. And since the worst 
of times afford imitable examples of virtue ; since no deluge .. 
of vice is like to be so general but more than eight will escape ; 3 
eye well those heroes who have held their heads above water, 
who have touched pitch and not been denied, and in the 
common contagion have remained uncorrupted. 

Sect, xiii. 4 — Let age, not envy, draw wrinkles on thy 
cheeks ; be content to be envied, but envy not. Emulation 
may be plausible and indignation allowable, but admit no 
treaty with that passion which no circumstance can make 
good. A displacency at the good of others because they en- 
joy it, though not unworthy of it, is an absurd depravity, 
sticking fast unto corrupted nature, and often too hard for 
humility and charity, the great suppressors of envy. This 
surely is a lion not to be strangled but by Hercules himself, 
or the highest stress of our minds, and an atom of that power 
which subdueth all things unto itself. 

Sect, xiv. 5 — Owe not thy humility unto humiliation from 
adversity, but look humbly down in that state when others 
look upwards upon thee. Think not thy own shadow longer 
than that of others, nor delight to take the altitude of thy- 
self. Be patient in the age of pride, when men live by short 
intervals of reason under the dominion of humour and pas- 
sion, when it's in the power of every one to transform thee 
out of thyself, and run thee into the short madness. If you 
cannot imitate Job, yet come not short of Socrates, 6 and 
those patient Pagans who tired the tongues of their enemies, 
while they perceived they spit their malice at brazen walls and 
statues. 

Sect, xv. 7 — Let not the sun in Capricorn* go down upon 
thy wrath, but write thy wrongs in ashes. Draw the curtain 

* Even when the days are shortest. 

3 eight will escape."] Alluding to the 9 ui P artem accepts saeva inter vincla cicutee. 
- j. a. xt i Accusatori nollet dare. — .luv. 

flood Ot Noah. Kot so mild Thales, nor Chrysippus thought; 

4 SECT. XIII.] Par. 13th of closing ^ or tlle £ood man who drank the pois'nous 
reflections to the Letter io a Friend. With mind serene, and could not wish to see 

5 SECT. XIV.] Par. 12th of closing His vile accuser drink as deep as he : 

„ , r _,, , n • 7 Exalted Socrates! Creech. — Dr. J. 

reflections to the Letter to a friend. . _ 

6 Socrates.'] Sect. xv.J Par. 15th of closing 
Dulcique senex vicinus Hyinetto, reflections to the Letter to a Friend. 

VOL. IV. F 



66 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

of night upon injuries, shut them up in the tower of oblivion,* 
and let them be as though they had not been. To forgive 
our enemies, yet hope that God will punish them, is not to 
forgive enough. To forgive them ourselves, and not to 
pray God to forgive them, is a partial piece of charity. 
Forgive thine enemies totally, and without any reserve that 
however God will revenge thee. 

Sect, xvi. 8 — While thou so hotly disclaimest the devil, be 
not guilty of diabolism. Fall not into one name with that 
unclean spirit, nor act his nature whom thou so much abhor- 
rest; that is, to accuse, calumniate, backbite, whisper, detract, 
or sinistrously interpret others. Degenerous depravities, and 
narrow-minded vices ! not only below St. Paul's noble Christ- 
ian but Aristotle's true gentleman.f Trust not with some that 
the epistle of St. James is apocryphal, and so read with less 
fear that stabbing truth, that in company with this vice " thy 
religion is in vain." Moses broke the tables without break- 
ing of the law ; but where charity is broke, the law itself is 
shattered, which cannot be whole without love, which is 
" the fulfilling of it." Look humbly upon thy virtues ; and 
though thou art rich in some, yet think thyself poor and 
naked without that crowning grace, which " thinketh no evil, 
which envieth not, which beareth, hopeth, believeth, en- 
dureth all things." With these sure graces, while busy 
tongues are crying out for a drop of cold water, mutes may 
be in happiness, and sing the trisagion% in heaven. 

Sect. xvii. — However thy understanding may waver in the 
theories of true and false, yet fasten the rudder of thy will, 
steer straight unto good and fall not foul on evil. Imagina- 
tion is apt to rove, and conjecture to keep no bounds. Some 
have run out so far, as to fancy the stars might be but the 
light of the crystalline heaven shot through perforations on 
the bodies of the orbs. Others more ingeniously doubt 
whether there hath not been a vast tract of land in the 

* Alluding unto the tower of oblivion mentioned by Procopius, which was the 
name of a tower of imprisonment among the Persians : whoever was put therein 
was as it were buried alive, and it was death for any but to name him. 

f See Aristotle's Ethics, chapter of Magnanimity. J Holy, holy, holy. 

8 Sect, xvr.] Par. Mtli of closing reflections to the Letter to a Friend. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 67 

Atlantic ocean, which earthquakes and violent causes have 
long ago devoured. 9 Speculative misapprehensions may be 
innocuous, but immorality pernicious; theoretical mistakes 
and physical deviations may condemn our judgments, not 
lead us into judgment. But perversity of will, immoral and sin- 
ful enormities walk with Adraste and Nemesis 1 at their backs, 
pursue us unto judgment, and leave us viciously miserable. 

Sect, xviii. — Bid early defiance unto those vices which 
are of thine inward family, and having a root in thy temper 
plead a right and propriety in thee. Raise timely batteries 
against those strong holds built upon the rock of nature, and 
make this a great part of the militia of thy life. Delude not 
thyself into iniquities from participation or community, which 
abate the sense but not the obliquity of them. To conceive 
sins less or less of sins, because others also transgress, were 
morally to commit that natural fallacy of man, to take com- 
fort from society, and think adversities less because others 
1 also suffer them. The politic nature of vice must be opposed 
by policy; and, therefore, wiser honesties project and plot 
against it : wherein, notwithstanding, we are not to rest in 
generals, or the trite stratagems of art. That may succeed 
iwith one, which may prove successless with another: there is 
no community or commonweal of virtue : every man must 
study his own economy, and adapt such rules unto the figure 
iof himself. 

Sect, xix. 2 — Be substantially great in thyself, and more 
than thou appearest unto others ; and let the world be de- 
ceived in thee, as they are in the lights of heaven. Hang 
early plummets upon the heels of pride, and let ambition 
have but an epicycle 3 and narrow circuit in thee. Measure 
not thyself by thy morning shadow, but by the extent of thy 
grave ; and reckon thyself above the earth, by the line thou 



1 9 devoured.'] Add from MS. cix Raivl. ing reflections to the Letter to a Friend. 
'Whether there hath not been a passage 3 epicycle.'] An epicycle is a small 

torn the Mediterranean into the Red revolution made by one planet in the 

■ sea, and whether the ocean at first had wider orbit of another planet. The 

i passage into the Mediterranean by the meaning is, " Let not ambition form thy 

traits of Hercules." circle of action, but move upon other 

1 Adraste and Nemesis.] The powers principles; and let ambition only ope- 
if vengeance. — Dr. J. rate as something extrinsic and adven- 

2 Sect, xix.] Paragraph 16th of clos- titious." — Dr. J. 

F 2 



G8 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 



must be contented with under it. Spread not into boundless 
expansions either of designs or desires. Think not that 
mankind liveth but for a few ; and that the rest are born but 
to serve those ambitions, which make but flies of men and 
wildernesses of whole nations. Swell not into vehement 
actions which imbroil and confound the earth ; but be one of 
those violent ones which force the kingdom of heaven.* If 
thou must needs rule, be Zeno's king, 4 and enjoy that empire 
which every man gives himself. He who is thus his own 
monarch contentedly sways the sceptre of himself, not envy- 
ing the glory of crowned heads and elohims of the earth. 
Could the world unite in the practice of that despised train 
of virtues, which the divine ethics of our Saviour hath so in- 
culcated upon us, the furious face of things must disappear ; 
Eden would be yet to be found, and the angels might look 
down, not with pity, but joy upon us. 

Sect, xx. 5 — Though the quickness of thine ear were able 
to reach the noise of the moon, which some think it maketh 
in its rapid revolution; though the number of thy ears should 
equal Argus's eyes ; yet stop them all with the wise man's 
wax, 6 and be deaf unto the suggestions of tale-bearers, calum- 
niators, pickthank or malevolent delators, who, while quiet 
men sleep, sowing the tares of discord and division, distract 
the tranquillity of charity and all friendly society. These are 
the tongues that set the world on fire, cankers of reputation, 
and like that of Jonas's gourd, wither a good name in a 
night. Evil spirits may sit still, while these spirits walk about 
and perform the business of hell. To speak more strictly, 
our corrupted hearts are the factories of the devil, which may 
be at work without his presence ; for when that circumvent- 
ing spirit hath drawn malice, envy, and all unrighteousness 

* Matthew xi. 



4 Zeno's king.'] That is, " the king lowed, without hreak, by the whole of 
of the stoics," whose founder was Zeno, the 17th Section, with slight variations, 
and who held, that, the wise man alone and with the addition which is now add- 
had power and royalty. — Dr. J. ed to that Section, in a note at p. 67. 

5 Sect, xx.] The first part of this ° wise man's wax.] Alluding to the 
Section, varying slightly, is preserved in story of Ulysses, who stopped the ears of 
MSS. in the Rawlinson collection at Ox- his companions with wax when they 
ford, no. cix. It is immediately fol- passed by the Sirens. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 69 

unto well rooted habits in his disciples, iniquity then goes on 
upon its own legs ; and if the gate of hell were shut up for a 
time, vice would still be fertile and produce the fruits of hell. 
Thus when God forsakes us, Satan also leaves us : for such 
offenders he looks upon as sure and sealed up, and his temp- 
tations then needless unto them. 

Sect. xxi. — Annihilate not the mercies of God by the ob- 
livion of ingratitude ; for oblivion is a kind of annihilation ; 
and for things to be as though they had not been, is like unto 
never being. Make not thy head a grave, but a repository 
of God's mercies. Though thou hadst the memory of Se- 
neca, or Simonides,' and conscience the punctual memorist 
within us, yet trust not to thy remembrance in things which 
need phylacteries. " Register not only strange, but merciful 
occurrences. Let Ephemerides not Olympiads 8 give thee 
account of his mercies : let thy diaries stand thick with duti- 
ful mementos and asterisks of acknowledgment. And to be 
complete and forget nothing, date not his mercy from thy 
nativity ; look beyond the world, and before the aera of Adam. 

Sect. xxii. — Paint not the sepulchre of thyself, and strive 
not to beautify thy corruption. Be not an advocate for thy 
vices, nor call for many hour-glasses 9 to justify thy imperfec- 
tions. Think not that always good which thou thinkest thou 
canst always make good, nor that concealed which the sun 
doth not behold : that which the sun doth not now see, will 
be visible when the sun is out, and the stars are fallen from 
heaven. Meanwhile there is no darkness unto conscience ; 
which can see without light, and in the deepest obscurity give 
a clear draught of things, which the cloud of dissimulation hath 
concealed from all eyes. There is a natural standing court 
within us, examining, acquitting, and condemning at the tri- 
bunal of ourselves; wherein iniquities have their natural 



7 phylacteries.'] A phylactery is a ing several years under one notation, 
writingbound upon the forehead, contain- An Ephemeris is a diary, an Olympiad 
ing something to be kept constantly in is the space of four years. — Dr. J. 
mind. This was practised by the Jewish 9 hour-glasses, SjC.~\ That is, "do 
doctors with regard to the Mosaic law. not speak much or long in justification 
— Dr. J. of thy faults." The ancient pleaders 

8 Olympiads. fyc.~] Particular journals talked by a clepsydra, or measurer of 
of every day, not abstracts comprehend- time. — Dr. J. 



70 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

thetas * and no nocent 2 is absolved by the verdict of himself. 
And therefore although our transgressions shall be tried at 
the last bar, the process need not be long : for the judge of 
all knoweth all, and every man will nakedly know himself; 
and when so few are like to plead not guilty, the assize must 
soon have an end. 

Sect, xxiii. — Comply with some humours, bear with others, 
but serve none. Civil complacency consists with decent ho- 
nesty : flattery is a juggler, and no kin unto sincerity. But 
while thou maintainest the plain path, and scornest to flatter 
others, fall not into self-adulation, and become not thine own 
parasite. Be deaf unto thyself, and be not betrayed at home. 
Self-credulity, pride, and levity lead unto self-idolatry. There 
is no Damocles 3 like unto self-opinion, nor any Syren to our 
own fawning conceptions. To magnify our minor things, or 
hug ourselves in our apparitions ; 4 to afford a credulous ear 
unto the clawing suggestions 5 of fancy ; to pass our days in 
painted mistakes of ourselves ; and though we behold our own 
blood, 5 to think ourselves the sons of Jupiter ; * are blandish- 
ments of self-love, worse than outward delusion. By this im- 
posture, wise men sometimes are mistaken in their elevation, 
and look above themselves. And fools, which are antipodes 7 
unto the wise, conceive themselves to be but their periceci, 8 
and in the same parallel with them. 

Sect. xxiv. — Be not a Hercules furens abroad, and a pol- 
troon within thyself. To chase our enemies out of the field, 
and be led captive by our vices; to beat down our foes, and 
fall down to our concupiscences ; are solecisms in moral 
schools, and no laurel attends them. To well manage our 

* As Alexander the Great did. 



1 thetas.'] a theta inscribed upon flattering. A clawback is an old word 
the judge's tessera or ballot was a mark for a flatterer. Jewel calls some wri- 
for death or capital condemnation.— ters for popery " the pope's clawbacks." 



Dr. ./. 



—Dr. J. 



2 -nocent^ Se 6 our own blood.] That is, " though 

Judice nemo nocens absolvitor. we bleed when we are wounded, though 

3 Damocles.] Damocles was a flatterer we find in ourselves the imperfections of 
of Dionysius Dr. J. humanity."— Br. J. 

4 apparitions.] Appearances without 7 antipodes.] Opposites.— Dr. J. 
realities Dr. J. 8 periceci.] Only placed at a dis- 

5 clawing suggestions, tyc] Tickling, tance in the same line — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 71 

affections, and wild horses of Plato, are the highest circen- 
ses: 9 and the noblest digladiation 1 is in the theatre of our- 
selves; for therein our inward antagonists, not only like 
common gladiators, with ordinary weapons and down-right 
blows make at us, but also, like retiary and laqueary 2 com- 
batants, with nets, frauds, and entanglements fall upon us. 
Weapons for such combats, are not to be forged at Lipara: 3 
Vulcan's art doth nothing in this internal militia ; wherein not 
the armour of Achilles, but the armature of St. Paul, gives 
the glorious day, and triumphs not leading up into capitols, 
but up into the highest heavens. And, therefore, while so 
many think it the only valour to command and master others, 
study thou the dominion of thyself, and quiet thine own com- 
motions. Let right reason be thy Lycurgus, 4 and lift up thy 
hand unto the law of it : move by the intelligences of the su- 
perior faculties, not by the rapt of passion, nor merely by that 
of temper and constitution. They who are merely carried on 
by the wheel of such inclinations, without the hand and gui- 
dance of sovereign reason, are but the automatous 5 part of 
mankind, rather lived than living, or at least underliving 
themselves. 

Sect. xxv. — Let not fortune, which hath no name in scrip- 
ture, have any in thy divinity. Let providence, not chance, 
have the honour of thy acknowledgments, and be thy OEdi- 
pus in contingencies. Mark well the paths and winding ways 
thereof ; but be not too wise in the construction, or sudden 
in the application. The hand of providence writes often by 
abbreviatures, hieroglyphics or short characters, which, like 
the laconism on the wall, 6 are not to be made out but by a 
hint or key from that spirit which indicted them. Leave fu- 
ture occurrences to their uncertainties, think that which is 



9 circenses.] Circenses were Roman near Italy, being volcanoes, were fabled 

horse races.— Dr. J. to contain the forges of the Cyclops. — 

1 digladiation.] Fencing match. — Dr. J. 

Dr. J. 4 Lycurgus.'] Thy lawgiver. 

2 retiary and laqueary.] The reti- 5 automatons.] Moved not by choice, 
mitts or laquearius was a prize-fighter, but by some mechanical impulse. — Dr. J. 
who entangled his opponent in a net, 6 laconism on the wall.] The short 
which by some dexterous management sentence written on the wall of Belshaz- 
he threw upon him. — Dr. J. zar. See Daniel. — Dr. J. 

3 Lipara.] The Liparaan islands, 



t% CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

present thy own ; and, since 'tis easier to foretell an eclipse 
than a foul day at some distance, look for little regular be- 
low. Attend with patience the uncertainty of things, and 
what lieth yet unexerted in the chaos of futurity. The un- 
certainty and ignorance of things to come, makes the world 
new unto us by unexpected emergencies ; whereby we pass 
not our days in the trite road of affairs affording no novity ; 
for the novelizing spirit of man lives by variety, and the new 
faces of things. 

Sect. xxvi. — Though a contented mind enlargeth the di- 
mension of little things ; and unto some it is wealth enough 
not to be poor ; and others are well content, if they be but 
rich enough to be honest, and to give every man his due : yet 
fall not into that obsolete affectation of bravery, to throw 
away thy money, and to reject all honours or honourable sta- 
tions in this courtly and splendid world. Old generosity is 
superannuated, and such contempt of the world out of date. 
No man is now like to refuse the favour of great ones, or be 
content to say unto princes, ' stand out of my sun.' 7 And if 
any there be of such antiquated resolutions, they are not like 
to be tempted out of them by great ones ; and 'tis fair if they 
escape the name of hypocondriacks from the genius of latter 
times, unto whom contempt of the world is the most con- 
temptible opinion ; and to be able, like Bias, to carry all they 
have about them were to be the eighth wise man. However, 
the old tetrick 8 philosophers looked always with indignation 
upon such a face of things ; and observing the unnatural cur- 
rent of riches, power, and honour in the world, and withal 
the imperfection and demerit of persons often advanced unto 
them, were tempted unto angry opinions, that affairs were or- 
dered more by stars than reason, and that things went on 
rather by lottery than election. 

Sect, xxvii. — If thy vessel be but small in the ocean of 
this world, if meanness of possessions be thy allotment upon 
earth, forget not those virtues which the great disposer of all 
bids thee to entertain from thy quality and condition ; that is, 



7 stand out of my sun.~\ The answer ed him what he had to request. — Dr. J. 
made by Diogenes to Alexander, who ask- 8 tetrick.'] Sour, morose. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 73 

submission, humility, content of mind, and industry. Content 
may dwell in all stations. To be low, but above contempt, 
may be high enough to be happy. But many of low degree 
may be higher than computed, and some cubits above the 
common commensuration ; for in all states virtue gives quali- 
fications and allowances, which make out defects. Rough 
diamonds are sometimes mistaken for pebbles ; and meanness 
may be rich in accomplishments, which riches in vain desire. 
If our merits be above our stations, if our intrinsical value be 
greater than what we go for, or our value than our valuation, 
and if we stand higher in God's, than in the censor's book ; 9 
it may make some equitable balance in the inequalities of this 
world, and there may be no such vast chasm or gulph between 
disparities as common measures determine. The divine eye 
looks upon high and low differently from that of man. They 
who seem to stand upon Olympus, and high mounted unto 
our eyes, may be but in the valleys, and low ground unto his ; 
for he looks upon those as highest who nearest approach his 
divinity, and upon those as lowest who are farthest from it. 

Sect, xxviii. — When thou lookest upon the imperfections 
of others, allow one eye for what is laudable in them, and the 
balance they have from some excellency, which may render 
them considerable. While we look with fear or hatred upon 
the teeth of the viper, we may behold his eye with love. In 
venemous natures something may be amiable : poisons afford 
antipoisons : nothing is totally, or altogether uselessly bad. 
Notable virtues are sometimes dashed with notorious vices, 
and in some vicious tempers have been found illustrious acts 
of virtue ; which makes such observable worth in some actions 
of king Demetrius, Antonius, and Ahab, as are not to be 
found in the same kind in Aristides, Numa, or David. Con- 
stancy, generosity, clemency, and liberality have been highly 
conspicuous in some persons not marked out in other con- 
cerns for example or imitation. But since goodness is ex- 
emplary in all, if others have not our virtues, let us not be 
wanting in theirs ; nor scorning them for their vices whereof 



censor's booh.'] The book in which estate was registered among the Romans, 
the census, or account of evefy man's — Dr. J. 



i4t CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

we are free, be condemned by their virtues wherein we are 
deficient. There is dross, alloy, and embasement in all human 
tempers ; and he flieth without wings, who thinks to find 
ophir or pure metal in any. For perfection is not, like light, 
centered in any one body ; but, like the dispersed seminalities 
of vegetables at the creation, scattered through the whole 
mass of the earth, no place producing all and almost all 
some. So that 'tis well, if a perfect man can be made out of 
many men, and, to the perfect eye of God, even out of man- 
kind. Time, which perfects some things, imperfects also 
others. Could we intimately apprehend the ideated man, 
and as he stood in the intellect of God upon the first exer- 
tion by creation, we might more narrowly comprehend our 
present degeneration, and how widely we are fallen from the 
pure exemplar and idea of our nature : for after this corrupt- 
ive elongation from a primitive and pure creation, we are al- 
most lost in degeneration ; and Adam hath not only fallen from 
his Creator, but we ourselves from Adam, our tycho * and 
primary generator. 2 

Sect. xxix. — Quarrel not rashly with adversities not yet 
understood ; and overlook not the mercies often bound up in 
them : for we consider not sufficiently the good of evils, nor 
fairly compute the mercies of providence in things afflictive 
at first hand. The famous Andreas Doria being invited to a 
feast by Aloysio Fieschi, with design to kill him, just the night 
before fell mercifully into a fit of the gout, and so escaped 
that mischief. When Cato intended to kill himself, from a 

1 tycho.'] 'O rvvcuv qui facit, 'O of God, wherein we arc like to rest until 

ruyoov qui adeptus est: he that makes, the advantage of another being; and 

or he that posseses; as Adam might be therefore in vain we seek to satisfy our 

said to contain within him the race of s ° uls . m close apprehensions and piercing 

mankind Dr J theories of the divinity even from the 

' 2 generator.] *Add from MS. Sloan. divine wonL Meanwhile we have a 

1885, the following passage:—" But at ha PPy sufficiency u our own natures, to 

this distance and elongation we dearly apprehend his good will and pleasure ; it 

know that depravity hath overspread us, bein S not of our concern or capacity from 

corruption entered like oil into our bones, thence to apprehend or reach his nature, 

Imperfections upbraid us on all hands, tl,e divine revelation in such points being 

and ignorance stands pointing at us in " ot framcd unto intellectuals of earth, 

every corner in nature. We are un- Even the an S els and s P lnts have en0U S h 

knowing in things which fall under cog- t0 admlre ,n tl,elr subhmer created na- 

nition, yet drive at that which is above turcs : admiration being the act of the 

our comprehension. We have a slender creature and not of God, who doth not 

knowledge of ourselves, and much less admlre l»mself. ' 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 75 

blow which he gave his servant, who would not reach his 
sword unto him, his hand so swelled that he had much ado 
to effect his design. Hereby any one but a resolved stoic 
might have taken a fair hint of consideration, and that some 
merciful genius would have contrived his preservation. To 
be sagacious in such intercurrences is not superstition, but 
wary and pious discretion ; and to contemn such hints were 
to be deaf unto the speaking hand of God, wherein Socrates 
and Cardan 3 would hardly have been mistaken. 

Sect. xxx. — Break not open the gate of destruction, and 
make no haste or bustle unto ruin. Post not heedlessly on 
unto the non ultra of folly, or precipice of perdition. Let 
vicious ways have their tropics 4 and deflexions, and swim in 
the waters of sin but as in the Asphaltick lake, 5 though 
smeared and defiled, not to sink to the bottom. If thou 
hast dipped thy foot in the brink, yet venture not over 
Rubicon. 6 Run not into extremities from whence there is no 
regression. In the vicious ways of the world it mercifully 
falleth out that we become not extempore wicked, but it 
taketh some time and pains to undo ourselves. We fall not 
from virtue, like Vulcan from heaven, in a day. Bad dispo- 
sitions require some time to grow into bad habits ; bad habits 
must undermine good, and often repeated acts make us habit- 
ually evil : so that by gradual depravations, and while we are 
but staggeringly evil, we are not left without parenthesis of 
considerations, thoughtful rebukes, and merciful interventions, 
to recall us unto ourselves. For the wisdom of God hath 
methodized the course of things unto the best advantage of 
goodness, and thinking considerators overlook not the tract 
thereof. 

Sect. xxxi. — Since men and women have their proper 
virtues and vices ; and even twins of different sexes have not 
only distinct coverings in the womb, but differing qualities 



3 Socrates and Cardan.'] Socrates 5 Asphaltick lake.] The lake of 
and Cardan, perhaps in imitation of him, Sodom ; the waters of which being very 
talked of an attendant spirit or genius, salt, and therefore heavy, will scarcely 
that hinted from time to time how they suffer an animal to sink. — Dr. J. 
should act. — Dr. J. >> Rubicon.] The river, by crossing 

4 tropics.] The tropic is the point which Caesar declared war against the 
where the sun turns back. — Dr. J. senate. — Dr. J. 



76 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

and virtuous habits after ; transplace not their proprieties, and 
confound not their distinctions. Let masculine and feminine 
accomplishments shine in their proper orbs, and adorn their 
respective subjects. However, unite not the vices of both 
sexes in one ; be not monstrous in iniquity, nor hermaphroditi- 
cally vicious. 

Sect, xxxii. — If generous honesty, valour, and plain deal- 
ing be the cognisance of thy family, or characteristic of thy 
.country, hold fast such inclinations sucked in with thy first 
breath, and which lay in the cradle with thee. Fall not into 
transforming degenerations, which under the old name create 
a new nation. Be not an alien in thine own nation ; bring not 
Orontes into Tiber ; 7 learn the virtues not the vices of thy 
foreign neighbours, and make thy imitation by discretion not 
contagion. Feel something of thyself in the noble acts of thy 
ancestors, and find in thine own genius that of thy predeces- 
sors. Rest not under the expired merits of others, shine by 
those of thy own. Flame not like the central fire which en- 
lighteneth no eyes, which no man seeth, and most men think 
there's no such thing to be seen. Add one ray unto the com- 
mon lustre ; add not only to the number but the note of thy 
generation; and prove not a cloud but an asterisk 8 in thy 
region. 

Sect, xxxiii. — Since thou hast an alarum 9 in thy breast, 
which tells thee thou hast a living spirit in thee above two 
thousand times in an hour ; dull not away thy days in slothful 
supinity and the tediousness of doing nothing. To strenu- 
ous minds there is an inquietude in over quietness, and no la- 
boriousness in labour ; and to tread a mile after the slow pace 
of a snail, or the heavy measures of the lazy of Brazilia, 1 were a 
most tiring penance, and worse than a race of some furlongs at 
the Olympics. 2 The rapid courses of the heavenly bodies are 



7 Orontes into Tiber. ~\ In Tiberim de- tion, which is nearer to the number 
fiuxit Orontes: "Orontes has mingled mentioned. — Dr. J. 

her stream with the Tiber," says Juvenal, ' lazy of Brazilia.~\ An animal called 

speaking of the confluence of foreigners more commonly the sloth, which is said 

to Rome. — Dr. J. to be several days in climbing a tree. — 

8 asterisk.] A small star. — Dr. J. Dr. J. 

9 alarum.] The motion of the heart, 2 Olympics.] The Olympic games, of 
which beats about sixty times in a mi- which the race was one of the chief.- 
nute; or, perhaps, the motion ofrespira- Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 77 

rather imitable by our thoughts, than our corporeal motions ; 
yet the solemn motions of our lives amount unto a greater mea- 
sure than is commonly apprehended. Some few men have sur- 
rounded the globe of the earth ; yet many in the set locomo- 
tions and movements of their days have measured the circuit 
of it, and twenty thousand miles have been exceeded by them. 
Move circumspectly not meticulously, 3 and rather carefully so- 
licitous than anxiously solicitudinous. Think not there is a lion 
in the way, nor walk with leaden sandals in the paths of good- 
ness ; but in all virtuous motions let prudence determine thy 
measures. Strive not to run like Hercules, a furlong in a 
breath : festination may prove precipitation ; deliberating 
delay may be wise cunctation, and slowness no slothfulness. 

Sect, xxxiv. — Since virtuous actions have their own trum- 
pets, and, without any noise from thyself, will have their re- 
sound abroad ; busy not thy best member in the encomium of 
thyself. Praise is a debt we owe unto the virtues of others, 
and due unto our own from all, whom malice hath not made 
mutes, or envy struck dumb. Fall not, however, into the 
common prevaricating way of self-commendation and boast- 
ing, by denoting the imperfections of others. He who dis- 
commendeth others obliquely, commendeth himself. He who 
whispers their infirmities, proclaims his own exemption from 
them ; and, consequently, says, I am not as this publican, or 
hie niger* whom I talk of. Open ostentation and loud vain- 
glory is more tolerable than this obliquity, as but containing 
some froth, no ink, as but consisting of a personal piece of 
folly, nor complicated with uncharitableness. 4 Superfluously 

* Hie niger est, hunc tu Romane caveto. — Hor. 

This man is vile ; here, Roman, fix your mark; 

His soul is black, as his complexion's dark. — Francis. 



3 meticulously.'] Timidly. — Dr. J. make us ashamed to speak evil of the 

4 uncharitableness.'] Add from MS. dead, a crime not actionable in Christian 
Sloan. 1847: — " They who thus closely governments, yet hath been prohibited 
and whisperingly calumniate the absent by Pagan laws and the old sanctions of 
living, will be apt to strayn their voyce Athens. Many persons are like many 
and be apt to be loud enough in infamy rivers, whose mouths are at a vast dis- 
of the dead ; wherein there should be a tance from their heads, for their words 
civil amnesty and an oblivion concern- are as far from their thoughts as Cano- 
ing those who are in a state where all pus from the head of Nilus. These are 
things are forgotten; but Solon will of the former of those men, whose punish- 



IO CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

we seek a precarious applause abroad : every good man hath 
his plaudit 5 within himself; and though his tongue be silent, 
is not without loud cymbals in his breast. Conscience will 
become his panegyrist, and never forget to crown and extol 
him unto himself. 

Sect. xxxv. — Bless not thyself only that thou wert born 
in Athens ; * but, among thy multiplied acknowledgments, lift 
up one hand unto heaven, that thou wert born of honest pa- 
rents ; that modesty, humility, patience, and veracity, lay in 
the same egg, and came into the world with thee. From 
such foundations thou may'st be happy in a virtuous pre- 
cocity, 6 and make an early and long walk in goodness ; so 
may'st thou more naturally feel the contrariety of vice unto 
nature, and resist some by the antidote of thy temper. As 
charity covers, so modesty preventeth a multitude of sins ; 
withholding from noon-day vices and brazen-browed iniqui- 
ties, from sinning on the house-top, and painting our follies 
with the rays of the sun. Where this virtue reigneth, though 
vice may show its head, it cannot be in its glory. Where 
shame of sin sets, look not for virtue to arise ; for when mo- 
desty taketh wing, Astrea f goes soon after. 

Sect, xxxvi. — The heroical vein of mankind runs much 
in the soldiery, and courageous part of the world ; and in 
that form we oftenest find men above men. History is full 
of the gallantry of that tribe ; and when we read their not- 
able acts, we easily find what a difference there is between a 
a life in Plutarch 7 and in Laertius. G Where true fortitude 
dwells, loyalty, bounty, friendship, and fidelity may be found. 



* As Socrates did. Athens a place of learning and civility, 
f Astrea, goddess of justice and consequently of all virtue. 



ment in Dante's hell is to look everlast- of the world which they are entering 

ingly backward : if you have a mind to into. 

laugh at a man, or disparage the judge- 5 plaudit.'] Plaudite was the term 

ment of any one, set him a talking of by which the ancient theatrical perform- 

things to come or events of hereafter con- ers solicited a clap. — Dr. J. 

tingency ; which elude the cognition of 6 precocity.'] A ripeness preceding 

such an arrogate, the knowledge of them the usual time. — Dr. J. 

whereto the ignorant pretend not, and the 7 Phitarch.] Who wrote the lives, 

learned imprudently fail] ; wherein men for the most part, of warriors. — Dr. J. 

seem to talk but as babes would do in 8 Lacrtius.] Who wrote the lives of 

the womb of their mother, of the things philosophers. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 79 

A man may confide in persons constituted for noble ends, who 
dare do and suffer, and who have a hand to burn for their 
country and their friend. 9 Small and creeping things are the 
product of petty souls. He is like to be mistaken, who makes 
choice of a covetous man for a friend, or relieth upon the 
reed of narrow and poltroon friendship. Pitiful things are 
only to be found in the cottages of such breasts ; but bright 
thoughts, clear deeds, constancy, fidelity, bounty, and gener- 
ous honesty are the gems of noble minds ; wherein, to dero- 
gate from none, the true heroic English gentleman hath no 
peer. 



PART THE SECOND. 

Sect. i. — Punish not thyself with pleasure; glut not thy 
sense with palative delights ; nor revenge the contempt of 
temperance by the penalty of satiety. Were there an age of 
delight or any pleasure durable, who would not honour Volu- 
pia ? but the race of delight is short, and pleasures have 
mutable faces. The pleasures of one age are not pleasures in 
another, and their lives fall short of our own. Even in our 
sensual days, the strength of delight is in its seldomness or 
rarity, 1 and sting in its satiety : mediocrity is its life, and im- 
moderacy its confusion. The luxurious emperors of old in- 
considerately satiated themselves with the dainties of sea and 
land, till, wearied through all varieties, their refections became 
a study unto them, and they were fain to feed by invention : 
novices in true epicurism! which, by mediocrity, paucity, 
quick and healthful appetite, makes delights smartly accept- 
able ; whereby Epicurus himself found Jupiter's brain in a 
piece of Cytheridian cheese,* and the tongues of nightingales 
in a dish of onions. 2 Hereby healthful and temperate poverty 

* Cerebrum Jovis, for a delicious bit. 

9 and their friend.] Like Mutius Sees- 2 tongues of nightingales, fycJ] A dish 

vola. — Dr. J. used among the luxurious of antiquity. 

1 the strength, #c] Voluptates com- —Dr. J. 
mendat rarior usus. — Dr. J. 



SO CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

hath the start of nauseating luxury ; unto whose clear and 
naked appetite every meal is a feast, and in one single dish 
the first course of Metellus ; 3 * who are cheaply hungry, and 
never lose their hunger, or advantage of a craving appetite, 
because obvious food contents it; while Nero,f half famished, 
could not feed upon a piece of bread, and, lingering after 
his snowed water, hardly got down an ordinary cup of Calda. 4 J: 
By such circumscriptions of pleasure the contemned philoso- 
phers reserved unto themselves the secret of delight, which 
the helluos 5 of those days lost in their exorbitances. In 
vain we study delight ; it is at the command of every sober 
mind, and in every sense born with us : but nature, who 
teacheth us the rule of pleasure, instructeth also in the bounds 
thereof, and where its line expireth. And, therefore, temper- 
ate minds, not pressing their pleasures until the sting appear- 
eth, enjoy their contentations contentedly, and without regret, 
and so escape the folly of excess, to be pleased unto displa- 
cency. 

Sect. ii. — Bring candid eyes unto the perusal of men's 
works, and let not Zoilism 6 or detraction blast well-intended 
labours. He that endureth no faults in men's writings must 
only read his own, wherein, for the most part, all appeareth 
white. Quotation mistakes, inadvertency, expedition, and 
human lapses, may make not only moles but warts in learned 
authors ; who, notwithstanding, being judged by the capital 
matter, admit not of disparagement. I should unwillingly 
affirm that Cicero was but slightly versed in Homer, because 
in his work, De Gloria, he ascribed those verses unto Ajax, 
which were delivered by Hector. What if Plautus, in the 
account of Hercules, mistaketh nativity for conception ? Who 
would have mean thoughts of Apollinaris Sidonius, who seems 
to mistake the river Tigris for Euphrates ? and, though a 
good historian and learned bishop of Avergne, had the mis- 

* His riotous pontifical supper, the great variety whereat is to be seen in Macrobius. 
f Nero, in his flight. \ Calda; gelidacque minister. 

3 Metellus.'] The supper was not 4 Calda.~\ Warm water — Dr. J. 

given by Metellus, but by Lentulus 5 Hellno's.] Gluttons. — Dr. J. 

when he was made priest of Mars, and 6 Zoilism, <yr.] From Zoilus, the 

recorded by Metellus. — Dr. J. calumniator of Homer. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 81 

fortune to be out in the story of David, making mention of 
him when the ark was sent back by the Philistines upon a cart ; 
which was before his time. Though I have no great opinion 
of Machiavel's learning, yet I shall not presently say that he 
was but a novice in Roman history, because he was mistaken 
in placing Commodus after the Emperor Severus. Capital 
truths are to be narrowly eyed ; collateral lapses and circum- 
stantial deliveries not to be too strictly sifted. And if the 
substantial subject be well forged out, we need not examine 
the sparks which irregularly fly from it. 

Sect. nr. — Let well-weighed considerations, not stiff and 
peremptory assumptions, guide thy discourses, pen, and ac- 
tions. To begin or continue our works like Trismegistus of 
old, "verum certe vernm atque verissimum est" 1 * would sound 
arrogantly unto present ears in this strict enquiring age; 
wherein, for the most part, 'probably' and 'perhaps' will hardly 
serve to mollify the spirit of captious contradictors. If Car- 
dan saith that a parrot is a beautiful bird, Scaliger will set his 
wits to work to prove it a deformed animal. The compage of 
all physical truths is not so closely jointed, but opposition may 
find intrusion ; nor always so closely maintained, as not to suf- 
fer attrition. Many positions seem quodlibetically 8 consti- 
tuted, and, like a Delphian blade, will cut on both sides. 9 
Some truths seem almost falsehoods, and some falsehoods 
almost truths ; wherein falsehood and truth seem almost 
aequilibriously stated, and but a few grains of distinction to 
bear down the balance. Some have digged deep, yet glanced 
by the royal vein ; * and a man may come unto the pericar- 
dium, 2 but not the heart of truth. Besides, many things are 
known, as some are seen, that is by parallaxis, 3 or at some 
distance from their true and proper beings, the superficial re- 

* In Tabula Smaragdina. 

7 verum certe, fyc] It is true, cer- was used to different purposes. — Dr. J. 
tainly true, true in the highest degree. ' royal vein.'] I suppose the main 
— Dr. J. vein of a mine. — Dr. J. 

8 quodlibetically.'] Determinable on 2 pericardium.] The integument of 
either side. — Dr. J. the heart. — Dr. J. 

9 like a Delphian blade, fyc] The 3 parallaxis.] The parallax of a star 
Delphian sword became proverbial, not is the difference between its real and ap- 
beeause it cut on both sides, but because it parent place. — Dr. J. 

VOL. IV. G 



82 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

gard of thingshaving a different aspect from their true and 
central natures. And this moves sober pens unto suspensory 
and timorous assertions, nor presently to obtrude them as 
Sibyl's leaves, 4 which after considerations may find to be but 
folious appearances, and not the central and vital interiors of 
truth. 

Sect. iv. — Value the judicious, and let not mere acquests 
in minor parts of learning gain thy pre-existimation. 'Tis an 
unjust way of compute, to magnify a weak head for some 
Latin abilities ; and to undervalue a solid judgment, because 
he knows not the genealogy of Hector. When that notable 
king of France* would have his son to know but one sentence 
in Latin ; had it been a good one, perhaps it had been enough. 
Natural parts and good judgments rule the world. States 
are not governed by ergotisms. 5 Many have ruled well, who 
could not, perhaps, define a commonwealth ; and they who 
understand not the globe of the earth, command a great part 
of it. Where natural logic prevails not, artificial too often 
faileth. Where nature fills the sails, the vessel goes smoothly 
on ; and when judgment is the pilot, the ensurance need not, 
be high. When industry builds upon nature, we may expect: 
pyramids : where that foundation is wanting, the structure 
must be low. They do most by books, who could do much 
without them ; and he that chiefly owes himself unto himself 
is the substantial man. 

Sect. v. — Let thy studies be free as thy thoughts and con 
templations : but fly not only upon the wings of imagination 
join sense unto reason, and experiment unto speculation, ant 
so give life unto embryon truths, and verities yet in their chaos 
There is nothing more acceptable unto the ingenious world 
than this noble eluctation 6 of truth; wherein, against th 
tenacity of prejudice and prescription, this century now pre 
vaileth. What libraries of new volumes aftertimes will be 
hold, and in what a new world of knowledge the eyes of ou 
posterity may be happy, a few ages may joyfully declare ; an 

* Lewis tlie Eleventh. Qui nescit dissimulare nescit regnare. 

4 Sibyl's leaves.] On which the Sybil according to the forms of logic. — Dr. 
wrote her oraculons answers. — Virgil. 6 eluctation.'] Forcible eruption. 

5 ergotisms.] Conclusions deduced Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 83 

is but a cold thought unto those who cannot hope to behold 
this exantlation of truth, or that obscured virgin half out of 
the pit : which might make some content with a commutation 
of the time of their lives, and to commend the fancy of the 
Pythagorean metempsychosis; 7 whereby they might hope to 
enjoy this happiness in their third or fourth selves, and be- 
hold that in Pythagoras, which they now but foresee in 
Euphorbus.* The world, which took but six days to make, is 
like to take six thousand to make out : meanwhile, old truths 
voted down begin to resume their places, and new ones arise 
upon us; wherein there is no comfort in the happiness of 
Tully's Elisium,-j- or any satisfaction from the ghosts of the 
ancients, who knew so little of what is now well known. 
Men disparage not antiquity, who prudently exalt new enqui- 
ries ; and make not them the judges of truth, who were but 
fellow enquirers of it. Who can but magnify the endeavours 
of Aristotle, and the noble start which learning had under 
him ; or less than pity the slender progression made upon 
such advantages ? while many centuries were lost in repetitions 
and transcriptions, sealing up the book of knowledge. And, 
therefore, rather than to swell the leaves of learning by fruit- 
less repetitions, to sing the same song in all ages, nor adven- 
ture at essays beyond the attempt of others, many would be 
content that some would write like Helmont or Paracelsus ; 8 
and be willing to endure the monstrosity of some opinions, for 
divers singular notions requiting such aberrations. 

Sect. vi. — Despise not the obliquities of younger ways, 
nor despair of better things whereof there is yet no prospect. 
Who would imagine that Diogenes, who in his younger days 
was a falsifier of money, should in the after-course of his life 
be so great a contemner of metal ? Some negroes who be- 
lieve the resurrection, think that they shall rise white.J Even 
in this life, regeneration may imitate resurrection ; our black 

* Ipse ego, nam memini, Trojani tempore belli, 
Panthoides Euphorbus eram.— Ovid. 
t Who comforted himself that he should there converse with the old philosophers. 
J Mandelslo's travels. 

7 Pythagorean metempsycJwsis.'jTva.ns- 8 Helmont or Paracelsus.'] Wild and 
migration of the soul from body to enthusiastic authors of romantic chy- 
body. — Dr. J. mistry — Dr. J. 

G 2 



84 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

and vicious tinctures may wear off, and goodness clothe us 
with candour. Good admonitions knock not always in vain. 
There will be signal examples of God's mercy, and the angels 
must not want their charitable rejoices for the conversion of 
lost sinners. Figures of most angles do nearest approach 
unto circles which have no angles at all. Some may be near 
unto goodness, who are conceived far from it; and many 
things happen, not likely to ensue from any promises of ante- 
cedencies. Culpable beginnings have found commendable 
conclusions, and infamous courses pious retractations. De- 
testable sinners have proved exemplary converts on earth, 
and may be glorious in the apartment of Mary Magdalen in 
heaven. Men are not the same through all divisions of their 
ages: time, experience, self-reflections, and God's mercies, 
make in some well-tempered minds a kind of translation be- 
fore death, and men to differ from themselves as well as from 
other persons. Hereof the old world afforded many exam- 
ples, to the infamy of latter ages, wherein men too often live 
by the rule of their inclinations ; so that, without any astral 
prediction, the first day gives the last :* men are commonly as 
they were: or rather, as bad dispositions run into worser 
habits, the evening doth not crown, but sourly conclude 
the day. 

Sect, vii.— If the Almighty will not spare us according to 
his merciful capitulation at Sodom ; if his goodness please 
not to pass over a great deal of bad for a small pittance of 
good, or to look upon us in the lump ; there is slender hope 
for mercy, or sound presumption of fulfilling half his will, 
either in persons or nations : they who excel in some virtues 
being so often defective in others ; few men driving at the ex- 
tent°and amplitude of goodness, but computing themselves 
by their best parts, and others by their worst, are content to 
rest in those virtues which others commonly want. Which 
makes this speckled face of honesty in the world ; and whicli 
was the imperfection 9 of the old philosophers and great pre 

* Primusque dies dedit extremum. 

9 few men, frc.l Instead of this nations, mainly settling upon som 
passage, I find the following in MS. Christian particulars, which they con 
Sloan. 1874:— "Persons, sects, and ceive most acceptable unto God, am 






CHRISTIAN MORALS. 85 

tenders unto virtue, who well declining the gaping vices of 
intemperance, incontinency, violence and oppression, were 
yet blindly peccant in iniquities of closer faces, were envious, 
malicious, contemners, scoffers, censurers, and stuffed with 
vizard vices, no less depraving the ethereal particle and di- 
viner portion of man. For envy, malice, hatred, are the 
qualities of Satan, close and dark like himself; and where 
such brands smoke, the soul cannot be white. Vice may be 
had at all prices ; expensive and costly iniquities, which make 
the noise, cannot be every man's sins : but the soul may be 
foully inquinated x at a very low rate ; and a man may be 
cheaply vicious, to the perdition of himself. 

Sect. vih. — Opinion rides upon the neck of reason ; and 
men are happy, wise, or learned, according as that empress 
shall set them down in the register of reputation. However, 
weigh not thyself in the scales of thy own opinion, but let 
the judgment of the judicious be the standard of thy merit. 
Self estimation is a flatterer too readily intitling us unto 
knowledge and abilities, which others solicitously labour after, 
and doubtfully think they attain. Surely such confident 
tempers do pass their days in best tranquillity, who resting in 
the opinion of their own abilities, are happily gulled by such 
contentation ; wherein pride, self-conceit, confidence, and 
opiniatrity, will hardly suffer any to complain of imperfection. 
To think themselves in the right, or all that right, or only 
that, which they do or think, is a fallacy of high content ; 
though others laugh in their sleeves, and look upon them as 
in a deluded state of judgment : wherein, notwithstanding, 
'twere but a civil piece of complacency to suffer them to sleep 
who would not wake, to let them rest in their securities, nor 
by dissent or opposition to stagger their contentments. 



promoting the interest of their inclina- would judge and reckon himself by his 

tions, parties, and divisions; every one worst, and others by their best parts, 

reckoning and preferring himself by the this deception must needs vanish; hu- 

particulars wherein he excelleth, and mility would gain ground; charity 

decrying all others, though highly emi- would overspread the face of the church, 

nent in other Christian virtues. Which and the fruits of the spirit not be so 

makes this speckled face of honesty in thinly found among us. 

the world; whereas, if men would not " This was the imperfection, &c." 

seek themselves abroad ; if every one ' inquinated.] Defiled. — Dr. J. 



86 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

Sect, ix. 2 — Since the brow speaks often truth, since eyes 
and noses have tongues, and the countenance proclaims the 
heart and inclinations ; let observation so far instruct thee in 
physiognomical lines, as to be some rule for thy distinction, 
and guide for thy affection unto such as look most like men. 
Mankind, methinks, is comprehended in a few faces, if we 
exclude all visages which any way participate of symmetries 
and schemes of look common unto other animals. For as 
though man were the extract of the world, in whom all were 
"in coagulato," 3 which in their forms were "in soluto" 4 and 
at extension ; we often observe that men do most act those 
creatures, whose constitution, parts, and complexion, do most 
predominate in their mixtures. This is a corner stone in 
physiognomy, and holds some truth not only in particular 
persons but also in whole nations. There are, therefore, 
provincial faces, national lips and noses, which testify not only 
the natures of those countries, but of those which have them 
elsewhere. Thus we may make England the whole earth, 
dividing it not only into Europe, Asia, Africa, but the par- 
ticular regions thereof; and may in some latitude affirm, that 
there are Egyptians, Scythians, Indians among us, who, 
though born in England, yet carry the faces and air of those 
countries, and are also agreeable and correspondent unto 
their natures. Faces look uniformly unto our eyes : how 
they appear unto some animals of a more piercing or differing 
sight, who are able to discover the inequalities, rubs, and 
hairiness of the skin, is not without good doubt : and, there- 
fore, in reference unto man, Cupid is said to be blind. Af- 
fection should not be too sharp-eyed, and love is not to be 
made by magnifying glasses. If things were seen as they 
truly are, the beauty of bodies would be much abridged. 
And, therefore, the wise contriver hath drawn the pictures 
and outsides of things softly and amiably unto the natural 
edge of our eyes, not leaving them able to discover those 
uncomely asperities, which make oyster-shells in good faces, 
and hedgehogs even in Venus's moles. 



2 Sect. ix. — This is a very fanciful congealed or compressed mass.'' — Dr. J. 
and indefensible section. — Dr. J. * in soluto.'] " In a state of expan- 

3 n , crc << } n coagulato."] i. e. " In a s-ion and separation." — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 87 

Sect. x. — Court not felicity too far, and weary not the 
favourable hand of fortune. Glorious actions have their 
times, extent, and non ultras. To put no end unto attempts 
were to make prescription of successes, and to bespeak un- 
happiness at the last : for the line of our lives is drawn with 
white and black vicissitudes, wherein the extremes hold sel- 
dom one complexion. That Pompey should obtain the sur- 
name of great at twenty-five years, that men in their young 
and active days should be fortunate and perform notable 
things, is no observation of deep wonder; they having the 
strength of their fates before them, nor yet acted their parts 
in the world for which they were brought into it ; whereas 
men of years, matured for counsels and designs, seem to be 
beyond the vigour of their active fortunes, and high exploits 
of life, providentially ordained unto ages best agreeable unto 
them. And, therefore, many brave men finding their fortune 
grow faint, and feeling its declination, have timely withdrawn 
themselves from great attempts, and so escaped the ends 
of mighty men, disproportionate to their beginnings. 5 
But magnanimous thoughts have so dimmed the eyes of 
many, that forgetting the very essence of fortune, and the 
vicissitude of good and evil, they apprehend no bottom 
in felicity ; and so have been still tempted on unto mighty 
actions, reserved for their destructions. For fortune lays 
the plot of our adversities in the foundation of our felici- 
ties, blessing us in the first quadrate, 6 to blast us more 
sharply in the last. And since in the highest felicities there 
lieth a capacity of the lowest miseries, she hath this ad- 
vantage from our happiness to make us truly miserable : for 
to become acutely miserable we are to be first happy. Afflic- 
tion smarts most in the most happy state, as having some- 
what in it of Belisarius at beggar's bush, or Bajazet in the 



5 beginnings.'] MS. Sloan. 1874, pro- dies cum fine bonorum affluit, et celeri 

ceeds thus: — "Wisely stopping about praevertit tristia letho dedecori est fortuna 

the meridian of their felicities, and un- prior quisquam ne secundis tradere se 

willing to hazard the favours of the de- fatisaudet nisi morte parcita. — Lucanl." 
scending wheel, or to fight downward 6 quadrate, fyc] That is, "in the 

in the setting arch of fortune. " Sic first part of our time," alluding to the 

longius sevium destruit ingentes aninios, four quadratures of the moon. — Br. J. 
et vita superstes fortune, nisi smrima 



88 



CHRISTIAN MORALS, 



grate. 7 And this the fallen angels severely understand ; 
who have acted their first part in heaven, are made sharply 
miserable by transition, and more afflictively feel the contrary 
state of hell. 8 

Sect. xr. — Carry no careless eye upon the unexpected 
scenes of things ; but ponder the acts of providence in the 
public ends of great and notable men, set out unto the view 
of all for no common memorandums. 9 The tragical exits and 
unexpected periods of some eminent persons, cannot but 
amaze considerate observators ; wherein, notwithstanding, 
most men seem to see by extramission, 1 without reception or 
self-reflection, and conceive themselves unconcerned by the 
fallacy of their own exemption : whereas, the mercy of God 
hath singled out but few to be the signals of his justice, 



7 BelUsarias, 8fC.~\ Bellisarius, after 
he had gained many victories, is said to 
have been reduced, by the displeasure 
of the emperor, to actual beggary : 
Bajazet, made captive by Tamerlane, is 
reported to have been shut up in a cage. 
It may somewhat gratify those who de- 
serve to be gratified, to inform them 
that both these stories are false. — Dr. J. 

Lord Mahon, in his recent life of 
Bellisarius, has related the mendicity 
and loss of sight of this great man, and 
says in his preface that those facts, 
" which every writer for the last century 
and half has treated as a fable, may be 
established on firm historical grounds." 

8 And this the fallen angels, Sfc.~\ In- 
stead of this passage, I find the follow- 
ing in MS. Sloan. 1874 : — " And this is 
the observable course; not only in this 
visible stage of things, but may be 
feared in our second beings and ever- 
lasting selves ; wherein the good things 
past are seconded by the bad to come : 
and many to whom the embraces of 
fortune are open here, may find Abra- 
ham's arms shut unto him hereafter; 
which wakes serious consideration, 
not so much to pity as envy some men's 
infelicities, wherein, considering the cir- 
cle of both our beings, and the succes- 
sion of good unto evil, tyranny may 
sometimes prove courteous, and malice 
mercifully cruel. Wherein, notwith- 
standing, if swelling beginnings have 
found uncomfortable conclusions, it is 
by the method and justice of providence 
equalizing one with the other, and re- 



ducing the sum of the whole unto a 
mediocrity by the balance of extremi- 
ties: that in the sum the felicities of 
great ones hold a truth and parity with 
most that are below them : whereby the 
minor favourites of fortune which incur 
not such sharp transitions, have no 
cause to whine, nor men of middle 
fates to murmur at their indifferences. 

"By this method of providence the 
devil himself is deluded ; who malig- 
ning us at all points, and bearing felicity 
from us even in this earthly being, he 
becomes assistant unto our future hap- 
piness, and blessed vicissitude of the 
next. And this is also the unhappiness 
of himself, who having acted his first 
part in heaven, is made sharply miser-' 
able by transition, and more afflictively 
feels the contrary state of hell." 

9 memorandums. ] This sentence is 
thus continued in MS. Sloan. 1874: — 
" Whereof I, that have not seen the six- 
tieth part of time, have beheld great 
examples. Than the incomparable 
Montrose, no man acted a more fortu- 
nate part in the first scene of his ad- 
ventures ; but courageous loyalty con- 
tinuing his attempts, he quickly felt that 
fortune's favours were out; and fell 
upon miseries smartly answering his fe- 
licities, which was the only accomplish- 
ment wanting before to make him fit for 
Plutarch's pen, and to parallel the lives 
of his heroic captains." 

1 extramission.'] By the passage of 
sight from the eye to the object. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 89 

leaving the generality of mankind to the paedagogy of exam- 
ple. But the inadvertency of our natures not well appre- 
hending this favourable method and merciful decimation, 2 and 
that he sheweth in some what others also deserve ; they en- 
tertain no sense of his hand beyond the stroke of them- 
selves. Whereupon the whole becomes necessarily punished, 
and the contracted hand of God extended unto uni- 
versal judgments : from whence, nevertheless, the stupidity 
of our tempers i-eceives but faint impressions, and in the 
most tragical state of times holds but starts of good motions. 
So that to continue us in goodness there must be iterated re- 
turns of misery, and a circulation in afflictions is necessary. 3 
And since we cannot be wise by warnings ; since plagues are 
insignificant, except we be personally plagued ; since also we 
cannot be punished unto amendment by proxy or commu- 
tation, nor by vicinity, but contraction { there is an unhappy 
necessity that we must smart in our own skins, and the pro- 
voked arm of the Almighty must fall upon ourselves. The 
capital sufferings of others are rather our monitions than ac- 
quitments. There is but one who died salvifically 4 for us, and 
able to say unto death, hitherto shalt thou go and no farther; 
only one enlivening death, which makes gardens of graves, 
and that which was sowed in corruption to arise and flourish 
in glory : when death itself shall die, and living shall have no 
period ; when the damned shall mourn at the funeral of death; 
when life not death shall be the wages of sin ; when the 

2 decimation.'] The selection of every "If God had not determined a set- 
tenth man for punishment, a practice tied period unto the world, and ordered 
sometimes used in general mutinies. — the duration thereof unto his merciful 
■Dr. J. intentions, it seems a kind of impossi- 

3 necessary.] The following passage bility that he should have thus long con- 
occurs here in MS. Sloan. 1874: — tinued it. Some think there will be 
"Which is the amazing part of that in- another world after this. Surely God, 
comprehensible patience, to condescend who hath beheld the iniquity of this, 
to act over these vicissitudes even in the will hardly make another of the same 
despair of our betterments : and how nature ; and some wonder why he ever 
that omnipotent spirit that would not be made any at all since he was so happy 
exasperated by our forefathers above in himself without it, and self-sufficiently 
1600 years, should thus lastingly en- free from all provocation, wrath, and 
dure our successive transgressions, and indignation, arising from this world, 
still contend with flesh ; or how he can which sets his justice and his mercy at 
forgive those sins which will be com- perpetual contention." 

mitred again, and accept of repentances, 4 salvifically.'] " So as to procure 
which must have after-penitences, is the salvation." — Dr. J. 
riddle of his mercies. 



90 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

second death shall prove a miserable life, and destruction 
shall be courted. 

Sect xii. — Although their thoughts may seem too severe, 
who think that few ill-natured men go to heaven ; yet it may 
be acknowledged that good-natured persons are best founded 
for that place ; who enter the world with good dispositions 
and natural graces, more ready to be advanced by impres- 
sions from above, and christianized unto pieties ; who carry 
about them plain and downright dealing minds, humility, 
mercy, charity, and virtues acceptable unto God and man. 
But whatever success they may have as to heaven, they are 
the acceptable men on earth, and happy is he who hath 
his quiver full of them for his friends. These are not the 
dens wherein falsehood lurks, and hypocrisy hides its head ; 
wherein frowardness makes its nest ; or where malice, hard- 
heartedness, and oppression love to dwell ; nor those by 
whom the poor get little, and the rich sometime lose all; 
men not of retracted looks, but who carry their hearts in 
their faces, and need not to be looked upon with perspec- 
tives ; not sordidly or mischievously ingrateful ; who cannot 
learn to ride upon the neck of the afflicted, nor load the 
heavy laden, but who keep the temple of Janus 5 shut by 
peaceable and quiet tempers ; who make not only the best 
friends, but the best enemies, as easier to forgrve than offend, 
and ready to pass by the second offence before they avenge 
the first ; who make natural royalists, obedient subjects, kind 
and merciful princes, verified in our own, one of the best- 
natured kings of this throne. Of the old Roman emperors 
the best were the best-natured : though they made but a 
small number, and might be writ in a ring. Many of the 
rest were as bad men as princes ; humourists rather than of 
good humours ; and of good natural parts rather than of 
good natures, which did but arm their bad inclinations, and 
make them wittily wicked. 

Sect. xiii. — With what shift and pains we come into the 
world, we remember not : but 'tis commonly found no easy 
matter to get out of it. Many have studied to exasperate the 

5 Janus.'] The temple of Janus among and opened at a declaration of war. — 
(he Romans was shut in time of peace, Dr. J. 






CHRISTIAN MORALS. 91 

ways of death, but fewer hours have been spent to soften 
that necessity. That the smoothest way unto the grave is 
made by bleeding, as common opinion presumeth, beside the 
sick and fainting languors, which accompany that effusion, 
the experiment in Lucan and Seneca 6 will make us doubt ; 
under which the noble stoic so deeply laboured, that, to con- 
ceal his affliction, he was fain to retire from the sight of his 
wife, and not ashamed to implore the merciful hand of his 
physician to shorten his misery therein. Ovid,* the old 
heroes, and the stoics, who were so afraid of drowning, as 
dreading thereby the extinction of their soul, which they 
conceived to be a fire, stood probably in fear of an easier 
way of death; wherein the water, entering the possessions of 
air, makes a temperate suffocation, and kills as it were with- 
out a fever. Surely many, who have had the spirit to de- 
stroy themselves, have not been ingenious in the contrivance 
thereof. 'Twas a dull way practised by Themistocles, to 
overwhelm himself with bull's blood, j- who, being an Athenian, 
might have held an easier theory of death from the state 
potion of his country ; from which Socrates in Plato seemed 
not to suffer much more than from the fit of an ague. Cato 
is much to be pitied, who mangled himself with poniards; and 
Hannibal seems more subtle, who carried his delivery, not in 
the point but the pummel of his sword. J 

The Egyptians were merciful contrivers, who destroyed 
their malefactors by asps, charming their senses into an in- 
vincible sleep, and killing as it were with Hermes's rod. 7 



* Demito naufragium, mors mihi munus erit. 
f Plutarch's lives. 
X Pummel, wherein he is said to have carried something whereby, upon a 
struggle or despair, he might deliver himself from all misfortunes. 
Juvenal says it was carried in a ring : 

Cannarum vindex, et tanti sanguinis ultor,* 

Annulus. 

Nor swords at hand, nor hissing darts afar, 

Are doom'd t' avenge the tedious bloody war, 

But poison drawn thro' a ring's hollow plate. — Dryden. 



6 that the smoothest way unto the grave, quicken it by going into a warm bath. — 

<^c] Seneca, having opened his veins, Dr. J. 

found the blood flow so slowly, and death 7 rod.'] Which procured sleep by a 

linger so long, that he was forced to touch.— Dr. J. 



92 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

The Turkish emperor,* odious for other cruelty, was herein 
a remarkable master of mercy, killing his favourite in his 
sleep, and sending him from the shade into the house of dark- 
ness. He who had been thus destroyed would hardly have 
bled at the presence of his destroyer : when men are already 
dead by metaphor, and pass but from one sleep unto another, 
wanting herein the eminent part of severity, to feel them- 
selves to die ; and escaping the sharpest attendant of death, 
the lively apprehension thereof. But to learn to die, is bet- 
ter than to study the ways of dying. Death will find some 
ways to untie or cut the most gordian knots of life, and make 
men's miseries as mortal as themselves ; whereas evil spirits, 
as undying substances, are inseparable from their calamities; 
and, therefore, they everlastingly struggle under their an- 
gustias, 8 and bound up with immortality can never get out of 
themselves. 



PART THE THIRD. 

Sect. i. — 'Tis hard to find a whole age to imitate, or what 
century to propose for example. Some have been far more 
approvable than others ; but virtue and vice, panegyrics and 
satires, scatteringly to be found in all. History sets down not 
only things laudable, but abominable ; things which should 
never have been, or never have been known ; so that noble 
patterns must be fetched here and there from single persons, 
rather than whole nations ; and from all nations, rather than 
any one. The world was early bad, and the first sin the 
most deplorable of any. The younger world afforded the 
oldest men, and perhaps the best and the worst, when length 
of days made virtuous habits heroical and immovable, vici- 
ous, inveterate and irreclaimable. And since 'tis said that 
the imaginations of their hearts were evil, only evil, and con- 
tinually evil ; it may be feared that their sins held pace with 

* Solyman. 
8 fingustias.] Agonies. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 93 

their lives ; and their longevity swelling their impieties, the 
longanimity of God would no longer endure such vivacious 
abominations. Their impieties were surely of a deep dye, 
which required the whole element of water to wash them 
away, and overwhelmed their memories with themselves ; and 
so shut up the first windows of time, leaving no histories of 
those longevous generations, when men might have been pro- 
perly historians, when Adam might have read long lectures 
unto Methuselah, and Methuselah unto Noah. For had we 
been happy in just historical accounts of that unparalleled 
world, we might have been acquainted with wonders ; and 
have understood not a little of the acts and undertakings of 
Moses's mighty men, and men of renown of old ; which 
might have enlarged our thoughts, and made the world older 
unto us. For the unknown part of time shortens the esti- 
mation, if not the compute of it. What hath escaped our 
knowledge, falls not under our consideration ; and what is 
and will be latent, is little better than non-existent. 9 

Sect. ii. — Some things are dictated for our instruction, 
some acted for our imitation ; wherein 'tis best to ascend unto 
the highest conformity, and to the honour of the exemplar. 
He honours God, who imitates him ; for what we virtuously 
imitate we approve and admire : and since we delight not to 
imitate inferiors, we aggrandize and magnify those we imitate ; 
since also we are most apt to imitate those we love, we testify 
our affection in our imitation of the inimitable. To affect to 
be like, may be no imitation : to act, and not to be what we 
pretend to imitate, is but a mimical conformation, and carrieth 
no virtue in it. Lucifer imitated not God, when he said he 
would be like the highest ; and he 1 imitated not Jupiter, who 
counterfeited thunder. Where imitation can go no farther, 
let admiration step on, whereof there is no end in the wisest 
form of men. Even angels and spirits have enough to admire 
in their sublimer natures ; admiration being the act of the 
creature, and not of God, who doth not admire himself. 
Created natures allow of swelling hyperboles : nothing can be 

9 7ion-exhtent.~\ This sentence con- currences, of what hath been acted." 

eludes thus:— "The world is not half MS. Sloan. 1848. 

itself, nor the moiety known of its oc- ' he.~] Salmoneus. — Dr. J. 



94 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

said hyperbolically of God, nor will his attributes admit of 
expressions above their own exuperances. 2 Trismegistus's 
circle, whose centre is every where, and circumference no 
where, was no hyperbole. Words cannot exceed where they 
cannot express enough. Even the most winged thoughts 
fall at the setting out, and reach not the portal of divinity. 

Sect hi. — In bivious theorems, 3 and Janus-faced doctrines, 
let virtuous considerations state the determination. Look 
upon opinions as thou dost upon the moon, and choose not 
the dark hemisphere for thy contemplation. Embrace not 
the opacous and blind side of opinions, but that which looks 
most luciferously or influentially unto goodness. ' Tis better 
to think that there are guardian spirits, than that there are 
no spirits to guard us ; that vicious persons are slaves, than 
that there is any servitude in virtue ; that times past have 
been better than times present, than that times were always 
bad ; and that to be men it sufficeth to be no better than men 
in all ages, and so promiscuously to swim down the turbid 
stream, and make up the grand confusion. Sow not thy un- 
derstanding with opinions, which make nothing of iniquities, 
and fallaciously extenuate transgressions. Look upon vices 
and vicious objects with hyperbolical eyes ; and rather en- 
large their dimensions, that their unseen deformities may not 
escape thy sense, and their poisonous parts and stings may 
appear massy and monstrous unto thee : for the undiscerned 
particles and atoms of evil deceive us, and we are undone by 
the invisibles of seeming goodness. We are only deceived 
in what is not discerned, and to err is but to be blind or dim- 
sighted as to some perceptions. 

Sect. iv. — To be honest in a right line,* and virtuous by 
epitome, be firm unto such principles of goodness, as carry in 
them volumes of instruction and may abridge thy labour. 
And since instructions are many, hold close unto those, 
whereon the rest depend : so may we have all in a few, and 

* Linea recta brevissima. 



2 exvpcrances.'] Exaggerations. — which open different tracks to the mind; 
Dr. J. which lead tivo ways. — Dr. J. 

3 bivious theorems.'] Speculations 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 95 

the law and the prophets in sacred writ in stenography, 4 and 
the Scripture in a nut-shell. To pursue the osseous and 
solid part of goodness, which gives stability and rectitude to 
all the rest; to settle on fundamental virtues, and bid e.arly 
defiance unto mother-vices, which carry in their bowels the 
seminals of other iniquities ; makes a short cut in goodness, 
and strikes not off an head, but the whole neck of Hydra. 
For we are carried into the dark lake, like the Egyptian river 
into the sea, by seven principal ostiaries : the mother-sins 5 of 
that number are the deadly engines of evil spirits that undo 
us, and even evil spirits themselves ; and he who is under the 
chains thereof is not without a possession. Mary Magdalen 
had more than seven devils, if these with their imps were in 
her ; and he who is thus possessed, may literally be named 
" Legion." Where such plants grow and prosper, look for 
no champian or region void of thorns ; but productions like 
the tree of Goa,* and forests of abomination. 

Sect. v. — Guide not the hand of God, nor order the finger 
of the Almighty unto thy will and pleasure ; but sit quiet in 
the soft showers of providence, and favourable distributions 
in this world, either to thyself or others. And since not only 
judgments have their errands, but mercies their commissions ; 
snatch not at every favour, nor think thyself passed by if they 
fall upon thy neighbour. Rake not up envious displacencies 
at things successful unto others, which the wise disposer of 
all thinks not fit for thyself. Reconcile the events of things 
unto both beings, that is, of this world and the next ; so will 
there not seem so many riddles in Providence, nor various in- 
equalities in the dispensation of things below. 6 If thou dost 

* Arbor Goa de Ruyz, or Ficus Indica, whose branches send down shoots which 
root in the ground, from whence there successively rise others, till one tree becomes 
a wood. 



4 stenography.'] In short hand. — cerous commotions which take up every 
Dr. J. suffering, displeasing at things successful 

5 mother-sins.'] Pride, covetousness, unto others ; which the arch-disposer of 
lust, envy, gluttony, anger, sloth. — all thinks not fit for ourselves. To rejoice 
Dr. J. only in thine [own] good, exclusively to 

" below.] The following passage oc- that of others, is a stiff piece of self-love, 

curs here from MS. Sloan. 1847. "So wanting the supplying oil of benevolence 

mayst thou carry a smooth face, and sit and charity." 
down incontentation, without those can- 



96 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

not anoint thy face, yet put not on sackcloth at the felicities 
of others. Repining at the good, draws on rejoicing at the 
evils of others : and so falls into that inhuman vice,* for 
which so few languages have a name. The blessed spirits 
above rejoice at our happiness below: but to be glad at the 
evils of one another, is beyond the malignity of hell ; and falls 
not on evil spirits, who, though they rejoice at our unhap- 
piness, take no pleasure at the afflictions of their own society 
or of their fellow natures. Degenerous heads ! who must be 
fain to learn from such examples, and to be taught from the 
school of hell. 

Sect. vi. — Grain not thy vicious stains ; 7 nor deepen those 
swart tinctures, which temper, infirmity, or ill habits have set 
upon thee ; and fix not, by iterated depravations, what time 
might efface, or virtuous washes expunge. He, who thus 
still advanceth in iniquity, deepeneth his deformed hue ; turns 
a shadow into night, and makes himself a negro in the black 
jaundice ; and so becomes one of those lost ones, the dispro- 
portionate pores of whose brains afford no entrance unto good 
motions, but reflect and frustrate all counsels, deaf unto the 
thunder of the laws, and rocks unto the cries of charitable 
commisserators. He who hath had the patience of Diogenes, 
to make orations unto statues, may more sensibly apprehend 
how all words fail to the ground, spent upon such a surd and 
earless generation of men, stupid unto all instruction, and ra- 
ther requiring an exorcist than an orator for their conversion ! 

Sect. vii. — Burden not the back of Aries, Leo, or Taurus, 8 
with thy faults ; nor make Saturn, Mars, or Venus, guilty of 
thy follies. Think not to fasten thy imperfections on the 
stars, and so despairingly conceive thyself under a fatality of 
being evil. Calculate thyself within ; seek not thyself in the 
moon, but in thine own orb or microcosmical circumference. 9 
Let celestial aspects admonish and advertise, not conclude and 
determine thy ways. For since good and bad stars moralize 

7 vicious stains.~\ See note 5 , page Bull, signs in the Zodiack. — Dr. J. 
63 — Dr. J. y microcosmical circumference.] In the 

8 Aries, <^c] The Ram, Lion, or compass of thy own little world. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 97 

not our actions, and neither excuse or commend, acquit or 
condemn our good or bad deeds at the present or last bar ; 
since some are astrologically well disposed, who are morally 
highly vicious ; not celestial figures, but virtuous schemes, 
must denominate and state our actions. If we rightly under- 
stood the names whereby God calleth the stars ; if we knew 
his name for the dog-star, or by what appellation Jupiter, 
Mars, and Saturn, obey his will ; it might be a welcome ac- 
cession unto astrology, which speaks great things, and is fain 
to make use of appellations from Greek and barbarick systems. 
Whatever influences, impulsions, or inclinations there be from 
the lights above, it were a piece of wisdom to make one of 
those wise men who overrule their stars,* and with their own 
militia contend with the host of heaven. Unto which attempt 
there want not auxiliaries from the whole strength of morality, 
supplies from Christian ethics, influences also and illumina- 
tions from above, more powerful than the lights of heaven. 

Sect. viii. — Confound not the distinctions of thy life which 
nature hath divided; that is, youth, adolescence, manhood, 
and old age : nor in these divided periods, wherein thou art 
in a manner four, conceive thyself but one. Let every divi- 
sion be happy in its proper virtues, nor one vice run through 
all. Let each distinction have its salutary transition, and cri- 
tically deliver thee from the imperfections of the former ; so 
ordering the whole, that prudence and virtue may have the 
largest section. Do as a child but when thou art a child, and 
ride not on a reed at twenty. He who hath not taken leave 
of the follies of his youth, and in his maturer state scarce got 
out of that division, disproportionately divideth his days, 
crowds up the latter part of his life, and leaves too narrow a 
corner for the age of wisdom ; and so hath room to be a man 
scarce longer than he hath been a youth. Rather than to 
make this confusion, anticipate the virtues of age, and live 
long without the infirmities of it. So may'st thou count up 
thy days as some do Adam's ; f that is, by anticipation ; so 
may'st thou be coetaneous unto thy elders, and a father unto 
thy contemporaries. 

* Sapiens dominabitur astris. 
t Adam, thought to be created in the state of man, about thirty years old. 
VOL. IV. H 



98 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

Sect. ix. — While others are curious in the choice of good 
air, and chiefly solicitous for healthful habitations, study thou 
conversation, and be critical in thy consortion. The aspects, 
conjunctions, and configurations of the stars, which mutu- 
ally diversify, intend, or qualify their influences, are but the 
varieties of their nearer or farther conversation with one 
another, and like the consortion of men, whereby they be- 
come better or worse, and even exchange their natures. 
Since men live by examples, and will be imitating something, 
order thy imitation to thy improvement, not thy ruin. Look 
not for roses in Attalus's garden,* or wholesome flowers in 
a venomous plantation. And since there is scarce any one 
bad, but some others are the worse for him ; tempt not con- 
tagion by proximity, and hazard not thyself in the shadow of 
corruption. He who hath not early suffered this shipwreck, 
and in his younger days escaped this Charybdis, may make a 
happy voyage, and not come in with black sails into the port. 1 
Self-conversation, or to be alone, is better than such consor- 
tion. Some school-men tell ue, that he is properly alone, with 
whom in the same place there is no other of the same species. 
Nebuchadnezzar was alone, though among the beasts of the 
field; and a wise man may be tolerably said to be alone 
though with a rabble of people little better than beasts aboul 
him. Unthinking heads, who have not learned to be alone 
are in a prison to themselves, if they be not also with others 
whereas, on the contrary, they whose thoughts are in a fair 
and hurry within, are sometimes fain to retire into company 
to be out of the crowd of themselves. He who must need if 
have company, must needs have sometimes bad company. B| 
able to be alone. Lose not the advantage of solitude, ami 
the society of thyself; nor be only content, but delight to bo 
alone and single with Omnipresency. He who is thus prq 
pared, the day is not uneasy nor the night black unto hin 
Darkness may bound his eyes, not his imagination. In h : 
bed he may lie, like Pompey and his sons,f in all quarters < 

* Attalus made a garden which contained only venomous plants, 
t Pompeios Juvenes Asia atque Europa, sed ipsum Terra tegit Libyes. 

1 black sails, See.] Alluding to the when he went to engage the Minotn I 
story of Theseus, who had black sails in Crete. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 99 

the earth ; may speculate the universe, and enjoy the whole 
world in the hermitage of himself. Thus the old Ascetick 
Christians found a paradise in a desert, and with little con- 
verse on earth held a conversation in heaven ; thus they as- 
tronomized in caves, and, though they beheld not the stars, 
had the glory of heaven before them. 

Sect. x. — Let the characters of good things stand indeli- 
bly in thy mind, and thy thoughts be active on them. Trust 
not too much unto suggestions from reminiscential amulets, 2 or 
artificial memorandums. Let the mortifying Janus of Co- 
varrubias * be in thy daily thoughts, not only on thy hand and 
signets. Rely not alone upon silent and dumb remembrances. 
Behold not death's heads till thou dost not see them, nor 
look upon mortifying objects till thou overlookest them. For- 
get not how assuefaction unto any thing minorates the passion 
from it ; how constant objects lose their hints, and steal an 
inadvertisement upon us. There is no excuse to forget what 
every thing prompts unto us. To thoughtful observators, 
the whole world is a phylactery ; 3 and every thing we see an 
item of the wisdom, power, or goodness of God. Happy are 
they who verify their amulets, and make their phylacteries 
speak in their lives and actions. To run on in despite of the 
revulsions and pull-backs of such remoras aggravates our 
transgressions. When death's heads on our hands have no 
influence upon our heads, and fleshless cadavers abate not the 
exorbitances of the flesh ; when crucifixes upon men's hearts 
suppress not their bad commotions, and his image who was 
murdered for us withholds not from blood and murder ; phy- 
lacteries prove but formalities, and their despised hints sharpen 
our condemnation. 

* Don Sebastian de Covarrubias writ three centuries of moral emblems in 
Spanish.' In the 88th of the second century he sets down two faces averse, and 
conjoined Janus-like ; the one, a gallant beautiful face, the other, a death's head 
face, with this motto out of Ovid's Metamorphoses :— - 

Quid fuerim, quid simque, vide. 

. You discern 

What now I am, and what I was shall learn. — Addis. 



a renriniscential amulets.] Anything 3 phylactery."] See page 69, note 7 , 
worn on the hand or body, by way of — Dr. J. 
monition or remembrance. — Dr. J. 

H 2 



100 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

Sect. xi. — Look not for whales in the Euxine sea, or ex- 
pect great matters where they are not to be found. Seek 
not for profundity in shallowness, or fertility in a wilderness. 
Place not the expectations of great happiness here below, or 
think to find heaven on earth ; wherein we must be content 
with embryon felicities, and fruitions of doubtful faces : for 
the circle of our felicities makes but short arches. In every 
clime we are in a periscian state ; 4 and with our light, our 
shadow, and darkness walk about us. Our contentments 
stand upon the tops of pyramids ready to fall off, and the 
insecurity of their enjoyments abrupteth our tranquillities. 
What we magnify is magnificent ; but, like to the Colossus* 
noble without, stuft with rubbage and coarse metal within. 
Even the sun, whose glorious outside we behold, may have 
dark and smoky entrails. In vain we admire the lustre of any 
thing seen : that which is truly glorious is invisible. Para- 
dise was but a part of the earth, lost not only to our fruition 
but our knowledge. And if, according to old dictates, no 
man can be said to be happy before death, the happiness of 
this life goes for nothing before it be over, and while we 
think ourselves happy we do but usurp that name. Certain- 
ly, true beatitude groweth not on earth, nor hath this world 
in it the expectations we have of it. He swims in oil, 5 and 
can hardly avoid sinking, who hath such light foundations to 
support him : 'tis, therefore, happy that we have two worlds 
to hold on. To enjoy true happiness, we must travel into a 
very far country, and even out of ourselves ; for the pearl we 
seek for is not to be found in the Indian but in the Empy- 
rean ocean. 6 

Sect. xii. — Answer not the spur of fury, and be not pro- 
digal or prodigious in revenge. Make not one in the Historia 
Horribilis ,•* flay not thy servant for a broken glass, 7 nor 

* A book so intitled, wherein are sundry horrid accounts. 

* periscian stale. ] "With shadows all light fluid, cannot support any heavy 

around us." The Periscii are those who, body. — Dr. J. 

living within the polar circle, see the sun 6 Empyrean ocean."] In the expanses 

move round them, and, consequently, of the highest heaven. — Dr. J. 

project their shadows in all directions. — 7 flay not thy servant, Sfc.] When 

Dr. J. Augustus supped with one of the Roman 

5 He swims in oil.~\ Which being a senators, a slave happened to break a 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 101 

pound him in a mortar who offendeth thee ; 8 supererogate 
not in the worst sense, and overdo not the necessities of evil ; 
humour not the injustice of revenge. Be not stoically mis- 
taken in the equality of sins, nor commutatively iniquitous 
in the valuation of transgressions; but weigh them in the 
scales of heaven, and by the weights of righteous reason. 
Think that revenge too high, which is but level with the of- 
fence. Let thy arrows of revenge fly short ; or be aimed 
like those of Jonathan, to fall beside the mark. Too many 
there be to whom a dead enemy smells well, and who find 
musk and amber in revenge. The ferity of such minds holds 
no rule in retaliations, requiring too often a head for a tooth, 
and the supreme revenge for trespasses which a night's rest 
should obliterate. But patient meekness takes injuries like 
pills, not chewing but swallowing them down, laconically suf- 
fering, and silently passing them over ; while angered pride 
makes a noise, like Homerican Mars,* at every scratch of of- 
fences. Since women do most delight in revenge, 9 it may 
seem but feminine manhood to be vindictive. If thou must needs 
have thy revenge of thine enemy, with a soft tongue break 
his bones,f heap coals of fire on his head, forgive him and 
enjoy it. To forgive our enemies is a charming way of re- 
venge, and a short Caesarian conquest overcoming without a 
blow ; laying our enemies at our feet, under sorrow, shame, 
and repentance ; leaving our foes our friends, and sollicitously 
inclined to grateful retaliations. Thus to return upon our 
adversaries, is a healing way of revenge ; and to do good for 

* Tu miser exclamas, ut Stentora vincere possis 
Vel potius quantum Gradivus Homericus. — Juv. 
Thus translated by Creech : — 

You rage and storm, and, blasphemously loud, 
As Stentor bellowing to the Grecian crowd, 

Or Homer's Mars. 

f A soft tongue breaketh the bones. — Prov. xxv. 15. 



glass, for which his master ordered him 9 Since women, SfcJ] 

to be thrown into his pond to feed his „ . „ — : -Minuti 

, __ . / . , ,. semper et mfirmi est animi exismque voluntas 

lampreys. Augustus, to punish his cru- uitio — Sic collige, quod vindicta 

elty. ordered all the glasses in the house Nemo magis gaudet, quam foemina.— Juv. 

to be broken. — Dr. J. Revenge ! which still we find 

8 nor pound him in a mortar, &c.~\ The weakest frailty of a feeble mind. 

»„„„ \, j. v-i v Degenerous passion, and for man too base, 

Anaxarchus, an ancient philosopher, was u 6eats itsempireinthefemalerace.-CREECH; 
beaten in a mortar by a tyrant. — Dr. J. 



102 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

evil a soft and melting ultion, a method taught from heaven, 1 
to keep all smooth on earth. Common forceable ways make 
not an end of evil, but leave hatred and malice behind them. 2 
An enemy thus reconciled is little to be trusted, as wanting 
the foundation of love and charity, and but for a time re- 
strained by disadvantage or inability. If thou hast not mercy 
for others, yet be not cruel unto thyself. To ruminate upon 
evils, to make critical notes upon injuries, and be too acute in 
their apprehensions, is to add unto our own tortures, to 
feather the arrows of our enemies, to lash ourselves with the 
scorpions of our foes, and to resolve to sleep no more ; for 
injuries long dreamt on, take away at last all rest ; and he 
sleeps but like Regulus, who busieth his head about them. 

Sect. xiii. — Amuse not thyself about the riddles of future 
things. Study prophecies when they are become histories, 
and past hovering in their causes. Eye well things past and 
present, and let conjectural sagacity suffice for things to 
come. There is a sober latitude for prescience in contingen- 
cies of discoverable tempers, whereby discerning heads see 
sometimes beyond their eyes, and wise men become propheti- 
cal. Leave cloudy predictions to their periods, and let ap- 
pointed seasons have the lot of their accomplishments. 'Tis 
too early to study such prophecies before they have been 
long made, before some train of their causes have already 
taken fire, lay open in part what lay obscure and befoi*e 
buried unto us. For the voice of prophecies is like that of 
whispering-places : they who are near, or at a little distance, 
hear nothing ; those at the farthest extremity will understand 
all. But a retrograde cognition of times past, and things 
which have already been, is more satisfactory than a suspend- 
ed knowledge of what is yet unexistent. And the greatest 
part of time being already wrapt up in things behind us; it's 
now somewhat late to bait after things before us ; for futurity 
still shortens, and time present sucks in time to come. What 
is prophetical in one age proves historical in another, and so 
must hold on unto the last of time ; when there will be no room 

1 from heaven.'] " Not to be learned but leave unquietness in the other, — of a 
elsewhere." — MS. Sloan. 1847. seeming friend making but a close ad- 

2 behind them.] "Quiet one parly, versary.." — MS. Sloan. 1847. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 103 

for prediction, when Janus shall lose one face, and the long 
beard of time shall look like those of David's servants, shorn 
away upon one side ; and when, if the expected Elias should 
appear, he might say much of what is past, not much of what's 
to come. 

Sect. xiv. — Live unto the dignity of thy nature, and leave 
it not disputable at last, whether thou hast been a man ; or, 
since thou art a composition of man and beast, how thou hast 
predominantly passed thy days, to state the denomination. 
Un-man not, therefore, thyself by a bestial transformation, 
nor realize old fables. Expose not thyself by four-footed 
manners unto monstrous draughts, and caricature representa- 
tions. Think not after the old Pythagorean conceit, what 
beast thou may'st be after death. Be not under any brutal 
metempsychosis, 3 while thou livest and walkest about erectly 
under the scheme of man. In thine own circumference, as in 
that of the earth, let the rational horizon be larger than the 
sensible, and the circle of reason than of sense : let the divine 
part be upward, and the region of beast below ; otherwise, 
't is but to live invertedly, and with thy head unto the heels of 
thy antipodes. Desert not thy title to a divine particle and 
union with invisibles. Let true knowledge and virtue tell the 
lower world thou art a part of the higher. Let thy thoughts 
be of things which have not entered into the hearts of beasts : 
think of things long past, and long to come : acquaint thyself 
with the choragium 4 of the stars, and consider the vast expan- 
sion beyond them. Let intellectual tubes give thee a glance 
of things which visive organs reach not. Have a glimpse of 
incomprehensibles ; and thoughts of things, which thoughts 
but tenderly touch. Lodge immaterials in thy head ; ascend 
unto invisibles ; fill thy spirit with spirituals, with the myste- 
ries of faith, the magnalities of religion, and thy life with the 
honour of God ; without which, though giants in wealth and 
dignity, we are but dwarfs and pygmies in humanity, and may 
hold a pitiful rank in that triple division of mankind into 
heroes, men, and beasts. For though human souls are said to 
be equal, yet is there no small inequality in their operations ; 

3 metempsychosis, 8fC.~\ See page 83, 4 choragium.'] Dance. — Dr. J. 
note 7 . — Dr. J. 



104 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

some maintain the allowable station of men; many are far 
below it ; and some have been so divine, as to approach the 
apogeum 5 of their natures, and to be in the confinium of 
spirits. 

Sect. xv. — Behold thyself by inward opticks and the crys- 
talline of thy soul. 6 Strange it is, that in the most perfect 
sense there should be so many fallacies, that we are fain to 
make a doctrine, and often to see by art. But the greatest 
imperfection is in our inward sight, that is, to be ghosts unto 
our own eyes ; and while we are so sharp-sighted as to look 
through others, to be invisible unto ourselves ; for the inward 
eyes are more fallacious than the outward. The vices we scoff 
at in others, laugh at us within ourselves. Avarice, pride, 
falsehood lie undiscerned and blindly in us, even to the age of 
blindness ; and, therefore, to see ourselves interiorly, we are 
fain to borrow other men's eyes ; wherein true friends are 
good informers, and censurers no bad friends. Conscience 
only, that can see without light, sits in the areopagy 7 and dark 
tribunal of our hearts, surveying our thoughts and condemn- 
ing their obliquities. Happy is that state of vision that can 
see without light, though all should look as before the cre- 
ation, when there was not an eye to see, or light to actuate a 
vision : wherein, notwithstanding, obscurity is only imaginable 
respectively unto eyes ; for unto God there was none : eternal 
light was ever ; created light was for the creation, not himself; 
and, as he saw before the sun, may still also see without it. 
In the city of the new Jerusalem there is neither sun nor 
moon ; where glorified eyes must see by the archetypal sun, 8 or 
the light of God, able to illuminate intellectual eyes, and 
make unknown visions. Intuitive perceptions in spiritual 
beings may, perhaps, hold some analogy unto vision : but yet 
how they see us, or one another, what eye, what light, or what 
perception is required unto their intuition, is yet dark unto our 
apprehension ; and even how they see God, or how unto our 
glorified eyes the beatifical vision will be celebrated, another 



5 apogeum, fyc.] To the utmost point crystalline humour of the eye. — Dr. J. 
of distance from earth and earthly 7 areopagy.] The great court, like 
things. — Dr. J. the Areopagus of Athens. — Dr. J. 

6 crystalline, Sfc] Alluding to the 8 . archetypal sun.'] Original. — Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 105 

world must tell us, when perceptions will be new, and we may 
hope to behold invisibles. 

Sect. xvi. — When all looks fair about, and thou seest not 

i a cloud so big as a hand to threaten thee, forget not the 

; wheel of things : think of sullen vicissitudes, but beat not thy 
brains to foreknow them. Be armed against such obscurities, 

■ rather by submission than fore-knowledge. The knowledge 
of future evils mortifies present felicities, and there is more 
content in the uncertainty or ignorance of them. This favour 
our Saviour vouchsafed unto Peter, when he foretold not his 
death in plain terms, and so by an ambiguous and cloudy de- 

! livery damped not the spirit of his disciples. But in the assured 
fore-knowledge of the deluge, Noah lived many years under 
the affliction of a flood ; and Jerusalem was taken unto Jere- 

i my, before it was besieged. And, therefore, the wisdom of 
astrologers, who speak of future things, hath wisely softened 

I the severity of their doctrines ; and even in their sad predic- 

i tions, while they tell us of inclination not coaction from the 
stars, they kill us not with Stygian oaths and merciless neces- 
sity, but leave us hopes of evasion. 

Sect. xvii. — If thou hast the brow to endure the name of 
traitor, perjured, or oppressor, yet cover thy face when in- 
gratitude is thrown at thee. If that degenerous vice possess 
thee, hide thyself in the shadow of thy shame, and pollute 
not noble society. Grateful ingenuities are content to be 
obliged within some compass of retribution ; and being de- 
pressed by the weight of iterated favours, may so labour 

! under their inabilities of requital, as to abate the content 
from kindnesses. But narrow self-ended souls make pre- 
scription of good offices, and obliged by often favours think 

! others still due unto them : whereas, if they but once fail, 
they prove so perversely ungrateful, as to make nothing of 

i former courtesies, and to bury all that's past. Such tempers 

) pervert the generous course of things ; for they discourage 
the inclinations of noble minds, and make beneficency cool 
unto acts of obligation, whereby the grateful world should 
subsist, and have their consolation. Common gratitude must 
be kept alive by the additionary fuel of new courtesies : but 
generous gratitudes, though but once well obliged, without 



106 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

quickening repetitions or expectation of new favours, have 
thankful minds for ever ; for they write not their obligations 
in sandy but marble memories, which wear not out but with 
themselves. 

Sect, xviii. — Think not silence the wisdom of fools ; but, 
if rightly timed, the honour of wise men, who have not the 
infirmity, but the virtue of taciturnity ; and speak not out of 
the abundance, but the well-weighed thoughts of their 
hearts. Such silence may be eloquence, and speak thy 
worth above the power of words. Make such a one thy 
friend, in whom princes may be happy, and great counsels 
successful. Let him have the key of thy heart, who hath 
the lock of his own, which no temptation can open ; where 
thy secrets may lastingly lie, like the lamp in Olybius's urn,* 
alive, and light, but close and invisible. 

Sect. xix. — Let thy oaths be sacred, and promises be 
made upon the altar of thy heart. Call not Jove f to witness, 
with a stone in one hand, and a straw in another; and so 
make chaff and stubble of thy vows. Worldly spirits, whose 
interest is their belief, make cobwebs of obligations ; and, if 
they can find ways to elude the urn of the Praetor, 9 will 
trust the thunderbolt of Jupiter: and, therefore, if they 
should as deeply swear as Osman to Bethlem Gabor;J yet 
whether they would be bound by those chains, and not find 
ways to cut such Gordian knots, we could have no just as- 
surance. But honest men's words are Stygian oaths, and 
promises inviolable. These are not the men for whom the 
fetters of law were first forged ; they needed not the solem- 
ness of oaths ; by keeping their faith they swear, and evacu- 
ate such confirmations. § 

Sect. xx. — Though the world be histrionical, and most 
men live ironically, yet be thou what thou singly art, and per- 

* Which after many hundred years was found burning under ground, and went 
out as soon as the air came to it. 

t Jovem lapidem jurare. 
X See the oath of Sultan Osman, in his life, in the addition to Knolls's Turkish 
history. 

§ Colendo fidem jurant. — Curtius. 

9 to elude the urn of the Pr(rtor.~\ condemnation or acquittal was cast.' 
The vessel, into which the ticket of Dr. J. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 107 

ionate only thyself. Swim smoothly in the stream of thy 
lature, and live but one man. To single hearts doubling is 
discruciating : such tempers must sweat to dissemble, and 
prove but hypocritical hypocrites. Simulation must be short: 
men do not easily continue a counterfeiting life, or dissemble 
unto death. He who counterfeiteth, acts a part ; and is, as 
it were, out of himself: which, if long, proves so irksome, 
that men are glad to pull off their vizards, and resume them- 
selves again ; no practice being able to naturalize such un- 
naturals, or make a man rest content not to be himself. And, 
therefore, since sincerity is thy temper, let veracity be thy 
virtue, in words, manners, and actions. To offer at iniqui- 
ties, which have so little foundations in thee, were to be vici- 
ous up-hill, and strain for thy condemnation. Persons vici- 
ously inclined, want no wheels to make them actively vicious; 
as having the elater and spring of their own natures to facili- 
tate their iniquities. And, therefore, so many, who are 
sinistrous unto good actions, are ambi-dexterous unto bad ; 
and Vulcans in virtuous paths, Achilleses in vicious motions. 

Sect. xxi. — Rest not in the high-strained paradoxes of 
old philosophy, supported by naked reason, and the reward 
of mortal felicity ; but labour in the ethics of faith, built 
upon heavenly assistance, and the happiness of both beings. 
Understand the rules, but swear not unto the doctrines of 
Zeno or Epicurus. 1 Look beyond Antoninus, and terminate 
not thy morals in Seneca or Epictetus. 2 Let not the twelve 
but the two tables be thy law : let Pythagoras be thy remem- 
brancer, not thy textuary and final instructer : and learn the 
vanity of the world, rather from Solomon than Phocylydes. 3 
Sleep not in the dogmas of the Peripatus, Academy, or Por- 
ticus. 4 Be a moralist of the mount, 5 an Epictetus in the faith, 
and christianize thy notions. 

Sect. xxii. — In seventy or eighty years, a man may have 
a deep gust of the world; know what it is, what it can afford, 

1 Epicurus.] The authors of the Sto- 4 Peripatus, 8fc.~\ Three schools of 
ical and Epicurean philosophy. — Dr. J. philosophy. — Dr. J. 

2 Antoninus, #c] Stoical philoso- 5 mount.'] That is, according to the 
phers. — Dr. J. rules laid down in our Saviour's sermon 

3 Phocylydes.'] A writer of moral on the mount. — Dr. J. 
sentences in verse. — Dr. J. 



108 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

and what 'tis to have been a man. Such a latitude of years 
may hold a considerable corner in the general map of time; 
and a man may have a curt epitome of the whole course 
thereof in the days of his own life ; may clearly see he hath 
but acted over his forefathers ; what it was to live in ages past, 
and what living will be in all ages to come. 

He is like to be the best judge of time, who hath lived to 
see about the sixtieth part thereof. Persons of short times 
may know what 't is to live, but not the life of man, who, 
having little behind them, are but Januses of one face, and 
know not singularities enough to raise axioms of this world : 
but such a compass of years will shew new examples of old 
things, parallelisms of occurrences through the whole course 
of time, and nothing be monstrous unto him ; who may in 
that time understand not only the varieties of men, but the 
variation of himself, and how many men he hath been in that 
extent of time. 

He may have a close apprehension what is to be forgotten, 
while he hath lived to find none who could remember his 
father, or scarce the friends of his youth ; and may sensibly 
see with what a face in no long time oblivion will look upon 
himself. His progeny may never be his posterity ; he may go 
out of the world less related than he came into it ; and con- 
sidering the frequent mortality in friends and relations, in 
such a term of time, he may pass away divers years in sorrow 
and black habits, and leave none to mourn for himself; orbity 
may be his inheritance, and riches his repentance. 

In such a thread of time, and long observation of men, he 
may acquire a physiognomical intuitive knowledge ; judge the 
interiors by the outside, and raise conjectures at first sight; 
and knowing what men have been, what they are, what chil- 
dren probably will be, may in the present age behold a good) 
part and the temper of the next ; and since so many live by 
the rules of constitution, and so few overcome their tempera- 
mental inclinations, make no improbable predictions. 

Such a portion of time will afford a large prospect back- 
ward, and authentic reflections how far he hath performed 
the great intention of his being, in the honour of his Maker : 
whether he hath made good the principles of his nature, and 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 109 

Lwhat he was made to be; what characteristic and special mark 
!:he hath left, to be observable in his generation; whether he 
khath lived to purpose or in vain ; and what he hath added, 
jracted, or performed, that might considerably speak him a 
man. 

In such an age, delights will be undelightful, and plea- 
sures grow stale unto him; antiquated theorems will revive, 
sand Solomon's maxims 6 be demonstrations unto him ; hopes 
, or presumptions be over, and despair grow up of any satis- 
faction below. And. having been long tossed in the ocean of 
: this world, he will by that time feel the in-draught of another, 
unto which this seems but preparatory, and without it of no 
s high value. He will experimentally find the emptiness of all 
i things, and the nothing of what is past ; and wisely ground- 
<ing upon true Christian expectations, finding so much past, 
j will wholly fix upon what is to come. He will long for per- 
petuity, and live as though he made haste to be happy. The 
, last may prove the prime part of his life, and those his best 
| days which he lived nearest heaven. 

, Sect, xxiii.— Live happy in the Elysium of a virtuously 
j composed mind, and let intellectual contents exceed the de- 
lights wherein mere pleasurists place their paradise. Bear 
not too slack reins upon pleasure, nor let complexion or con- 
i tagion betray thee unto the exorbitancy of delight. Make 
pleasure thy recreation or intermissive relaxation, not thy 
Diana, life, and profession. Voluptuousness is as insatiable 
as covetousness. Tranquillity is better than jollity, and to 
appease pain than to invent pleasure. Our hard entrance 
into the world, our miserable going out of it, our sicknesses, 
disturbances, and sad rencounters in it, do clamorously tell 
us we come not into the world to run a race of delight, but to 
perform the sober acts and serious purposes of man ; which 
to omit were foully to miscarry in the advantage of humanity, 
to play away an uniterable life, and to have lived in vain. 
Forget not the capital end, and frustrate not the opportunity 
of once living. Dream not of any kind of metempsychosis 7 

6 Solomon's maxims.'] That all is 7 metempsychosis.'] See note 7 , page 
vanity.— Dr. J, S3.— Dr. J. 



1 I CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

or transanimation, but into thine own body, and that after a 
long time ; and then also unto wail or bliss, according to thy 
first and fundamental life. Upon a curricle in this world de- 
pends a long course of the next, and upon a narrow scene 
here an endless expansion hereafter. In vain some think to 
have an end of their beings with their lives. Things cannot 
get out of their natures, or be or not be in despite of their 
constitutions. Rational existences in heaven perish not at all, 
and but partially on earth : that which is thus once, will in 
some way be always : the first living human soul is still alive, 
and all Adam hath found no period. 

Sect. xxiv. — Since the stars of heaven do differ in glory ; 
since it hath pleased the Almighty hand to honour the north 
pole with lights above the south ; since there are some stars 
so bright that they can hardly be looked on, some so dim that 
they can scarce be seen, and vast numbers not to be seen at 
all, even by artificial eyes ; read thou the earth in heaven, and 
things below from above. Look contentedly upon the scat- 
tered difference of things, and expect not equality in lustre, 
dignity, or perfection, in regions or persons below ; where nu- 
merous numbers must be content to stand like lacteous or 
nebulous stars, little taken notice of, or dim in their genera- 
tions. All which may be contentedly allowable in the affairs 
and ends of this world, and in suspension unto what will be 
in the order of things hereafter, and the new system of man- 
kind which will be in the world to come ; when the last may 
be the first, and the first the last; when Lazarus may sit I 
above Csesar, and the just, obscure on earth, shall shine like 
the sun in heaven ; when personations shall cease, and his- 
trionism of happiness be over ; when reality shall rule, and all 
shall be as they shall be for ever. 

Sect. xxv. — When the stoic said that life * would not be 
accepted, if it were offered unto such as knew it, he spoke 
too meanly of that state of being which placeth us in the form 
of men. It more depreciates the value of this life, that men 
would not live it over again ; for although they would still live 
on, yet few or none can endure to think of being twice the 
same men upon earth, and some had rather never have lived 

* Vitam nemo acciperet, si daretur scicntibus. — Seneca. 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. Ill 

than to tread over their days once more. Cicero in a pros- 
perous state had not the patience to think of beginning in a 
cradle again. 8 Job would not only curse the day of his nati- 
vity, but also of his renascency, if he were to act over his dis- 
asters and the miseries of the dunghill. But the greatest 
underweening of this life is to undervalue that, unto which 
this is but exordial or a passage leading unto it. The great 
advantage of this mean life is thereby to stand in a capacity 
of a better ; for the colonies of heaven must be drawn from 
earth, and the sons of the first Adam are only heirs unto the 
second. Thus Adam came into this world with the power 
also of another ; not only to replenish the earth, but the ever- 
lasting mansions of heaven. Where we were when the foun- 
dations of the earth were laid, when the morning stars sang 
together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy,* He must 
answer who asked it ; who understands entities of preordina- 
tion, and beings yet unbeing; who hath in his intellect 
the ideal existences of things, and entities before their ex- 
tances. Though it looks but like an imaginary kind of exis- 
tency, to be before we are ; yet since we are under the decree 
or prescience of a sure and omnipotent power, it may be 
somewhat more than a non-entity, to be in that mind, unto 
which all things are present. 

Sect. xxvi. — If the end of the world shall have the same 
foregoing signs, as the period of empires, states, and dominions 
in it, that is, corruption of manners, inhuman degenerations, 
and deluge of iniquities; it may be doubted, whether that 
final time be so far off, of whose day and hour there can be 
no prescience. But while all men doubt, and none can de- 
termine how long the world shall last, some may wonder that 
it hath spun out so long and unto our days. For if the Al- 
mighty had not determined a fixed duration unto it, accord- 
ing to his mighty and merciful designments in it ; if he had 
not said unto it, as he did unto a part of it, hitherto shalt thou 
go and no farther ; if we consider the incessant and cutting 

* Job xxxviii. 



8 Cicero, ^-c] Si quis Deus mihi vagiam, valde recusem. — Cie. de Senec- 
largiatur, ut repuerascam et in cunis tute. — Dr. J. 



112 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

provocations from the earth ; it is not without amazement, 
how his patience hath permitted so long a continuance unto 
it ; how he, who cursed the earth in the first days of the first 
man, and drowned it in the tenth generation after, should 
thus lastingly contend with flesh, Jind yet defer the last flames. 
For since he is sharply provoked every moment, yet punish- 
eth to pardon, and forgives to forgive again ; what patience 
could be content to act over such vicissitudes, or accept of 
repentances which must have after-penitences, his goodness 
can only tell us. And surely if the patience of heaven were 
not proportionable unto the provocations from earth, there 
needed an intercessor not only for the sins, but the duration 
of this world, and to lead it up unto the present computation. 
Without such a merciful longanimity, the heavens would 
never be so aged as to grow old like a garment. It were in 
vain to infer from the doctrine of the sphere, that the time 
might come, when Capella, a noble northern star, would have 
its motion in the equator ; that the northern zodiacal signs 
would at length be the southern, the southern the northern, 
and Capricorn become our Cancer. However, therefore, the 
wisdom of the creator hath ordered the duration of the world, 
yet since the end thereof brings the accomplishment of our 
happiness, since some would be content that it should have 
no end, since evil men and spirits do fear it may be too short, 
since good men hope it may not be too long ; the prayer of 
the saints under the altar will be the supplication of the right- 
eous world, that his mercy would abridge their languishing 
expectation, and hasten the accomplishment of their happy 
state to come. 

Sect, xxvii. — Though good men are often taken away 
from the evil to come ; though some in evil days have been 
glad that they were old, nor long to behold the iniquities of a 
wicked world, or judgments threatened by them ; yet is it no 
small satisfaction unto honest minds, to leave the world in 
virtuous well-tempered times, under a prospect of good to 
come, and continuation of worthy ways acceptable unto God 
and man. Men who die in deplorable days, which they re- 
gretfully behold, have not their eyes closed with the like con- 
tent ; while they cannot avoid the thoughts of proceeding or 



CHRISTIAN MORALS. 113 

growing enormities, displeasing unto that spirit unto whom 
they are then going, whose honour they desire in all times and 
throughout all generations. If Lucifer could be freed from 
his dismal place, he would little care though the rest were 
left behind. Too many there may be of Nero's mind, 9 who, 
if their own turn were served, would not regard what became 
of others; and when they die themselves, care not if all 
perish. But good men's wishes extend beyond their lives, 
for the happiness of times to come, and never to be known 
unto them. And, therefore, while so many question prayers 
for the dead, they charitably pray for those who are not yet 
alive ; they are not so enviously ambitious to go to heaven by 
themselves ; they cannot but humbly wish, that the little flock 
might be greater, the narrow gate wider, and that, as many 
are called, so not a few might be chosen. 

Sect, xxviii. — That a greater number of angels remained 
in heaven, than fell from it, the school-men will tell us ; that 
the number of blessed souls will not come short of that vast 
number of fallen spirits, we have the favourable calculation of 
others. What age or century hath sent most souls unto heaven, 
he can tell who vouch safe th that honour unto them. Though 
the number of the blessed must be complete before the world 
can pass away ; yet since the world itself seems in the wane, 
and we have no such comfortable prognosticks of latter times ; 
since a greater part of time is spun than is to come, and the 
blessed roll already much replenished ; happy are those pie- 
ties, which solicitously look about, and hasten to make one 
of that already much filled and abbreviated list to come. 

Sect. xxix. — Think not thy time short in this world, since 
the world itself is not long. The created world is but a small 
parenthesis in eternity, and a short interposition, for a time, 
between such a state of duration as was before it and may 
be after it. And if we should allow of the old tradition, that 
the world should last six thousand years, it could scarce have 
the name of old, since the first man lived near a sixth part 
thereof, and seven Methuselahs would exceed its whole 

9 Neiv's mind.'] Nero often had this dead, let the earth and fire be jumbled 
eaying in his mouth, 'E/xou ^dvovrog together." — Dr. J. 
fata (U-x&firui irtyi " when I am once 

VOL. IV. 1 



114 CHRISTIAN MORALS. 

duration. However, to palliate the shortness of our lives, 
and somewhat to compensate our brief term in this world, 
it 's good to know as much as we can of it ; and also, so far as 
possibly in us lieth, to hold such a theory of times past, as 
though we had seen the same. He who hath thus considered 
the world, as also how therein things long past have been an- 
swered by things present ; how matters in one age have been 
acted over in another ; and how there is nothing new under the 
sun ; may conceive himself in some manner to have lived from 
the beginning, and to be as old as the world ; and if he should 
still live on, 'twould be but the same thing. 

Sect, xxx. 1 — Lastly ; ~ if length of days be thy portion, 
make it not thy expectation. Reckon not upon long life : 
think every day the last, and live always beyond thy account. 
He that so often surviveth his expectation lives many lives, 
and will scarce complain of the shortness of his days. Time 
past is gone like a shadow ; make time to come present. Ap- 
proximate thy latter times by present apprehensions of them : 
be like a neighbour unto the grave, and think there is but 
little to come. And since there is something of us that will 
still live on ; join both lives together, and live in one but for 
the other. He who thus ordereth the purposes of this life, 
will never be far from the next ; and is in some manner al- 
ready in it, by a happy conformity, and close apprehension 
of it. And if, as we have elsewhere declared, 3 any have 
been so happy, as personally to understand christian annihi^ 
lation, extacy, exolution, transformation, the kiss of the spouse, 
and ingression into the divine shadow, according to mystical 
-theology, they have already had an handsome anticipation of; 
heaven ; the world is in a manner over, and the earth in ashes 
unto them. 

1 Sect, xxx.] This Section, termi- 3 declared.] In his treatise of Urn- 
nating at the words " and close appre- burial. Some other parts of these essays 
hension of it," concludes the Letter to a are printed in a letter among Browne's 
Friend. — Dr. J. Posthumous Works. Those references to 

2 Las/iyl his own books prove these essays to be 
Omnera crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum, genuine. — Dr. J. 

Grata superveniet quaj non sperabitur hora. J n tne p res ent edition, the "other 

_ ,. .. . ■ , . , parts" here mentioned are pointed out, 

Believe, thnt ev rv morning s ray * , _ _. r r ' 

Hath lighted up thy latest day; and some passages from Ihe Letter to a 

Then, if tomorrow's sun be thine, • Friend, are given, which were not includ- 
With double lustre shall it shine. , . ™ . .. ,V . 

Francis.— Dr. J. ed in Christian Morals. 



jWtecellanp Cracts, 

ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 

1684. 



jftfecellantes* 



ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED WITH HIS POSTHUMOUS WORKS IN 

1712. 



I 2 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 



Most of these Tracts were (as Archbishop Tenison re- 
marks in his preface,) Letters, in reply to enquiries addressed 
to the author, by various, and some very eminent corre- 
spondents. The second, "Of Garlands, 8fc." was written to 
Evelyn, as I find from his own hand-writing, in the margin of 
his copy of the original edition. On the same authority, 
(probably from the information of Sir Thomas himself,) we 
learn that the greater number were addressed to Sir 
Nicholas Bacon. See MS. Note in first page. The ninth, 
" Of Artificial Hills" was in reply to Sir William Dugdale. 

Such enquiries he delighted to satisfy ; and the immense 
stores of information amassed during a long life of curious 
reading, and inquisitive research, eminently qualified him for 
resolving questions on subjects the most dissimilar. Scarcely 
any could be brought before him, upon which he could not 
bring to bear the results of reiterated experiments, or of an 
extensive acquaintance with the most singular and recondite 
literature ; and, where these treasures failed him, there re- 
mained the inexhaustible resources of his own matchless 
fancy. 

The first and second Tracts have been collated with MS. 
Sloan. No. 1841 ; the eighth, tenth, and eleventh, with Nos. 
1827 and 1839 : the thirteenth with No. 1874 ; the twelfth 
with MS. Rawlinson, No. 58, in the Bodleian — and all 
the others with MS. Sloan. No. 1827. Whatever discre- 
pancies seemed of sufficient importance have been preserved 
in notes. 

The second edition were published with the folio edition of 
his works, in 1686 ; and none have since been re-printed, 



118 editor's preface. 

except Museum Clausum, which, with Hydriotaphia, and the 
Letter to a Friend, were published in a neat 18mo. volume, 
by Mr. Crossley, of Manchester. 

For the sake of keeping distinct the whole of the unpub- 
lished works, I have added to the Miscellany Tracts, his re- 
marks on Iceland, together with some miscellaneous observa- 
tions, which made their appearance in that ill-assorted collec- 
tion, the Posthumous Works, in 1712. 



THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER. 



The papers from which these Tracts were printed, were, 
a while since, delivered to me by those worthy persons, the 
lady and son of the excellent author. He himself gave no 
charge concerning his manuscripts, either for the suppressing 
or the publishing of them. Yet, seeing he had procured 
transcripts of them, and had kept those copies by him, it 
seemeth probable, that he designed them for public use. 

Thus much of his intention being presumed, and many who 
had tasted of the fruits of his former studies being covetous of 
more of the like kind ; also these Tracts having been perused 
and much approved of by some judicious and learned men ; I 
was not unwilling to be instrumental in fitting them for the 
press. 

To this end, I selected them out of many disordered pa- 
pers, and disposed them into such a method as they seemed 
capable of; beginning first with plants, going on to animals, 
proceeding farther to things relating to men, and concluding 
with matters of a various nature. 

Concerning the plants, I did, on purpose, forbear to range 
them (as some advised) according to their tribes and families; 
because, by so doing, I should have represented that as a 
studied and formal work, which is but a collection of occasi- 
onal essays. And, indeed, both this Tract, and those which 
follow, were rather the diversions than the labours of his pen: 
and, because he did, as it were, drop down his thoughts of a 
sudden, in those little spaces of vacancy which he snatched 
from those very many occasions which gave him hourly in- 
terruption. If there appears, here and there, any incor- 
rectness in the style, a small degree of candour sufficeth to 
excuse it. 

If there be any such errors in the words, I am sure the 
press has not made them fewer ; but I do not hold myself 
obliged to answer for that which I could not perfectly govern. 



120 THE PUBLISHER TO THE READER. 

However, the matter is not of any great moment: such 
errors will not mislead a learned reader ; and he who is not 
such in some competent degree, is not a fit peruser of these 
letters. Such these Tracts are; but, for the persons to 
whom they were written, I cannot well learn their names 
from those few obscure marks which the author has set at the 
beginning of them. And these essays being letters, as many 
as take offence at some few familiar things which the author 
hath mixed with them, find fault with decency. Men are 
not wont to set down oracles in every line they write to their 
acquaintance. 

There still remain other brief discourses written by this 
most learned and ingenious author. Those, also, may come 
forth, when some of his friends shall have sufficient leisure ; 
and at such due distance from these Tracts, that they may 
follow rather than stifle them. 

Amongst these manuscripts there is one which gives a brief 
account of all the monuments of the cathedral of Norwich. 
It was written merely for private use : and the relations of the 
author expect such justice from those into whose hands some 
imperfect copies of it are fallen, that, without their consent 
first obtained, they forbear the publishing of it. 

The truth is, matter equal to the skill of the antiquary, was 
not there afforded : had a fit subject of that nature offered 
itself, he would scarce have been guilty of an oversight like 
to that of Ausonius, who, in the description of his native 
city of Bordeaux, omitted the two famous antiquities of it, 
Palais de Tutele, and Palais de Galien. 

Concerning the author himself, I choose to be silent, though 
I have had the happiness to have been, for some years, 
known to him. There is on foot a design of writing his life ; 
and there are already, some memorials collected by one of 
his ancient friends. Till that work be perfected, the reader 
may content himself with these present Tracts; all which 
commending themselves by their learning, curiosity, and bre- 
vity, if he be not pleased with them, he seemeth to me to be 
distempered with such a niceness of imagination, as no wise 
man is concerned to humour. 

THOMAS TENISON. 



tscelianp Cractsu 



TRACT I. 1 

observations upon several plants mentioned in 
scripture. 

Sir, 
> 1 hough many ordinary heads run smoothly over the Scrip- 
ture, yet I must acknowledge it is one of the hardest books 
I have met with ; and therefore well deserveth those nu- 
merous comments, expositions, and annotations, which make 
up a good part of our libraries. 

However, so affected I am therewith, that I wish there had 
been more of it, and a larger volume of that divine piece, 
which leaveth such welcome impressions, and somewhat 
more, in the readers, than the words and sense after it. At 
least, who would not be glad that many things barely hinted 
were at large delivered in it ? The particulars of the dispute 
between the doctors and our Saviour could not but be wel- 
come to those who have every word in honour which pro- 
ceeded from his mouth, or was otherwise delivered by him ; 
and so would be glad to be assured, what he wrote with his 
finger on the ground : but especially to have a particular of 
that instructing narration or discourse which he made unto 
the disciples after his resurrection, where 'tis said: "And 

1 Tract i.] " Most of these letters in a copy formerly belonging to him, now 
were written to Sir Nicholas Bacon." — in the Editor's possession. 
MS. Note, written in pencil, by Evelyn, 



122 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

beginning at Moses, and all the prophets, he expounded 
unto them, in all the Scriptures, the things concerning 
himself." 

But, to omit theological obscurities, you must needs ob- 
serve that most sciences do seem to have something more 
nearly to consider in the expressions of the Scripture. 

Astronomers find herein the names but of few stars, scarce 
so many as in Achilles's buckler in Homer, and almost the 
very same. But in some passages of the Old Testament 
they think they discover the zodiacal course of the sun ; and 
they, also, conceive an astronomical sense in that elegant ex- 
pression of St. James " concerning the father of lights, with 
whom there is no variableness, neither shadow of turning :" 
and therein an allowable allusion unto the tropical conversion 
of the sun, whereby ensueth a variation of heat, light, and 
also of shadows from it. But whether the stellce erraticcs, 
or wandering stars, in St. Jude, may be referred to the ce- 
lestial planets or some metereological wandering stars, ignes 
fatui, stellce cadentes et erraticce, or had any allusion unto 
the impostor Barchochebas 3 or Stellas Filius, who afterward 
appeared, and wandered about in the time of Adrianus, they 
leave unto conjecture. 

Chirurgeons may find their whole art in that one passage, 
concerning the rib which God took out of Adam ; that is, 
their hiaig&ag in opening the flesh ; i|a/geflVs in taking out the 
rib ; and avvSsaig in closing and healing the part again. 

Rhetoricians and orators take singular notice of very many 
excellent passages, stately metaphors, noble tropes and ele- 
gant expressions, not to be found or paralleled in any other 
author. 

Mineralists look earnestly into the twenty-eighth of Job ; 
take special notice of the early artifice in brass and iron, 

2 Barchochebas.~\ One of the im- Bossuet supposes him to be the star 

postors who assumed the character of mentioned in the 8th chap, of Revelation. 
Messias ; he changed his true name, The apostle Jude more probably allucl- 

Bar-Coziba, son of a lie, to that of Bar- ed to the term 'star,' by which the Jews 

chochebas, son of a star ! He excited a often designated their teachers, and ap- 

revolt against the Romans which led to plied it here to some of the Christian 

a very sanguinary contest, terminating teachers, whose unholy motives, erroneous 

with his death, at the storming of Bither, doctrines, or wandering and unsettled 

by the Romans, under Julius Severus. habits exposed them to his rebuke. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 123 

under Tubal Cain : and find also mention of* gold, silver, 
brass, tin, lead, iron ; beside refining, soldering, dross, 3 nitre, 
salt-pits, and in some manner also of antimony.* 

Gemmary naturalists read diligently the precious stones in 
the holy city of the Apocalypse ; examine the breast plate of 
Aaron, and various gems upon it; and think the second row 4 
the nobler of the four. They wonder to find the art of en- 
gravery so ancient upon precious stones and signets; together 
with the ancient use of earrings and bracelets. And are 
pleased to find pearl, coral, amber, and crystal, in those 
sacred leaves, according to our translation. And when they 
often meet with flints and marbles, cannot but take notice 
that there is no mention of the magnet or loadstone, which 
in so many similitudes, comparisons, and allusions, could 
hardly have been omitted in the works of Solomon : if it 
were true that he knew either the attractive or directive 
power thereof, as some have believed. 

Navigators consider the ark, which was pitched without and 
within, and could endure the ocean without mast or sails : 
they take special notice of the twenty-seventh of Ezekiel ; the 
mighty traffic and great navigation of Tyre, with particular 
mention of their sails, their masts of cedar, oars of oak, their 
skilful pilots, mariners, and caulkers ; as also of the long voy- 
ages of the fleets of Solomon ; of Jehosaphat's ships broken 
at Ezion-Geber ; of the notable voyage and shipwreck of St. 
Paul so accurately delivered in the Acts. 

Oneirocritical diviners apprehend some hints of their know- 
ledge, even from divine dreams ; while they take notice of the 
dreams of Joseph, Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, and the angels 
on Jacob's ladder ; and find, in Artemidorus and Achmetes, 
that ladders signify travels, and the scales thereof preferment ; 
and that oxen lean and fat naturally denote scarcity or plenty, 
and the successes of agriculture. 

Physiognomists will largely put in from very many passages 
of scripture. And when they find in Aristotle, quibus frons 

* Deplnxit oculos slibio. 2 Kings ix, 30; Jereni. iv, 30; Ezek. xxiii, 40. 

3 dross.] MS. Sloan. 1841, adds, 4 second roiv.~\ The emerald, sap- 
" sulphur." phire, and diamond. 



124< OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT 1. 

quadrangula commensurata, fortes, refer untur ad leones, can- 
not but take special notice of that expression concerning the 
Gadites ; mighty men of war, fit for battle, whose faces were 
as the faces of lions. 

Geometrical and architectonical artists look narrowly upon 
the description of the ark, the fabric of the temple, and the 
holy city in the Apocalypse. 

But the botanical artist meets every where with vegetables, 
and from the fig leaf in Genesis to the star wormwood in the 
Apocalypse, are variously interspersed expressions from 
plants, elegantly advantaging the significancy of the text : 
whereof many being delivered in a language proper unto Ju- 
daaa and neighbour countries, are imperfectly apprehended 
by the common reader, and now doubtfully made out, even 
by the Jewish expositor. 

And even in those which are confessedly known, the ele- 
gancy is often lost in the apprehension of the reader, unac- 
quainted with such vegetables, or but nakedly knowing their 
natures : whereof holding a pertinent appi'ehension, you can- 
not pass over such expressions without some doubt or want of 
satisfaction 5 in your judgment. Hereof we shall only hint 
or discourse some few which I could not but take notice of 
in the reading of holy Scripture. 

Many plants are mentioned in Scripture which are not dis- 
tinctly known in our countries, or under such names in the 
original, as they are fain to be rendered by analogy, or by the 
name of vegetables of good affinity unto them, and so maintain 
the textual sense, though in some variation from identity. 

1. That plant which afforded a shade unto Jonah,* men- 
tioned by the name of kikaion, and still retained, at least 
marginally, in some translations, to avoid obscurity Jerome 
rendered hedera or ivy ; 6 which notwithstanding (except in 

* Jonah, iv, G. a gourd. 

5 want of satisfaction.] " Insatisfac- the ricinus ; and according to Dioscorides, 
tion." MS. Sloan. 1841. of rapid growth; bearing a berry from 

6 Jerome render cth ivy.~\ Augustine which an oil is expressed ; rising to the 
called it a gourd, and accused Jerome of height often or twelve feet, and furnish- 
heresy for the opinion he held. Yet ed with very large leaves, like those of 
they both seem to have been wrong. It the plane-tree; so that the people of the 
was in all probability the hilci of the East plant it before their shops for the 
Egyptians, a plant of the same family a.-- sake of its shade. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCIIIPTURE. 125 

its scandent nature) agreed not fully with the other, that is, 
to grow up in a night, or be consumed with a worm ; ivy being 
of no swift growth, little subject unto worms, and a scarce 
plant about Babylon. 

2. That hyssop 7 is taken for that plant which cleansed the 
leper, being a well scented and very abstersive simple, may 
well be admitted ; so we be not too confident, that it is strictly 
the same with our common hyssop : the hyssop of those parts 
differing from that of ours ; as Bellonius hath observed in the 
hyssop which grows in Judsea, and the hyssop of the wall 
mentioned in the works of Solomon, no kind of our hyssop ; 
and may tolerably be taken for some kind of minor capillary, 
which best makes out the antithesis with the cedar. Nor 
when we meet with libanotis, is it to be conceived our com- 
mon rosemary, which is rather the first kind thereof amongst 
several others, used by the ancients. 

3. That it must be taken for hemlock, which is twice so 
rendered in our translation,* will hardly be made out, other- 
wise than in the intended sense, and implying some plant, 
wherein bitterness or a poisonous quality is considerable. 

4. What Tremellius rendereth spina, and the vulgar trans- 
lation paliurus, and others make some kind of rhamnus, is al- 
lowable in the sense ; and we contend not about the species, 
since they are known thorns in those countries, and in our 
fields or gardens among us : and so common in Judaea, that 
men conclude the thorny crown 8 of our Saviour was made 
either of paliurus or rhamnus. 

5. Whether the bush which burnt and consumed not, were 
properly a rubus or bramble, was somewhat doubtful from 
the original and some translations, had not the Evangelist, 
and St. Paul expressed the same by the Greek word @drog, 
which, from the description of Dioscorides, herbarists accept 

* Hosea, x, 4 ; Amos, vi, 2. 

7 hyssop.] A diminutive herb of a 8 thorny crown.] Our Lord's crown 

very bitter taste, which Hasselquist men- was supposed by Bodseus and Theophy- 

tions as growing on the mountains near lact to have been made of some species 

Jerusalem, as well as on the walls of the of acacia. Hasselquist considers it to 

city. Pliny mentions it in connection have been the rhamnus, or nubca paliurus 

with the vinegar and the sponge. Nat. Athenci. ■ 
Hist, lib. xxiii, c. 1. 



126 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

for rubus ; although the same word fiarog expresseth not only 
the rubus or kinds of bramble, but other thorny bushes, and 
the hip-briar is also named xwoafi&ng, or the dog-briar or 
bramble. 

6. That myrica is rendered heath, 9 * sounds instructively 
enough to our ears, who behold that plant so common in bar- 
ren plains among us : but you cannot but take notice that 
erica, or our heath, is not the same plant with myrica or ta- 
marice, described by Theophrastus and Dioscorides, and 
which Bellonius declareth to grow so plentifully in the deserts 
of Judaea and Arabia. 

7. That the fiords rrjg xlvgov, botrus cypri, or clusters of cy- 
press, 1 f should have any reference to the cypress tree, accord- 
ing to the original, copJier, or clusters of the noble vine of 
Cyprus, which might be planted into Judaea, may seem to 
others allowable in some latitude. But there seeming some 
noble odour to be implied in this place, you may probably 
conceive that the expression drives at the xvirgog of Dioscorides, 
some oriental kind of ligustrum or alcharma, which Dios- 
corides and Pliny mention under the name of xu^eog and Cy- 
prus, and to grow about Egypt and Ascalon, producing a 
sweet and odorate bush of flowers, and out of which was 
made the famous oleum cyprinum. 

But why it should be rendered camphor your judgment 
cannot but doubt, who know that our camphor was unknown 
unto the ancients, and no ingredient into any composition of 
great antiquity : that learned men long conceived it a bitu- 
minous and fossil body, and our latest experience discovereth 
it to be the resinous substance of a tree, in Borneo and China ; 
and that the camphor that we use is a neat preparation of 
the same. 

8. When 'tis said in Isaiah xli, " I will plant in the wilder- 
ness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil 

* Myrica, Cant, i, 14. f Cant, i, 14. 

9 heath. - ] " Be as the heath in the tion, and others, consider the tree thus 

wilderness." — MS. Sloan. 1847. called in Isa. xliv, 14, to be rather the 

The lxx, in Jer. xlviii, 6, instead of wild oak, or ilex; Bishop Lowth and 

crur evidently read orud, ' a wild ass;' Parkhurst think the pine is intended, 

which suits that passage (as well as Jer. But the wood of the cypress was more 

xvii, C) better than "heath!" adapted to the purpose specified. 

' cypress."] Aijuila, the lxx, Thoodo- 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 127 

tree, I will set in the desert, the fir tree, and the pine, and 
the box tree: " though some doubt may be made of the shit- 
tah tree, 2 yet all these trees here mentioned being such as are 
ever green, you will more emphatically apprehend the mer- 
ciful meaning of God in this mention of no fading, but always 
verdant trees in dry and desert places. 

9. "And they cut down a branch with one cluster of 
grapes, 3 and they bare it between two upon a staff, and they 
brought pomegranates and figs." This cluster of grapes 
brought upon a staff by the spies was an incredible sight, in 
Philo Judaeus, seemed notable in the eyes of the Israelites, 
but more wonderful in our own, who look only upon northern 
vines. But herein you are like to consider, that the cluster 
was thus carefully carried to represent it entire, without 
bruising or breaking; that this was not one bunch, but an 
extraordinary cluster, made up of many depending upon one 
gross stalk. And, however, might be paralleled with the east- 
ern clusters of Margiana and Caramania, if we allow but half 
the expressions of Pliny and Strabo, whereof one would lade 
a curry or small cart ; and may be made out by the clusters 
of the grapes of Rhodes presented unto Duke Radzivil,* 
each containing three parts of an ell in compass, and the 
grapes as big as prunes. 

10. Some things may be doubted in the species of the 
holy ointment 4 and perfume.f With amber, musk, and civet 
we meet not in the Scripture, nor any odours from animals ; 
except we take the onycha of that perfume, for the covercle 
of a shell-fish, called unguis odoratus, or blatta byzantina, 
which Dioscorides affirmeth to be taken from a shell-fish of 
the Indian lakes, which feedeth upon the aromatical plants, 
is gathered when the lakes are dry. But whether that which 

* Radzivil in his Travels. f Exod. xxx, 34, 35. 

2 sJiittah-tree.] According to Dr. Religious, who had long resided in Pa- 
Shaw and others, it was the acacia bera, lestine, says, that there grew in the val- 
or spina Egyptiaca, which grows to about ley of Hebron bunches so large that 
the size of the mulberry, and produces two men could scarcely carry one. 
yellow flowers and pods like lupines. 4 holy ointment.] Frankincense was 

3 cluster of grapes.] Doubdan (Voy- one of the ingredients therein ; an aro- 
age de la Terre Sainte, ch. xxi) speaks matic gum produced by a tree not cer- 
of bunches weighing ten or twelve tainly known, called by the ancients 
pounds. Forster, on the authority of a thurifera. 



128 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

we now call blatta byzantina or unguis odoratus, be the same 
with that odorate one of antiquity, great doubt may be made ; 
since Dioscorides saith it smelled like castoreum, and that 
which we now have is of an ungrateful odour. 

No little doubt may be also made of galbanum 5 prescribed 
in the same perfume, if' we take it for galbanum, which is of 
common use among us, approaching the evil scent of assa- 
foetida; and not rather for galbanum of good odour, as the 
adjoining words declare, and the original chelbena will bear; 
which implieth a fat or resinous substance ; that which is 
commonly known among us being properly a gummous body 
and dissoluble also in water. 

The holy ointment of stacte or pure myrrh, 6 distilling from 
the plant without expression or firing, of cinnamon, cassia, 
and calamus, containeth less questionable species, if the cin- 
namon of the ancients were the same with ours, or managed 
after the same manner. For thereof Dioscorides made his 
noble unguent. And cinnamon was so highly valued by 
princes, that Cleopatra carried it unto her sepulchre with her 
jewels ; which was also kept in wooden boxes among the ra- 
rities of kings : and was of such a lasting nature, that at his 
composing of treacle for the Emperor Severus, Galen made 
use of some which had been laid up by Adrianus. 

11. That the prodigal son desired to eat of husks given 
unto swine, will hardly pass in your apprehension for the 
husks of pease, beans, or such edulious pulses ; as well 
understanding that the textual word xegdnov, or ceration, pro- 
perly intendeth the fruit of the siliqua tree, so common in 
Syria, and fed upon by men and beasts ; called also by some 
the fruit of the locust tree, and panis sancti Johannis, as con- 
ceiving it to have been part of the diet of the baptist in the 
desert. The tree and fruit is not only common in Syria and 
the eastern parts, but also well known in Apuleia and the 
kingdom of Naples ; growing along the Via Appia, from 

s galbanum.'] A gum issuing from 6 myrrh.'] The gum of a tree grow- 

an umbelliferous plant, growing in Per- ing in Egypt, Arabia, and Abyssinia : — 

sia and Africa; — when first drawn, white believed to possess the power of resisting 

and soft; — afterwards reddish; — of a putrefaction, and therefore used by the 

strong smell, bitter and acid, inflam- Jews and Egyptians in embalming, 
mable, and soluble in water. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 129 

Fundi unto Mola ; the hard cods or husks making a rattling 
noise in windy weather, by beating against one another : 
called by the Italians, caroba or carobala, and by the French, 
carouges. With the sweet pulp hereof some conceive that 
the Indians preserve ginger, mirabolans, and nutmegs. Of 
the same (as Pliny delivers) the ancients made one kind of 
wine, strongly expressing the juice thereof; and so they 
might after give the expressed and less useful part of the 
cods and remaining pulp unto their swine : which, being no 
gustless or unsatisfying offal, might be well desired by the 
prodigal in his hunger. 

12. No marvel it is that the Israelites, having lived long in 
a well-watered country, and been acquainted with the noble 
water of Nilus, should complain for water in the dry and bar- 
ren wilderness. More remarkable it seems that they should 
extol and linger after the cucumbers 7 and leeks, onions and 
garlick of Egypt ; wherein, notwithstanding, lies a pertinent 
expression of the diet of that country in ancient times, even as 
high as the building of the pyramids, when Herodotus de- 
livereth, that so many talents were spent in onions and garlick, 
for the food of labourers and artificers ; and is also answer- 
able unto their present plentiful diet in cucumbers, and the 
great varieties thereof, as testified by Prosper Alpinus, who 
spent many years in Egypt. 

13. What fruit that was which our first parents tasted in 
Paradise, from the disputes of learned men, seems yet inde- 
terminable. 8 More clear it is that they covered their naked- 
ness or secret parts with fig leaves ; 9 which, when I read, I 
cannot but call to mind the several considerations which anti- 
quity had of the fig tree, in reference unto those parts, 



7 cucumbers.'] Hasselquist thus de- yet known." — Hasselquist' s Trav-y. 258. 

scribes the cucumis chale, or queen of 8 yet interminable.] Jewish tradition 

cucumbers. "It grows in the fertile considers it to have been the citron, 

earth round Cairo, after the inundation which, in all probability, was the fruit 

of the Nile, and not in any other place spoken of in Cant. ii. 13, rather, than the 

in Egypt, nor in any other soil. It apple, as it is translated, 

ripens with water melons : its flesh is 9 Jig leaves.] The fig tree is called 

almost of the same substance, but is not taneh, or the "grief tree," from its 

near so cool. The grandees eat it as the rough leaves. Hence the Rabbins and 

most pleasant food they find, and that others represent Adam to have selected 

from which they have least to apprehend, it as a natural sackcloth, to express hi* 

Itis the most excellent of this tribe of any contrition. 

VOL. IV. K 



130 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

particularly how fig leaves, by sundry authors, are described 
to have some resemblance unto the genitals, and so were aptly 
formed for such contection of those parts ; how also, in that 
famous statua of Praxiteles, concerning Alexander and Bu- 
cephalus, the secret parts are veiled with fig leaves ; how this 
tree was sacred unto Priapus, and how the diseases of the 
secret parts have derived their name from figs. 

14. That the good Samaritan, coming from Jericho, used 
any of the Judean balsam 1 upon the wounded traveller, is not 
to be made out, and we are unwilling to disparage his charita- 
ble surgery in pouring oil into a green wound ; and, therefore, 
when 'tis said he used oil and wine, may rather conceive that 
he made an oinelceum, or medicine of oil and wine beaten up 
and mixed together, which was no improper medicine, and is 
an art now lately studied by some so to incorporate wine and 
oil, that they may lastingly hold together, which some pre- 
tend to have, and call it oleum Samaritanum, or Samaritan's 
oil. 

15. When Daniel would not pollute himself with the diet 
of the Babylonians, he probably declined pagan commensa- 
tion, or to eat of meats forbidden to the Jews, though com- 
mon at their tables, or so much as to taste of their Gentile im- 
molations, and sacrifices abominable unto his palate. 

But when 't is said that he made choice of the diet of pulse 2 
and water, whether he strictly confined unto a leguminous 
food, according to the vulgar translation, some doubt may be 
raised from the original word zeragnim, which signifies semi- 
nalia, and is so set down in the margin of Arias Montanus ; 
and the Greek word spermata, generally expressing seeds, 
may signify any edulious or cerealious grains besides off^ia or 
leguminous seeds. 

1 balsam.'] An evergreen, rising to mum, made by a decoction of the buds 
about fourteen feet high, indigenous in and young twigs. The tree has entirely 
Azab and all along the coast of Uabel- disappeared from Palestine, 
mandel ; bearing but few leaves, and 2 pulse.] Parched peas or corn ; both 
small white flowers, like those of the of which make part of the food of the 
acacia. Three kinds of balsam were ex- Eastern people. " On the road from Acra 
traded from this tree: — 1. The opobal- to Seide," says Hasselquist, "we saw a 
samum, the most valuable sort, which herdsman eating his dinner, consisting of 
flowed, on incision, from the trunk or half-ripe ears of wheat, which he toast- 
branches. 2. Carpobalsamum, from prcs- ed, and ate with as good an appetite as 
sure of the ripe fruit. 3. Hylobalsa- a Turk does his pillans." 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 131 

Yet, if he strictly made choice of a leguminous food, and 
water, instead of his portion from the king's table, he hand- 
somely declined the diet which might have been put upon 
him, and particularly that which was called the potibasis of 
the king, which, as Athenasus informeth, implied the bread of 
the king, made of barley, and wheat, and the wine of Cyprus, 
which he drank in an oval cup. And, therefore, distinctly 
from that he chose plain fare of water, and the gross diet of 
pulse, and that, perhaps, not made into bread, but parched 
and tempered with water. 

Now that herein (beside the special benediction of God) he 
made choice of no improper diet to keep himself fair and 
plump, and so to excuse the eunuch his keeper, physicians 
will not deny, who acknowledge a very nutritive and impin- 
guating faculty in pulses, in leguminous food, and in several 
sorts of grains and corns, is not like to be doubted by such 
who consider that this was probably a great part of the food 
of our forefathers before the flood, the diet also of Jacob ; 
and that the Romans (called, therefore, pultifagi) fed much 
on pulse for six hundred years ; that they had no bakers for 
that time : and their pistours were such as, before the use of 
mills, beat out and cleansed their corn. As also that the 
athletic diet was of pulse, alphiton, maza, barley and water ; 
whereby they were advantaged sometimes to an exquisite 
state of health, and such as was not without danger. And, 
therefore, though Daniel were no eunuch, and of a more fat- 
ning and thriving temper, as some have fancied, yet was he by 
this kind of diet sufficiently maintained in a fair and carnous 
state of body ; and, accordingly, his picture not improperly 
drawn, that is, not meagre and lean, like Jeremy's, but plump 
and fair, answerable to the most authentic draught of the 
Vatican, and the late German Luther's bible. 

The cynicks in Athenasus make iterated courses of lentils, 
and prefer that diet before the luxury of Seleucus. The pre- 
sent Egyptians, who are observed by Alpinus to be the fattest 
nation, and men to have breasts like women, owe much, as he 
conceiveth, unto the water of Nile, and their diet of rice, 
pease, lentils, and white cicers. The pulse-eating cynicks 
and stoicks are all very long livers in Laertius. And Daniel 

k 2 



132 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

must not be accounted of few years, who, being carried away 
captive in the reign of Joachim, by King Nebuchadnezzar, 
lived, by Scripture account, unto the first year of Cyrus. 

16. "And Jacob took rods of green poplar, and of the 
hazel, and the chesnut tree, and pilled white streaks in them, 
and made the white appear which was in the rods, &c." 
Men multiply the philosophy of Jacob, who beside the bene- 
diction of God, and the powerful effects of imagination, raised 
in the goats and sheep from pilled and party-coloured objects, 
conceive that he chose out these particular plants above any 
other, because he understood they had a particular virtue 
unto the intended effects, according unto the conception of 
Georgius Venetus.* 

Whereto you will hardly assent, at least till you be better 
satisfied and assured concerning the true species of the 
plants intended in the text, or find a clearer consent and uni- 
formity in the translation : for what we render poplar, hazel, 
and chesnut, the Greek translateth virgam styracinam, 
nucinam, plantaninam, which some also render a pomegranate ; 
and so observing this variety of interpretations concerning 
common and known plants among us, you may more reason- 
ably doubt, with what propriety or assurance others less 
known be sometimes rendered unto us. 

17. Whether in the sermon of the mount, the lilies of the 
field did point at the proper lilies, 3 or whether those flowers 
grew wild in the place where our Saviour preached, some 
doubt may be made ; because xg/vov, the word in that place, is 
accounted of the same signification with Xiipov, and that in 
Homer is taken for all manner of specious flowers; so re- 
ceived by Eustachius, Hesychius, and the scholiast upon 

* G. Venetus, Problem. 200. 

3 lilies.] "At a few miles from was sweet scented, and its smell, though 

Adowa, we discovered a new and beau- much more powerful, resembled that of 

tiful species of ainaryllis, which bore the lily of the valley. This superb plant 

from ten to twelve spikes of bloom on excited the admiration of the whole 

each stem, as large as those of the bella- party; and it brought immediately to my 

donna, springing from one common re- recollection the beautiful comparison used 

ceptacle. The general colour of the on a particular occasion by our Saviour, 

corolla was white, and every petal was ' I say unto you, that Solomon in all his 

marked with a single streak of bright glory was not arrayed like one of these.'" 

purple down the middle. The flower — Salt's Voyage to Abyssinia, p. 419. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 133 

Appollonius, Ko&o'Xou ra av^ri Xe/g/a Xsysrai. And xgim is also re- 
ceived in the same latitude, not signifying only lilies, but applied 
unto daffodils, hyacinths, irises, and the flowers of colocynthis. 

Under the like latitude of acception, are many expressions 
in the Canticles to be received. And when it is said " he 
feedeth among the lilies," therein may be also implied other 
specious flowers, not excluding the proper lilies. But in that 
expression, " the lilies drop forth myrrh," neither proper 
lilies nor proper myrrh can be apprehended, the one not pro- 
ceeding from the other, but may be received in a metaphori- 
cal sense : and in some latitude may be made out from the 
roscid and honey drops observable in the flowers of marta- 
gon, and inverted flowered lilies, and, 't is like, is the standing 
sweet dew on the white eyes of the crown imperial, now com- 
mon among us. 

And the proper lily may be intended in that expression of 
1 Kings, 7. that the brazen sea was of the thickness of a 
hand breadth, and the brim like a lily. For the figure of 
that flower being round at the bottom, and somewhat repan- 
dous, or inverted at the top, doth handsomely illustrate the 
comparison. 

But that the lily of the valley, mentioned in the Canticles, 
" I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valley," is that 
vegetable which passeth under the same name with us, that is 
lilium convallium, or the May lily, you will more hardly be- 
lieve, who know with what insatisfaction the most learned 
botanists reduce that plant unto any described by the ancients; 
that Anguillara will have it to be the cenanthe of Athenseus, 
Cordus, the pothos of Theophrastus, and Lobelius, that the 
Greeks had not described it ; who find not six leaves in the 
flower, agreeably to all lilies, but only six small divisions in the 
flower, who find it also to have a single, and no bulbous root, 
nor leaves shooting about the bottom, nor the stalk round, but 
angular. And that the learned Bauhinus hath not placed it 
in theclassis of lilies, but nervifolious plants. 

18. " Doth he not cast abroad the fitches, 4 and scatter the 
cummin seed, and cast in the principal wheat, and the ap- 

4 fitches.'] There are two Hebrew Icetzach and kesmet ; the latter probably 
words rendered fitches by our translators, rye, the former is considered by Jerom, 



134 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

pointed barley, and the rye in their place?" Herein though 
the sense may hold under the names assigned, yet is it not so 
easy to determine the particular seeds and grains, where the 
obscure original causeth such differing translations. For in 
the vulgar we meet with milium and gith, which our trans- 
lation declineth, placing fitches for gith, and rye for mi- 
lium or millet, which, notwithstanding, is retained by the 
Dutch. 

That it might be melanthium, nigella, or gith, may be al- 
lowably apprehended, from the frequent use of the seed 
thereof among the Jews and other nations, as also from the 
translation of Tremellius ; and the original implying a black 
seed, which is less than cummin, as, out of Aben Ezra, Bux- 
torfius hath expounded it. 

But whereas milium or ^y%%^ of the Septuagint is by ours 
rendered rye, there is little similitude or affinity between 
those grains ; for milium is more agreeable unto spelta or 
espaut, as the Dutch and others still render it. 

That we meet so often with cummin 5 seed in many parts 
of Scripture in reference unto Judaea, a seed so abominable 
at present unto our palates and nostrils, will not seem strange 
unto any who consider the frequent use thereof among the 
ancients, not only in medical but dietetical use and practice : 
for their dishes were filled therewith, and the noblest festival 
preparations in Apicius were not without it ; and even in 
the polenta, and parched corn, the old diet of the Romans, 
(as Pliny recordeth), unto every measure they mixed a small 
proportion of linseed and cummin seed. 

And so cummin is justly set down among things of vulgar 
and common use, when it is said in Matthew 23. v. 23. 
" You pay tithe of mint, anise, and cummin." But how to 
make out the translation of anise we are still to seek, there 
being no word in that text which properly signifieth anise : 
the original being avn%v, which the Latins call anethum, and 
is properly Englished dill. 

Maimonides, and the Rabbins to be gith, s cummin.~\ An umbelliferous plant 

in Greek (LtkavOw, in Latin nigella. resembling fennel ; producing a bitterish, 

Parkhurst supposes it to have been warm, aromatic seed. 
fennel. 



TRACT I.J MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 135 

That among many expressions, allusions, and illustrations 
made in Scripture from corns, there is no mention made of 
oats, so useful a grain among us, will not seem very strange 
unto you, till you can clearly discover that it was a grain of 
ordinary use in those parts ; who may also find that Theo- 
phrastus, who is large about other grains, delivers very little 
of it. That Dioscorides is also very short therein. And 
Galen delivers that it was of some use in Asia Minor, especi- 
ally in Mysia, and that rather for beasts than men : and Pliny 
affirmeth that the pulticula thereof was most in use among the 
Germans. Yet that the Jews were not without all use of this 
grain seems confirmable from the Rabbinical account, who 
reckon five grains liable unto their offerings, whereof the 
cake presented might be made ; that is, wheat, oats, rye, and 
two sorts of barley. 

19. Why the disciples being hungry plucked the ears of 
corn, it seems strange to us, who observe that men half-starved 
betake not themselves to such supply; except we consider the 
ancient diet of alpliiton and polenta, the meal of dried and 
parched corn, or that which was ufirfkvaig, or meal of crude 
and unparched corn, wherewith they being well acquainted, 
might hope for some satisfaction from the corn yet in the 
husks ; that is, from the nourishing pulp or mealy part 
within it. 

20. The inhuman oppression of the Egyptian task-masters, 
who, not content with the common tale of brick, took also 
from the children of Israel their allowance of straw, and 
forced them to gather stubble where they could find it, will 
be more nearly apprehended, if we consider how hard it was 
to acquire any quantity of stubble in Egypt, where the stalk 
of corn was so short, that to acquire an ordinary measure it 
required more than ordinary labour ; as is discoverable from 
that account which Pliny hath happily left unto us.* In the 
corn gathered in iEgypt the straw is never a cubit long : be- 
cause the seed lieth very shallow, and hath no other nourish- 
ment than from the mud and slime left by the river; for under 
it is nothing but sand and gravel. 

* Lib. 18. Nat. Hist. 



136 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

So that the expression of Scripture is more emphatical than 
is commonly apprehended, when 't is said, " The people were 
scattered abroad through all the land of T^Egypt to gather 
stubble instead of straw." For the stubble being very short, 
the acquist was difficult; a few fields afforded it not, and 
they were fain to wander far to obtain a sufficient quantity 
of it. 

21. It is said in the So?ig of Solomon, that " The vines with 
the tender grape give a good smell." That the flowers of the 
vine should be emphatically noted to give a pleasant smell 
seems -hard unto our northern nostrils, which discover not 
such odours, and smell them not in full vineyards ; whereas 
in hot regions, and more spread and digested flowers, a sweet 
savour may be allowed, denotable from several human expres- 
sions, and the practice of the ancients, in putting the dried 
flowers of the vine into new wine to give it a pure and floscu- 
lous race or spirit, which wine was therefore called ohuv^iw, 
allowing unto every cadus two pounds of dried flowers. 

And therefore, the vine flowering but in the spring, it can- 
not but seem an impertinent objection of the Jews, that the 
apostles were " full of new wine at Pentecost," when it was 
not to be found. Wherefore we may rather conceive that the 
word ykc\j%u in that place implied not new wine or must, but 
some generous strong and sweet wine, wherein more especially 
lay the power of inebriation. 

But if it be to be taken for some kind of must, it might be 
some kind of ah'iy'hivxog, or long lasting must, which might be 
had at any time of the year, and which, as Pliny delivereth, 
they made by hindering and keeping the must from fermenta- 
tion or working, and so it kept soft and sweet for no small 
time after. 

22. When the dove, sent out of the ark, returned with a 
green olive leaf, according to the original : how the leaf, after 
ten months, and under water, should still maintain a verdure 
or greenness, need not much amuse the reader, if we consider 
that the olive tree is ahipvXkov, or continually green; that the 
leaves are of a bitter taste, and of a fast and lasting substance. 
Since we also find fresh and green leaves among the olives 
which we receive from remote countries ; and since the plants 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 137 

at the bottom of the sea, and on the sides of rocks, maintain 
a deep and fresh verdure. 

How the tree should stand so long in the deluge under 
water, may partly be allowed from the uncertain determination 
of the flows and currents of that time, and the qualification 
of the saltness of the sea, by the admixture of fresh water, 
when the whole watery element was together. 

And it may be signally illustrated from the like examples 
in Theophrastus * and Pliny f in words to this effect : even 
the sea afFordeth shrubs and trees ; in the Red sea whole 
woods do live, namely of bays and olives bearing fruit. The 
soldiers of Alexander, who sailed into India, made report, 
that the tides were so high in some islands, that they over- 
flowed, and covered the woods, as high as plane and poplar 
trees. The lower sort wholly, the greater all but the tops, 
whereto the mariners fastened their vessels at high water, 
and at the root in the ebb ; that the leaves of these sea-trees 
while under water looked green, but taken out presently 
dried with the heat of the sun. The like is delivered by 
Theophrastus, that some oaks do grow and bear acorns 
under the sea. 

23. "The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard- 
seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, which indeed 
is the least of all seeds ; but when 't is grown is the greatest 
among herbs, and . becometh a tree, so that the birds of the 
air come and lodge in the branches thereof." 

Luke xiii, 19. "It is like a grain of mustard-seed, which a 
man took and cast it into his garden, and it waxed a great 
tree, and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches thereof." 

This expression by a grain of mustard-seed, will not seem 
so strange unto you, who well consider it. That it is simply 
the least of seeds, you cannot apprehend, if you have beheld 
the seeds of rapunculus, marjorane, tobacco, and the smallest 
seed of lunaria. 

But you may well understand it to be the smallest seed 
among herbs which produce so big a plant, or the least of 
herbal plants, which arise unto such a proportion, implied in 

* Theophrast. Hist. lib. iv, cap. 7, 8. f l'liny, lib. xiii, cap. ultimo. 



138 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

the expression ; the smallest of seeds, and becometh the 
greatest of herbs. 

And you may also grant that it is the smallest of seeds of 
plants apt to dsvBgigeiv, arborescere, fruticescere, or to grow 
unto a ligneous substance, and from an herby and oleraceous 
vegetable, to become a kind of tree, and to be accounted 
among the dendrolachana or arboroleracea ; as upon strong 
seed, culture, and good ground, is observable in some cab- 
bages, mallows, and many more, and therefore expressed by 
y'mrai to Bivdgov and yiverai t'tg rh hivbgov, it becometh a tree, or 
arborescit, as Beza rendereth it. 

Nor if warily considered doth the expression contain such 
difficulty. For the parable may not ground itself upon gene- 
rals, or imply any or every grain of mustard, but point at such 
a grain as, from its fertile spirit, and other concurrent advan- 
tages, hath the success to become arboreous, shoot into such 
a magnitude, and acquire the like tallness. And unto such 
a grain the kingdom of heaven is likened, which from such 
slender beginnings shall find such increase and grandeur. 

The expression also that it might grow into such dimen- 
sions that birds might lodge in the branches thereof, may be 
literally conceived ; if we allow the luxuriancy of plants in Ju- 
daea, above our northern regions ; if we accept of but half 
the story taken notice of by Tremellius, from the Jerusalem 
Talmud, of a mustard tree that was to be climbed like a fig 
tree ; and of another, under whose shade a potter daily 
wrought : and it may somewhat abate our doubts, if we take 
in the advertisement of Herodotus concerning lesser plants of 
milium and sesamum, in the Babylonian soil : milium ac se- 
samum in proceritate'm instar arborum crescere, etsi mi/d 
compertum, tamen memorare super sedeo, probt sciens eis qui 
nunquam Babyloniam regionem adierunt perquatn incre- 
dibile visum iri. We may likewise consider that the word 
xaraffxjji/wca/ doth not necessarily signify making a nest, but 
rather sitting, roosting, cowering, and resting in the boughs, 
according as the same word is used by the Septuagint in 
other places,* as the vulgate rendereth it in this, inhabitant, 

* Dan. iv, 9. Psal. i, Id, 12. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 139 

as our translation, ' lodgeth,' and the Rhemish, ' resteth in 
the branches.' 

24t. " And it came to pass that on the morrow Moses went 
into the tabernacle of witness, and behold the rod of Aaron 
for the house of Levi was budded, and brought forth buds, 
and bloomed blossoms, and yielded almonds." * 

In the contention of the tribes and decision of priority and 
primogeniture of Aaron, declared by the rod, which in. a 
night budded, flowered, and brought forth almonds, you can- 
not but apprehend a propriety in the miracle from that spe- 
cies of tree which leadeth in the vernal germination of the 
year, unto all the classes of trees; and so apprehend how 
properly in a night and short space of time the miracle arose, 
and somewhat answerable unto its nature the flowers and 
fruit appeared in this precocious tree, and whose original 
name f implieth such speedy efflorescence, as in its proper 
nature flowering in February, and shewing its fruit in March. 

This consideration of that tree maketh the expression in 
Jeremy more emphatical, when 't is said, " What seest thou ? 
and he said, a rod of an almond tree. Then said the Lord 
unto me, thou hast well seen, for I will hasten the word to 
perform it." J I will be quick and forward like the almond 
tree, to produce the effects of my word, and hasten to dis- 
play my judgments upon them. 

And we may hereby more easily apprehend the expression 
in Ecclesiastes ; "when the almond tree shall flourish," § 
that is, when the head, which is the prime part, and first 
sheweth itself in the world, shall grow white, like the flowers 
of the almond tree, whose fruit, as Athenseus delivered], was 
first called zagqvov, or the head, from some resemblance and 
covering parts of it. 

How properly the priority was confirmed by a rod or staff, 
and why the rods and staffs of the princes were chosen for 
this decision, philologists will consider. For these were the 
badges, signs, and cognisances of their places, and were a 
kind of sceptre in their hands, denoting their super-eminen- 

* The Rod of Aaron, Numb, xvii, 8. 

f Shacher, from Shachar festinus fuitor maturuit. % Jer. i, 11. 

§ Eccles. xii, 5. 



140 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

cies. The staff of divinity is ordinarily described in the 
hands of gods and goddesses in old draughts. Trojan and 
Grecian princes were not without the like, whereof the shoul- 
ders of Thersites felt from the hands of Ulysses. Achilles 
in Homer, as by a desperate oath, swears by his wooden 
sceptre, which should never bud nor bear leaves again ; 
which seeming the greatest impossibility to him, advanceth 
the miracle of Aaron's rod. And if it could be well made 
out that Homer had seen the books of Moses, in that expres- 
sion of Achilles, he might allude unto this miracle. 

That power which proposed the experiment by blossoms 
in the rod, added also the fruit of almonds ; the text not 
strictly making out the leaves, and so omitting the middle 
germination; the leaves properly coming after the flowers, 
and before the almonds. And therefore if you have well pe- 
rused medals, you cannot but observe how in the impress of 
many shekels, which pass among us by the name of the Jerusa- 
lem shekels, the rod of Aaron is improperly laden with many 
leaves, whereas that which is shewn under the name of the 
Samaritan shekel, seems most conformable unto the text, 
which describeth the fruit without leaves. 

25. "Binding 6 his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto 
the choice vine." 

That vines, which are commonly supported, should grow 
so large and bulky, as to be fit to fasten their juments, and 
beasts of labour unto them, may seem a hard expression unto 
many : which notwithstanding may easily be admitted, if we 
consider the account of Pliny, that in many places out of 
Italy vines do grow without any stay or support : nor will it 
be otherwise conceived of lusty vines, if we call to mind how 
the same author * delivereth, that the statua of Jupiter was 
made out of a vine ; and that out of one single cyprian vine a 
scale or ladder was made that reached unto the roof of the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

* Plin. lib. xiv. 



Binding, c^c] In" some parts of tlie vintage, to browse on the vines, some 
Persia, it was formerly the custom to of which are so large that a man can 
turn their cattle into the vineyards after scarcely compass their trunks in his arms. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 141 

26. " I was exalted as a palm tree in Engaddi, and as a 
rose plant 7 in Jericho." That the rose of Jericho, or that 
plant which passeth among us under that denomination, was 
signified in this text, you are not like to apprehend with some, 
who also name it the rose of St. Mary, and deliver, that it 
openeth the branches, and flowers upon the eve of our Savi- 
our's nativity: but rather conceive it some proper kind of 
rose, which thrived and prospered in Jericho more than in 
the neighbour countries. For our rose of Jericho is a very 
low and hard plant, a few inches above the ground ; one 
whereof brought from Judaga I have kept by me many years, 
nothing resembling a rose tree, either in flowers, branches, 
leaves, or growth ; and so improper to answer the emphatical 
word of exaltation in the text: growing not only about 
Jericho, but other parts of Judasa and Arabia, as Bellonius 
hath observed : which being a dry and ligneous plant, is pre- 
served many years, and though crumpled and furled up, yet, 
if infused in water, will swell and display its parts. 

27. Quasi Terebintlius extendi ramos, when it is said in 
the same chapter, "as a turpentine tree 8 have I stretched 
out my branches." It will not seem strange unto such as 
have either seen that tree or examined its description: for it 
is a plant that widely displayeth its branches : and though in 
some European countries it be but of a low and fruticeous 
growth, yet Pliny observeth that it is great in Syria* and so 
allowably, or at least not improperly mentioned in the ex- 
pression of Hosea f according to the vulgar translation, Su~ 

* Terebinthus in Macedonia fruticat, in Syria, magna est. lib. xiii, Plin. 
f Hos. iv, 13. 

7 rose plant in Jericho.'] Sir R. K. vated, and prized by the natives. Their 

Porter gives the following description of gardens and courts are crowded with its 

the oriental rose trees probably here in- plants, their rooms ornamented with 

tended: — " On first entering I his bower vases filled with its gathered bunches, 

of fairy land, I was struck with the ap- and every bath strewed with the full 

pearance of two rose trees ; full fourteen blown flowers, plucked from the ever 

feet high, laden with thousands of ffow- replenished stems." 
ers, in every degree of expansion, and 8 terebinth tree.~\ An evergreen of 

of a bloom and delicacy of scent, that moderate size, with a top and branches 

imbued the whole atmosphere with the large in proportion ; leaves like the olive, 

most exquisite perfume ; indeed, I be- but green, mixed with red and purple ; 

lieve that in no country of the world, the flowers purple, growing in branches, 

does the rose grow in such perfection, as like the vine ; fruit like that of the ju- 

in Persia, in no country is it so culti- niper, and of a ruddy purple. 



142 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

per capita montium sacrificant, §c, sub quercu, populo, et 
terebintho, quoniam bona est umbra ejus. And this diffu- 
sion and spreading of its branches, hath afforded the proverb 
of terebintho stidtior, appliable unto arrogant or boasting per- 
sons, who spread and display their own acts, as Erasmus hath 
observed. 

28. It is said in our translation, "Saul tarried in the up- 
permost parts of Gibeah, under a pomegranate tree which is 
in Migron : and the people which were with him were about 
six hundred men." And when it is said in some Latin trans- 
lations, Saul morabatur jixo tentorio sub malogranato, you 
will not be ready to take it in the common literal sense, who 
know that a pomegranate tree is but low of growth, and very 
unfit to pitch a tent under it ; and may rather apprehend it 
as the name of a place, or the rock of Rimmon, or Pome- 
granate ; so named from pomegranates which grew there, and 
which many think to have been the same place mentioned in 
Judges.* 

29. It is said in the book of Wisdom, " Where water stood 
before, dry land appeared, and out of the red sea a way ap- 
peared without impediment, and out of the violent streams a 
green field ;" or as the Latin renders it, campus germinans 
de prqfundo : whereby it seems implied that the Israelites 
passed over a green field at the bottom of the sea: and 
though most would have this but a metaphorical expression, 
yet may it be literally tolerable ; and so may be safely appre- 
hended by those that sensibly know what great number of 
vegetables (as the several varieties of algce, sea lettuce, 
phasganium, conferva, caulis marina, abies, erica, tamarice, 
divers sorts of muscus, fucus, quercus marina, and corallines) 
are found at the bottom of the sea. Since it is also now well 
known, that the western ocean, for many degrees, is covered 
with sargasso or lenticida marina, and found to arise from 
the bottom of that sea; since, upon the coast of Provence 
by the isles of Eres, there is a part of the Mediterranean 
sea, called la Prairie, or the meadowy sea, from the bottom 
thereof so plentifully covered with plants : since vast heaps 
of weeds are found in the bellies of some whales taken in the 

* Judges xx, 45, 47. cli. xxi, 13. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 143 

northern ocean, and at a great distance from the shore : and 
since the providence of nature hath provided this shelter for 
minor fishes ; both for their spawn, and safety of their young 
ones. And this might be more peculiarly allowed to be 
spoken of the red sea, since the Hebrews named it suph or 
the weedy sea: and, also, seeing Theophrastus and Pliny, 
observing the growth of vegetables under water, have made 
their chief illustrations from those in the Red sea. 

30. You will readily discover how widely they are mistaken, 
who accept the sycamore mentioned in several parts of Scrip- 
ture for the sycamore or tree of that denomination with 
us ; which is properly but one kind or difference of acer, and 
bears no fruit with any resemblance unto a fig. 

But you will rather, thereby, apprehend the true and 
genuine sycamore or sycaminus, which is a stranger in our 
parts. A tree (according to the description of Theophrastus, 
Dioscorides, and Galen,) resembling a mulberry tree in the 
leaf, but in the fruit a fig ; 9 which it produceth not in the 
twigs but in the trunk or greater branches, answerable to the 
sycamore of Egypt, the Egyptian fig or giamez of the Ara- 
bians, described by Prosper Alpinus, with a leaf somewhat 
broader than a mulberry, and in its fruit like a fig. Inso- 
much that some have fancied it to have had its first produc- 
tion from a fig tree grafted on a mulberry. It is a tree com- 
mon in Judaea, whereof they made frequent use in buildings ; 
and so understood, it explaineth that expression in Isaiah :* 
" Sycamori excisi sunt, cedros substituemus. The bricks are 
fallen down, but we will build with hewen stones : the syca- 
mores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars." 

It is a broad spreading tree, not only fit for walks, groves, 
and shade, but also affording profit. And therefore it is 
said that King Davidf appointed Baalhanan to be over his 
olive trees and sycamores, which were in great plenty ; and it 
is accordingly delivered, that " Solomon made cedars to be 
as the sycamore trees that are in the vale for abundance.''^ 

* Isaiah, ix, 10. f 1 Chron. xxvii, 28. J 1 Kings, x, 27. 

9 resembling in fruit a fig. ] In smell growth; they grow in clusters at the end 
and figure, but not in the mode of of a fruit stalk, not singly like figs. 



144 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TrvACT l" 

That is, he planted many, though they did not come to per- 
fection in his days. 

And as it grew plentifully about the plains, so was the fruit 
good for food ; and, as Bellonius and late accounts deliver, 
very refreshing unto travellers in those hot and dry countries : 
whereby the expression of Amos* becomes more intelligible, 
when he said he was an herdsman, and a gatherer of syca- 
more fruit. And the expression of David f also becomes 
more emphatical ; " He destroyed their vines with hail, and 
their sycamore trees with frost." That is, their sicmoth in the 
original, a word in the sound not far from the sycamore. 

Thus, when it is said, " If ye had faith as a grain of mustard 
seed, ye might say unto this sycamine tree, be thou plucked 
up by the roots, and be thou placed in the sea, and it should 
obey you : " % it might be more significantly spoken of this 
sycamore ; this being described to be arbor vasia, a large and 
well-rooted tree, whose removal was more difficult than many 
others. And so the instance in that text, is very properly 
made in the sycamore tree, one of the largest and less remov- 
able trees among them. A tree so lasting and well-rooted, 
that the sycamore which Zaccheus ascended, is still shewn in 
Judaea unto travellers ; as also the hollow sycamore at Matu- 
raea in Egypt, where the blessed virgin is said to have re- 
mained : which though it relisheth of the legend, yet it plainly 
declareth what opinion they had of the lasting condition of 
that tree, to countenance the tradition ; for which they might 
not be without some experience, since the learned describer 
of the pyramids § observeth, that the old Egyptians made 
coffins of this wood, which he found yet fresh and undecayed 
among divers of their mummies. 

And thus, also, when Zaccheus climbed up into a sycamore 
above any other tree, this being a large and fair one, it cannot 
be denied that he made choice of a proper and advantageous 
tree to look down upon our Saviour. 

31. Whether the expression of our Saviour in the parable 
of the sower, and the increase of the seed unto thirty, sixty, 



* Amos, vii, 14. j Psalm, Ixxviii, 47. 

J Luke, xvii, C>. § U. Greaves. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 145 

and a hundred fold, had any reference unto the ages of be- 
lievers, and measure of their faith, as children, young and 
old persons, as to beginners, well advanced and strongly con- 
firmed Christians, as learned men have hinted ; or whether in 
this progressional ascent there were any latent mystery, as 
the mystical interpreters of numbers may apprehend, I pre- 
tend not to determine. 

But, how this multiplication may well be conceived, and in 
what way apprehended, and that this centesimal increase is 
not naturally strange, you that are no stranger in agriculture, 
old and new, are not like to make great doubt. 

That every grain should produce an ear affording an hun- 
dred grains, is not like to be their conjecture who behold the 
growth of corn in our fields, wherein a common grain doth 
produce far less in number. For barley, consisting but of two 
versus or rows, seldom exceedeth twenty grains, that is, ten 
upon each (frorfcog, or row; rye, of a square figure, is very 
fruitful at forty : wheat, besides the frit and uruncus, or im- 
perfect grains of the small husks at the top and bottom of 
the ear, is fruitful at ten treble glumi or husks in a row, each 
containing but three grains in breadth, if the middle grain 
arriveth at all to perfection ; and so maketh up threescore 
grains in both sides. 

Yet even this centesimal fructification may be admitted in 
some sorts of cerealia, and grains from one ear : if we take in 
triticum centigranum, or fertilissimum Plinii, Indian wheat, 
and panicum; which, in every ear, containeth hundreds of 
grains. 

But this increase may easily be conceived of grains in their 
total multiplication, in good and fertile ground, since, if every 
grain of wheat produceth but three ears, the increase will 
arise above that number. Nor are we without examples of 
some grounds which have produced many more ears, and 
above this centesimal increase : as Pliny hath left recorded 
of the Byzacian field in Africa.* Misit ex eo loco procurator 
ex uno grano quadraginta paucis minus germina. Misit et 
Neroni similiter tercentum quadraginta stipulas ex uno 
grano. Cum centesimos quidem Leontini Sicilies campi 

* Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xviii, cap. 21. 
VOL. IV. L 



HG OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

fundunt, alii que, et tota Bcetica, et imprimis JEgyptus. And 
even in our own country, from one grain of wheat sowed in 
a garden, I have numbered many more than an hundred. 1 

And though many grains are commonly lost which come 
not to sprouting or earing, yet the same is also verified in 
measure ; as that one bushel should produce a hundred, as is 
exemplied by the corn in Gerar ; " Then Isaac sowed in 
that land, and received in the same year an hundred fold." ® 
That is, as the Chaldee explaineth it, a hundred for one, 
when he measured it. And this Pliny seems to intend, when he 
saith of the fertile Byzacian territory before mentioned, ex uno 
centeni quinquaginta modii redduntur. And may be favour- 
ably apprehended of the fertility of some grounds in Poland ; 
wherein, after the accounts of Gaguinus, from rye sowed in 
August, come thirty or forty ears, and a man on horseback 
can scarce look over it. 

In the sabbatical crop of Judaea, there must be admitted a 
large increase, and probably not short of this centesimal 
multiplication : for it supplied part of the sixth year, the 
whole seventh, and eighth until the harvest of that year. 

The seven years of plenty in Egypt must be of high in- 
crease ; when, by storing up but the fifth part, they supplied 
the whole land, and many of their neighbours after : for it is 
said, " the famine was in all the land about them." f And 
therefore though the causes of the dearth in Egypt be made 
out from the defect of the overflow of Nilus, according to the 
dream of Pharaoh ; yet was that no cause of the scarcity in 
the land of Canaan, which may rather be ascribed to the 
want of the former and latter rains, for some succeeding 
years, if their famine held time and duration with that of 
Egypt ; as may be probably gathered from that expression of 
Joseph, " come down unto me (into Egypt) and tarry not, 
and there will I nourish thee : for yet there are five years of 
famine, lest thou and thy household, and all that thou hast, 
come to poverty." % 

* Gen. xxvi, 12. 
t Gen. xli, 56. J Gen xlv, 9, 11. 

1 many more than an hundred.'] The "no less than three hundred stalks and 
manuscript in the British Museum reads, ears." — MS. Sloan. 1 841. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 147 

How they preserved their corn so long in Egypt may seem 
hard unto northern and moist climates, except we consider 
the many ways of preservation practised by antiquity, and 
also take in that handsome account of Pliny ; what corn so- 
ever is laid up in the ear, it taketh no harm keep it as long 
as you will, although the best and most assured way to keep 
corn is in caves and vaults under ground, according to the 
practice of Cappadocia and Thracia. 

In Egypt and Mauritania above all things they look to 
this, that their granaries stand on high ground ; and how dry 
soever their floor be, they lay a course of chaff betwixt it 
and the ground. Besides, they put up their corn in grana- 
ries and bins together with the ear. And Varro delivereth 
that wheat laid up in that manner will last fifty years ; millet 
an hundred ; and beans so conserved, in a cave of Ambracia, 
were known to live an hundred and twenty years ; that is, 
from the time of King Pyrrhus, unto the Pyratick war under 
the conduct of Pompey. 

More strange it may seem how, after seven years, the 
grains conserved should be fruitful for a new production. For 
it is said that Joseph delivered seed unto the Egyptians, to 
sow their land for the eighth year: and corn after seven 
years is like to afford little or no production, according to 
Theophrastus ; " ad sementem semen anniculum optimum pu- 
tatur, binum deterius et trinum ; ultra sterile ferine est, quan- 
quam ad usum cibarium idoneum.* 

Yet since, from former exemplifications, corn may be made 
to last so long, the fructifying power may well be conceived 
to last in some good proportion, according to the region and 
place of its conservation, as the same Theophrastus hath ob- 
served, and left a notable example from Cappadocia, where 
corn might be kept sixty years, and remain fertile at forty ; 
according to his expression thus translated ; in Cappadocice 
loco quodam Petra dicto, triticum ad quadraginta annos 
foscundum est, et ad sementem percommodum durare pro- 
ditum est, sexagenos aut septuagenos ad usum cibarium ser- 
vari posse idoneum. The situation of that conservatory, was, 
as he delivereth, v^Xbv, tvxvow, zmvgov, high, airy, and exposed 

* Theoph. Hist. lib. viii. 

L 2 



148 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

to favourable winds. And upon such consideration of winds 
and ventilation, some conceived the Egyptian granaries were 
made open, the country being free from rain. However it 
was, that contrivance could not be without some hazard : for 
the great mists and dews of that country might dispose the 
corn unto corruption.* 

More plainly may they mistake, who from some analogy of 
name (as if pyramid were derived from irvgov, triticum), con- 
ceive the Egyptian pyramids to have been built for granaries , 
or look for any settled monuments about the deserts erected 
for that intention ; since their store-houses were made in the 
great towns, according to Scripture expression, " He gather- 
ed up all the food for seven years, which was in the land of 
Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities : the food of the field 
which was round about every city, laid he up in the same."-j- 

32. " For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree, which is 
wild by nature, and wert grafted, contrary to nature, into a 
good olive tree, how much more shall these which be the na- 
tural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree ? " In 
which place, how answerable 2 to the doctrine of husbandry 
this expression of St. Paul is, you will readily apprehend who 
understand the rules of insition or grafting, and that way of 
vegetable propagation; wherein it is contrary to nature, or 
natural rules which art observeth : viz. to make use of scions 
more ignoble than the stock, or to graft wild upon domestic 
and good plants, according as Theophrastus hath anciently 
observed,;}; and, making instance in the olive, hath left this 
doctrine unto us ; urbanum sylvestribus ut satis oleastris in- 
serere. Nam si e contrario sylvestrem in urbanos severis, 
etsi differentia quccdam erit, tamen bonce fntgis arbor nun- 
quam profecto reddetur : § which is also agreeable unto our 
present practice, who graft pears on thorns, and apples upon 
crab stocks, not using the contrary insition. And when it is 
said, "how much more shall these, which are the natural 

* Egypt o/xi^Xuid'^g, xai hpodooc. Vide Theophrastum. 

f Gen. xli, 48. % De Cansis Plant, lib. i, cap. 7. 

§ Y.aWr/.a.gituv ow. e&tim 

5 how answrrab/c.~\ " How geographically answerable." — MS. Sloan. 1841. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 149 

branches, be grafted into their own natural olive tree ? " this is 
also agreeable unto the rule of the same author ; san 8k fiiXr'iuv 
lyxiVT^ifiog ofioiuti He, o(x,oia, insitio melior est similium in simi- 
libus : for the nearer consanguinity there is between the 
scions and the stock, the readier comprehension is made, and 
the nobler fructification. According also unto the later cau- 
tion of Laurenbergius;* arbores domesticce insitioni destinatce, 
semper anteponendce sylvestribus. And though the success 
be good, and may suffice upon stocks of the same denomina- 
tion ; yet, to be grafted upon their own and mother stock, is 
the nearest insition : which way, though less practised of old, 
is now much embraced, and found a notable way for meliora- 
tion of the fruit, and much the rather, if the tree to be graft- 
ed on be a good and generous plant, a good and fair olive, as 
the apostle seems to imply by a peculiar word,f scarce to be 
found elsewhere. 

It must be also considered, that the oleaster, or wild olive, 
by cutting, transplanting, and the best managery of art, can be 
made but to produce such olives as Theophrastus saith, were 
particularly named phaulia, that is, but bad olives ; and that it 
was among prodigies, for the oleaster to become an olive tree. 

And when insition and grafting, in the text, is applied unto 
the olive tree, it hath an emphatical sense, very agreeable 
unto that tree which is best propagated this way ; not at all 
by surculation, as Theophrastus observeth,]; nor well by seed, 
as hath been observed. Omne semen simile genus perficit, 
prceter oleam, oleastrum enim general, hoc est sylvestrem 
oleam, et non oleam veram. 

"If, therefore, thou Roman and Gentile branch, which 
wert cut from the wild olive, art now, by the signal mercy of 
God, beyond the ordinary and commonly expected way, 
grafted into the true olive, the church of God ; if thou, which 
neither naturally nor by human art canst be made to produce 
any good fruit, and, next to a miracle, to be made a true 
olive, art now by the benignity of God grafted into the proper 
olive ; how much more shall the Jew, and natural branch, be 
grafted into its genuine and mother tree, wherein propinquity 

* De horticidtura. t xaXX/iXa/Ol'. Rom. xl, 24 

X Gcoponic- lib. x. 



150 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

of nature is like, so readily and prosperously, to effect a coal- 
ition ? And this more especially by the expressed way of 
insition or implantation, the olive being not successfully pro- 
pagable by seed, nor at all by surculation." 

33. "As for the stork, the fir trees are her house."* This 
expression, in our translation, which keeps close to the ori- 
ginal chasideh, is somewhat different from the Greek and 
Latin translation; nor agreeable unto common observation, 
whereby they are known commonly to build upon chimneys, or 
the tops of houses and high buildings, which notwithstanding, 
the common translation may clearly consist with observation, 
if we consider that this is commonly affirmed of the black 
stork, and take notice of the description of Omithologus in 
Aldrovandus, that such storks are often found in divers parts, 
and that they do in arboribus nidulari, prcesertim in abie- 
tibus ; make their nests on trees, 3 especially upon fir trees. 
Nor wholly disagreeing unto the practice of the common 
white stork, according unto Varro, nidulantur in agris : and 
the concession of Aldrovandus that sometimes they build on 
trees: and the assertion of Bellonius, f that men dress them 
nests, and place cradles upon high trees, in marish regions, 
that storks may breed upon them : which course some ob- 
serve for herons and cormorants with us. And this building 
of storks upon trees, may be also answerable unto the origi- 
nal and natural way of building of storks before the political 
habitations of men, and the raising of houses and high build- 
ings ; before they were invited by such conveniences and pre- 
pared nests, to relinquish their natural places of nidulation. 
I say, before or where such advantages are not ready ; when 
swallows found other places than chimneys, and daws found 
other places than holes in high fabricks to build in. 

34. "And therefore, Israel said, carry down the man a 
present, a little balm, a little honey, and myrrh, nuts, and al- 
monds.";}: Now whether this, which Jacob sent, were the 
proper balsam extolled by human writers, you cannot but 
make some doubt, who find the Greek translation to be gr,s!vri, 

* Psalm civ, 17. f Bellonius de Avibus. % Gen. xliii, 11. 

:l make their nests on trees."] Doubdan Galilee resting in the evening on trees. — 
saw immense numbers of these birds in Harmer's Observations, vol. iii, p. 323. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 151 

that is, resina, and so may have some suspicion that it might 
be some pure distillation from the turpentine tree ; which 
grows prosperously and plentifully in Judaea, and seems so 
understood by the Arabic ; and was indeed esteemed by 
Theophrastus and Bioscorides, the chiefest of resinous 
bodies, and the word resina emphatically used for it. 

That the balsam plant hath grown and prospered in Judaea 
we believe without dispute. For the same is attested by 
Theophrastus, Pliny, Justinus, and many more. From the 
commendation that Galen affordeth of the balsam of Syria, 
and the story of Cleopatra, that she obtained some plants of 
balsam from Herod the Great to transplant into Egypt. 
But whether it was so anciently in Judea as the time of Jacob ; 
nay, whether this plant was here before the time of Solomon, 
that great collector of vegetable rarities, some doubt may be 
made from the account of Josephus, that the Queen of Sheba, 
a part of Arabia, among presents unto Solomon brought 
some plants of the balsam tree, as one of the peculiar esti- 
mables of her country. 

Whether this ever had its natural growth, or were an ori- 
ginal native plant in Judaea, much more that it was peculiar 
unto that country, a greater doubt may arise : while we read 
in Pausanias, Strabo, and Diodorus, that it grows also in 
Arabia, and find in Theophrastus,'* that it grew in two gar- 
dens about Jericho in Judaea. And more especially while we 
seriously consider that notable discourse between Abdella, 
Abdachim, and Alpinus, concluding the natural and original 
place of this singular plant to be in Arabia, about Mecha and 
Medina, where it still plentifully groweth, and mountains 
abound therein ; -j- from whence it hath been carefully trans- 
planted by the Bashas of grand Cairo, into the garden of 
Matarea : where, when it dies, it is repaired again from those 
parts of Arabia, from whence the grand Signior yearly re- 
ceiveth a present of balsam from the Xeriff of Mecha, still 
called by the Arabians balessan; whence they believe arose 
the Greek appellation balsam. And since these balsam plants 
are not now to be found in Judaea, and though purposely cul- 
tivated, are often lost in Judaea, but everlastingly live, and 

* Thcophvast, lib, ix, cap, C. f Prosper Alpinus, do Bahamo. 



152 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

naturally renew in Arabia, they probably concluded, that those 
of Judaea were foreign and transplanted from these parts. 

All which notwithstanding, since the same plant may grow 
naturally and spontaneously in several countries, and either 
from inward or outward causes be lost in one region, while it 
continueth and subsisteth in another, the balsam tree might 
possibly be a native of Judaea as well as of Arabia ; which 
because de facto it cannot be clearly made out, the ancient 
expressions of scripture become doubtful in this point. But 
since this plant hath not for a long time grown in Judaea, and 
still plentifully prospers in Arabia, that which now comes in 
precious parcels to us, and still is called the balsam of Judaea, 
may now surrender its name, and more properly be called 
the balsam of Arabia. 4 

35. " And the flax and the barley was smitten ; for the 
barley was in the ear, and the flax was boiled, but the wheat 
and the rye were not smitten, for they were not grown up." * 
How the barley and the flax should be smitten in the plague of 
hail in Egypt, and the wheat and rye escape, because they were 
not yet grown up, may seem strange unto English observers, 
who call barley summer corn, sown so many months after wheat, 
and [who] beside (hordeum polystichon, or big barley), sow 
not barley in the winter to anticipate the growth of wheat. 

And the same may also seem a preposterous expression 
unto all who do not consider the various agriculture, and dif- 
ferent husbandry of nations, and such as was practised in 
Egypt, and fairly proved to have been also used in Judaea, 
wherein their barley harvest was before that of wheat ; as is 
confirmable from that expression in Ruth, that she came into 
Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest, and staid unto 
the end of wheat harvest ; from the death of Manasses the 
father of Judith, emphatically expressed to have happened in 
the wheat harvest, and more advanced heat of the sun ; and 
from the custom of the Jews, to offer the barley sheaf of the 
first-fruits in March, and a cake of wheat flour but at the 
end of Pentecost, consonant unto the practice of the Egyptians, 

* Exod. ix, 31. 
4 /irabict.~] See note on the balsam, or Ealm of Gilcail, at page 130. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 158 

who (as Theophrastus delivereth) sowed their barley early 
in reference to their first-fruits ; and also the common rural 
practice, recorded by the same author, mature seritur triti- 
cum, hordeum, quod etiam maturius seritur ; wheat and bar- 
ley are sowed early, but barley earlier of the two. 

Flax was also an early plant, as may be illustrated from 
the neighbour country of Canaan. For the Israelites kept 
the passover in Gilgal, in the fourteenth day of the first 
month, answering unto part of our March, having newly pass- 
ed Jordan : and the spies which were sent from Shittim unto 
Jericho, not many days before, were hid by Rahab under the 
stalks of flax, which lay drying on the top of her house; 
which sheweth that the flax was already and newly gathered. 
For this was the first preparation of flax, and before fluvia- 
tion or rotting, which, after Pliny's account, was after wheat 
harvest. 

" But the wheat and the rye were not smitten, for they 
were not grown up." The original signifies that it was hid- 
den, or dark, the vulgar and septuagint that it was serotinous 
or late, and our old translation that it was late sown. And 
so the expression and interposition of Moses, who well under- 
stood the husbandry of Egypt, might emphatically declare 
the state of wheat and rye in that particular year ; and if so, 
the same is solvable from the time of the flood of Nilus, and 
the measure of its inundation. For if it were very high, and 
over drenching the ground, they were forced to later seed- 
time ; and so the wheat and the rye escaped ; for they were 
more slowly growing grains, and, by reason of the greater 
inundation of the river, were sown later than ordinary that 
year, especially in the plains near the river, where the ground 
drieth latest. 

Some think the plagues of Egypt were acted in one month, 
others but in the compass of twelve. In the delivery of 
Scripture there is no account of what time of the year or 
particular month they fell out ; but the account of these 
grains, which were either smitten or escaped, makes the pla- 
gue of hail to have probably happened in February. This 
may be collected from the new and old account of the seed- 
time and harvest in Egypt. For, according to the account 



154 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

of Radzivil,* the river rising in June, and the banks being 
cut in September, they sow about St. Andrew's, when the 
flood is retired, and the moderate dryness of the ground 
permitteth. So that the barley, anticipating the wheat, 
either in time of sowing or growing, might be in ear in 
February. 

The account of Pliny f is little different. They cast their 
seed upon the slime and mud when the river is down, which 
commonly happeneth in the beginning of November. They 
begin to reap and cut down a little before the calends of 
April, or about the middle of March, and in the month of 
May their harvest is in. So that barley, anticipating wheat, 
it might be in ear in February, and wheat not yet grown up, 
at least to the spindle or ear, to be destroyed by the hail. 
For they cut down about the middle of March, at least their 
forward corns, and in the month of May all sorts of corn 
were in. 

The " turning of the river into blood " shews in what 
month this happened not. That is, not when the river had 
overflown ; for it is said, " the Egyptians digged round about 
the river for water to drink," which they could not have done 
if the river had been out and the fields under water. 

In the same text you cannot, without some hesitation, pass 
over the translation of rye, which the original nameth cassu- 
meth, the Greek rendereth objra, the French and Dutch 
spelta, the Latin zea, and not secale, the known word for rye. 
But this common rye, so well understood at present, was not 
distinctly described, or not well known from early antiquity. 
And, therefore, in this uncertainty, some have thought it to 
have been the typha of the ancients. Cordus will have it to 
be olyra, and Ruellius some kind of oryza. But having no 
vulgar and well-known name for those grains, we warily em- 
brace an appellation of near affinity, and tolerably render 
it rye. 

While flax, barley, wheat, and rye are named, some may 
wonder why no mention is made of rice, wherewith, at pre- 
sent, Egypt so much aboundeth. But whether that plant 
grew so early in that country, some doubt may be made; for 

* Radzivil' s Travels. f PHn. lib. xviii, cap. 18 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 155 

rice is originally a grain of India, and might not then be 
transplanted into Egypt. 

36. "Let them become as the grass growing upon the 
house top, which withereth before it be plucked up, wherewith 
the mower filleth not his hand, nor he that bindeth sheaves 
his bosom." * Though the " filling of the hand," and mention 
of " sheaves of hay " may seem strange unto us, who use 
neither handfull or sheaves in that kind of husbandry, yet 
may it be properly taken, and you are not like to doubt there- 
of, who may find the like expressions in the authors De Re 
Rustica, concerning the old way of this husbandry. 

Columella,-]- delivering what works were not to be permitted 
upon the Roman fierice, or festivals, among others, sets down 
that upon such days it was not lawful to carry or bind up 
hay, Nee fcenum vincire nee vehere per religiones pontifi- 
cum licet. 

Marco Varro % is more particular ; Primum de pratis her- 
barium cum crescere desiit, suhsecarifialcibas debet, et quoad 
peracescat furcillis versari, cum peracuit, de his manipulos 
fieri et vehi in villam. 

And their course of mowing seems somewhat different 
from ours. For they cut not down clear at once, but used an 
after section, which they peculiarly called sicilitium, accord- 
ing as the word is expounded by Georgius Alexandrinus and 
Beroaldus, after Pliny : Sicilire est ficticious consectari qucefioe- 
nisecce prceterierunt, aid ea secure qucefcenisecceprceterierunt. 

37. When 'tis said that Elias lay and slept under a juniper 
tree, some may wonder how that tree, which in our parts 
groweth but low and shrubby, should afford him shade and 
covering. 5 But others know that there is a lesser and a larger 
kind of that vegetable ; that it makes a tree in its proper soil 
and region. And may find in Pliny that in the temple of 
Diana Saguntina, in Spain, the rafters were made of juniper. 

In that expression of David, § " Sharp arrows of the 
mighty, with coals of juniper." Though juniper be left out in 

* Psalm exxix, 7. f Columella, lib. ii, cap. 22. 

\ Varro, lib. i, cap. 49. § Psalm exx, 4. 

5 When 't is said, <^c] Parkhurst tills humble shelter for want of a better. 
suggests that the prophet took up with 



156 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

the last translation, yet may there be an emphatical sense 
from that word ; since juniper abounds with a piercing oil, 
and makes a smart fire. And the rather, if that quality be 
half true, which Pliny affirmeth, that the coals of juniper 
raked up will keep a glowing fire for the space of a year. 
For so the expression will emphatically imply, not only the 
" smart burning but the lasting fire of their malice." 

That passage of Job,* wherein he complains that poor and 
half-famished fellows despised him, is of greater difficulty ; 
" For want and famine they were solitary, they cut up mallows 
by the bushes, and juniper roots for meat." Wherein we 
might at first doubt the translation, not only from the Greek 
text, but the assertion of Dioscorides, who affirmeth that the 
roots of juniper are of a venomous quality. But Scaliger hath 
disproved the same from the practice of the African physi- 
cians, who use the decoction of juniper roots against the vene- 
real disease. The Chaldee reads it genista, or some kind of 
broom, which will be also unusual and hard diet, except 
thereby we understand the orobanche, or broom rape, which 
groweth from the roots of broom ; and which, according to 
Dioscorides, men used to eat raw or boiled, in the manner of 
asparagus. 

And, therefore, this expression doth highly declare the 
misery, poverty, and extremity of the persons who were now 
mockers of him ; they being so contemptible and necessitous, 
that they were fain to be content, not with a mean diet, but 
such as was no diet at all, the roots of trees, the roots of ju- 
niper, which none would make use of for food, but in the 
lowest necessity, and some degree of famishing. 

38. While some have disputed whether Theophrastus 
knew the scarlet berry, others may doubt whether that noble 
tincture were known unto the Hebrews, which, notwithstand- 
ing, seems clear from the early and iterated expressions of 
Scripture concerning the scarlet tincture, and is the less 
to be doubted, because the scarlet berry grew plentifully in 
the land of Canaan, and so they were furnished with the ma- 
terials of that colour. For though Dioscorides saith it grow- 
eth in Armenia and Cappadocia; yet that it also grew in 

* Job xxx, 3, 4. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 157 

Judaea, seems more than probable from the account of Bello- 
nius, who observed it to be so plentiful in that country, that 
it afforded a profitable commodity, and great quantity thereof 
was transported by the Venetian merchants. 

How this should be fitly expressed by the word tolagnoth, 
vermis, or worm, may be made out from Pliny, who calls it 
coccus scolecius, or the wormy berry ; as also from the name 
of that colour called vermilion, or the worm colour : and 
which is also answerable unto the true nature of it. For this 
is no proper berry containing the fructifying part, but a kind 
of vesicular excrescence, adhering commonly to the leaf of 
the ilex coccigera, or dwarf and small kind of oak, whose 
leaves are always green, and its proper seminal parts acorns. 
This little bag containeth a red pulp, which, if not timely 
gathered, or left to itself, produceth small red flies, and part- 
ly a red powder, both serviceable unto the tincture. And, 
therefore, to prevent the generation of flies, when it is first 
gathered, they sprinkle it over with vinegar, especially such 
as make use of the fresh pulp for the confection of alkermes ; 
which still retaineththe Arabic name, from the Itermes-berry ; 
which is agreeable unto the description of Bellonius and Quin- 
queranus. And the same we have beheld in Provence and 
Languedoc, where it is plentifully gathered, and called manna 
rusticorum, from the considerable profit which the peasants 
make by gathering of it. 

39. Mention is made of oaks in divers parts of Scripture, 
which though the Latin sometimes renders a turpentine tree, 
yet surely some kind of oak may be understood thereby ; but 
whether our common oak, as is commonly apprehended, you 
may well doubt ; for the common oak, which prospereth so 
well with us, delighteth not in hot regions. And that diligent 
botanist, Bellonius, who took such particular notice of the 
plants of Syria and Judaea, observed not the vulgar oak in 
those parts. But he found the ilex, chesne vert, or evergreen 
oak, in many places ; as also that kind of oak which is properly 
named esculus : and he makes mention thereof in places 
about Jerusalem, and in his journey from thence unto Da- 
mascus, where he found monies ilice, et esculo virentes ; which 
in his discourse of Lemnos, he saith are always green. 



158 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

And therefore when it is said of Absalom, that " his mule 
went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head 
caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the 
heaven and the earth," * that oak might be some ilex or rather 
esculus. For that is a thick and bushy kind, in orbem comosa, 
as Dalechampius ; ramis in orbem dispositis comans, as Rene- 
almus describeth it. And when it is said that " Ezechias 
broke down the images, and cut down the groves," f they 
might much consist of oaks, which were sacred unto Pagan 
deities, as this more particularly, according to that of Virgil, 

Nemorumque Jovi quae maxima frondet 

Esculus. 

And, in Judaea, where no hogs were eaten by the Jews, and 
few kept by others, 'tis not unlikely that they most cherished 
the esculus, which might serve for food for men. For the 
acorns thereof are the sweetest of any oak, and taste like 
chesnuts ; and so, producing an edulious or esculent fruit, is 
properly named esculus. 

They which know the ilex or evergreen oak, with some- 
what prickled leaves, named irgvog, will better understand the 
irreconcileable answer of the two elders, when the one ac- 
cused Susanna of incontinency under a vtfvog or evergreen 
oak, the other under a o^/tos, lentiscus, or mastic tree, which 
are so different in bigness, boughs, leaves, and fruit, the one 
bearing acorns, the other berries : and without the know- 
ledge, will not emphatically or distinctly understand that of 
the poet, 

Flavaque de viridi stillabant ilicc mella. 

i 

40. When we often meet with the cedars of Libanus, that 
expression may be used, not only because they grew in a 
known and neighbour country, but also because they were o*f 
the noblest and largest kind of that vegetable : and we find 
the Phoenician cedar magnified by the ancients. The cedar 
of Libanus is a coniferous tree, bearing cones or clogs, (not 

* 2 Sam. xviii, 9, 14. j 2 Kingt xviii, 4. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 159 

berries) of such a vastness, that Melchior Lussy, a great 
traveller, found one upon Libanus, as big as seven men could 
compass. Some are now so curious as to keep the branches 
and cones thereof among their rare collections. And, though 
much cedar wood be now brought from America, yet 'tis 
time to take notice of the true cedar of Libanus, employed 
in the temple of Solomon : for they have been much de- 
stroyed and neglected, and become at last but thin. Bello- 
nius could reckon but twenty-eight, Rowolfius and Radzivil 
but twenty-four, and Bidulphus the same number. And a 
later account of some English travellers* saith, that they 
are now but in one place, and in a small compass, in 
Libanus. 6 

Quando ingressi fueritis terrain, et plantaveritis in ilia 
ligna pomifera, auferetis prceputia eorum, Poma qnce ger- 
minant, immmida erunt vobis, nee edetis ex eis. Quarto 
autem anno, omnis fructus eorum sanctificabitur, laudabilis 
domino. Quinto autem anno comedetis fructus. By this law 
they were enjoined not to eat of the fruits of the trees which 
they planted for the first three years : and, as the vulgar 
expresseth it, to take away the prepuces, from such trees, 
during that time ; the fruits of the fourth year being holy 
unto the Lord, and those of the fifth allowable unto others. 
Now if auferre prceputia be taken, as many learned men 
have thought, to pluck away the bearing buds, before they 
proceed unto flowers or fruit, you will readily apprehend the 
metaphor, from the analogy and similitude of those sprouts 
and buds, which, shutting up the fruitful particle, resembleth 
the preputial part. 

* A Journey to Jerusalem, 1672. 

6 in a small compass, <§•<?.] Burck- base; the branches and foliage of the 
hardt thus describes the cedars of Li- others were lower, but I saw none whose 
banus: — " They stand on uneven ground, leaves touched the ground, like those in 
and form a small wood. Of the oldest Kew Gardens. The trunks of the old 
and best-looking trees, I counted eleven trees are covered with the names of tra- 
or twelve ; twenty-five very large ones : vellers and other persons who have vi- 
about fifty of middling size ; and more sited them : I saw a date of the seven- 
than three hundred smaller and younger teenth century. The trunks of the old- 
ones. The oldest trees are distinguished, est trees seem to be quite dead ; the 
by having the foliage and small branches wood is of a grey tint." — Travels in 
at the top only, and by four, five, or Syria, 19, 20. 
even seven trunks springing from one 



1G0 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

And you may also find herein a piece of husbandry not 
mentioned in Theophrastus or Columella. For by taking 
away of the buds and hindering fructification, the trees be- 
come more vigorous, both in growth and future production. 
By such a way King Pyrrhus got into a lusty race of beeves, 
and such as were desired over all Greece, by keeping them 
from generation until the ninth year. 

And you may also discover a physical advantage in 
the goodness of the fruit, which becometh less crude and 
more wholesome, upon the fourth or fifth year's produc- 
tion. 

41. While you read in Theophrastus or modern herbalists, 
a strict division of plants, into arbor, frutex, suffrutex et 
herba, you cannot but take notice of the Scriptural division 
at the creation, into tree and herb : and this may seem too 
narrow to comprehend the class of vegetables ; which, not- 
withstanding, may be sufficient, and a plain and intelligible 
division thereof. And therefore in this difficulty concerning 
the division of plants, the learned botanist, Cassalpinus, thus 
concludeth, clarius agemus si altera divisione neglecta, duo 
tantum plantarum genera substituamus, arborem scilicet, et 
herbam, conjungentes cum arboribus frutices, et cum herba 
suffrutices; Jrutices being the lesser trees, and suffrutices 
the larger, harder, and more solid herbs. 

And this division into herb and tree may also suffice, if 
we take in that natural ground of the division of perfect 
plants, and such as grow from seeds. For plants, in their 
first production, do send forth two leaves adjoining to the 
seed ; and then afterwards, do either produce two other 
leaves, and so successively before any stalk; and such go 
under the name of ma, fioruvri or herb ; or else, after the 
two first leaves succeeded to the seed leaves, they send forth 
a stalk or rudiment of a stalk, before any other leaves, and 
such fall under the classes of bevBqov or tree. So that, in this 
natural division, there are but two grand differences, that is, 
tree and herb. The frutex and suffrutex have the way of 
production from the seed, and in other respects the suffruti- 
ces or cremia, have a middle and participating nature, and 
referable unto herbs. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 161 

42. " I have seen the ungodly in great power, and flourish- 
ing like a green bay tree." 7 Both Scripture and human 
writers draw frequent illustrations from plants. Scribonius 
Largus illustrates the old cymbals from the cotyledon palus- 
tris or umbilicus veneris. Who would expect to find Aaron's 
mitre in any plant ? Yet Josephus hath taken some pains to 
make out the same in the seminal knop of hyoscyamus or 
henbane. The Scripture compares the figure of manna unto 
the seed of coriander. In Jeremy* we find the expression, 
I straight as a palm tree." And here the wicked in their 
flourishing state are likened unto a bay tree. Which, suffi- 
ciently answering the sense of the text, we are unwilling to 
exclude that noble plant from the honour of having its name 
in Scripture. Yet we cannot but observe, that the septu- 
agint renders it cedars, and the vulgar accordingly, vidi 
impium superexaltatum, et elevatum sicut cedros Libani ; and. 
the translation of Tremellius mentions neither bay nor cedar ; 
sese explicantem tanquam arbor indigena virens ; which 
seems to have been followed by the last low Dutch transla- 
tion. A private translation renders it like a green self-grow- 
ing laurel.f The high Dutch of Luther's Bible retains the 
word laurel ; and. so doth the old Saxon and Iceland transla- 
tion ; so also the French, Spanish, and Italian of Diodati : 
yet his notes acknowledge that some think it rather a 
cedar, and others any large tree in a prospering and natural 
soil. 

But however these translations differ, the sense is allow- 
able and obvious unto apprehension: when no particular 
plant is named, any proper to the sense may be supposed ; 
where either cedar or laurel is mentioned, if the preceding 
words (exalted and elevated) be used, they are more appli- 
able unto the cedar ; where the word (flourishing) is used, it 
is more agreeable unto the laurel, which, in its prosperity, 
abounds with pleasant flowers, whereas those of the cedar 

* Jer. x, 5. f Ainsworth. 

7 flourishing, <^c] " Spreading him- native soil, not having suffered by trans- 
self (is the English version) like a plantation, and therefore spreading itself 
green bay tree :" — more accurately "like luxuriantly. — Psalm xxxvii, 35. 
a native tree " — a tree growing in its 

VOL. IV. M 



162 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

are very little, and scarce perceptible," answerable to the fir, 
pine, and other coniferous trees. 

43. "And in the morning, when they were come from 
Bethany, he was hungry; and seeing a fig tree afar off 
having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing 
thereon ; and when he came to it, he found nothing but 
leaves : for the time of figs was not yet." Singular concep- 
tions have passed from learned men to make out this passage 
of St. Mark which St. Matthew* so plainly delivereth ; most 
men doubting why our Saviour should curse the tree for 
bearing no fruit, when the time of fruit was not yet come ; or 
why it is said that the time of figs was not yet, 8 when, not- 
withstanding, figs might be found at that season. 

Heinsius,f who thinks that Elias must salve the doubt, ac- 
cording to the received reading of the text, undertaketh to 
vary the same, reading oil jag %v, xaigcs <sb%wv, that is, for where 
he was, it was the season or time for figs. 

A learned interpreter J of our own, without alteration of 
accents or words, endeavours to salve all, by another inter- 
pretation of the same, ou yag xa/gog evxcav, for it was not a good 
or seasonable year for figs. 

But, because men part not easily with old beliefs or the re- 
ceived construction of words, we shall briefly set down what 
may be alleged for it. 

And, first, for the better comprehension of all deductions 
hereupon, we may consider the several differences and dis- 
tinctions both of fig trees and their fruits. Suidas upon the 
word }<fx&e makes four divisions of figs, SXu&off, $X»& tf&wv 
and i<sx&$. But because ffant, makes no considerable distinc- 
tion, learned men do chiefly insist upon the three others; 

* Marie xi, 13. Matt, xxi, 19. t Heinsius in Nonmim. 

% Dr. Hammond. 

s for the time of Jigs, #c] The dim- figs, was, in fact, to find a barren fig tree. 
culty of this passage is simply and ade- In reference to the mode in which fte 
quately solved, by reading, though the fig tree vegetates, Jortin has the follow- 
er harvest rvas not yet. When it is con- ing beautiful remark :- A good man 
sidered that the fig tree produces its fruit may be said to resemble the fig tree, 
before its leaves, our Saviour was justi- which, without producing blossoms and 
fied in looking for fruit on a fig tree flowers, like some other trees, and rais- 
which was in leaf, and before the time ing expectations which are often deceitful, 
for gatJiering figs had arrived. To find seldom fails to produce fruit in its season, 
a tree which was, at that time, without —Jortin's Tracts, vol. 2, p. 537. 



TRACT I.J MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 163 

3 that is, ohifoog, or grossus, which are the buttons, or small 
sort of figs, either not ripe, or not ordinarily proceeding to 
ripeness, but fall away at least in the greatest part, and espe- 
cially in sharp winters, which are also named wx&dsg, and dis- 
tinguished from the fruit of the wild fig, or caprificus, which 
is named Zyvebg, and never cometh unto ripeness. The second 
is called auxov or Jicus, which commonly proceedeth unto ripe- 
ness in its due season. A third, the ripe fig dried, which 
maketh the h^ddsg or carrier* 

Of fig trees there are also many divisions : for some are 
prodromi or precocious, which bear fruit very early, whether 
they bear once or oftner in the year ; some are protericce, 
which are the most early of the precocious trees, and bear 
soonest of any; some are cestivce, which bear in the common 
season of the summer, and some serotince which bear very 
late. 

Some are biferous and triferous, which bear twice or 
price in the year, and some are of the ordinary standing 
course, which make up the expected season of figs. 

Again, some fig trees, either in their proper kind, or fer- 
tility in some single ones, do bear fruit or rudiments of fruit 
■ill the year long ; as is annually observable in some kind of 
Rfig trees in hot and proper regions; and may also be observed 
\ n some fig trees of more temperate countries, in years of no 
-*reat disadvantage, wherein, when the summer ripe fig is 
-past, others begin to appear, and so standing in buttons all 
3;he winter, do either fall away before the spring, or else pro- 
ceed to ripeness. 

• Now according to these distinctions, we may measure the 

ntent of the text, and endeavour to make out the expression. 

?or, considering the diversity of these trees and their several 

ructifications, probable or possible it is that some thereof 

jere implied, and may literally afford a solution. 

\ And first, though it was not the season for figs, yet some 

>iruit might have been expected, even in ordinary bearing 

£ rees. For the grossi or buttons appear before the leaves, 

specially before the leaves are well grown. Some might 

Jiave stood during the winter, and by this time been of some 

jrowth : though many fall off, yet some might remain on, and 

M 2 



164 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

proceed towards maturity. And we find that good husbands 
had an art to make them hold on as is delivered by 
Theophrastus. 

The ffvxov or common summer fig, was not expected ; for 
that is placed by Galen among the fructus horarii or horcei, 
which ripen in ] that part of summer, called wga, and stands 
commended by him above other fruits of that season. And 
of this kind might be the figs which were brought unto 
Cleopatra in a basket together with an asp, according to the 
time of her death, on the nineteenth of August. And that 
our Saviour expected not such figs, but some other kind, 
seems to be implied in the indefinite expression, " if haply he 
might find any thing thereon ;" which in that country, and 
the variety of such trees, might not be despaired of, at this 
season, and very probably hoped for in the first precocious 
and early bearing trees. And that there were precocious 
and early bearing trees in Judaea, may be illustrated from 
some expressions in Scripture concerning precocious figs; 
calathus unus habebat Jicus bonus minis, sicut solent essejicus 
primi temporis; " one basket had very good figs, even like 
the figs that are first ripe."* And the like might be more 
especially expected in this place, if this remarkable tree be 
rightly placed in some maps of Jerusalem ; for it is placed, 
by Adrichomius, in or near Bethphage, which some con- 
jectures will have to be the house of figs : and at this place 
fig trees are still to be found, if we consult the travels of 
Bidulphus. 

Again, in this great variety of fig trees, as precocious, pro- 
terical, biferous, triferous, and always bearing trees, some 
thing might have been expected, though the time of common 
figs was not yet. For some trees bear in a manner all the 
year; as may be illustrated from the epistle of the Emperour 
Julian, concerning his present of Damascus figs, which he 
commendeth from their successive and continued growing 
and bearing, after the manner of the fruits which Homer de 
scribeth in the garden of Alcinous. And though it were 
then but about the eleventh of March, yet, in the latitude ol 
Jerusalem, the sun at that time hath a good power in the 

* Jcr. xxiv, 2. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 165 

day, and might advance the maturity of precocious often- 
bearing or ever-bearing figs. And therefore when it is said 
that St. Peter* stood and warmed himself by the fire in the 
judgment hall, and the reason is added ("for it was cold"f), 
that expression might be interposed either to denote the 
coolness in the morning, according to hot countries, or some 
extraordinary and unusual coldness, which happened at that 
time. For the same Bidulphus, who was at that time of the 
year at Jerusalem, saith, that it was then as hot as at Mid- 
summer in England : and we find in Scripture that the first 
sheaf of barley was offered in March. 

Our Saviour, therefore, seeing a fig tree with leaves well 
spread, and so as to be distinguished afar off, went unto it, 
and when he came, found nothing but leaves ; he found it to 
be no precocious or always-bearing tree : and though it were 
not the time for summer figs, yet he found no rudiments 
thereof; and though he expected not common figs, yet some- 
thing might haply have been expected of some other kind, 
according to different fertility and variety of production; but, 
discovering nothing, he found a tree answering the state of 
the Jewish rulers, barren unto all expectation. 

And this is consonant unto the mystery of the story, 
wherein the fig tree denoteth the synagogue and rulers of the 
Jews, whom God having peculiarly cultivated, singularly 
blessed and cherished, he expected from them no ordinary, 
slow, or customary fructification, but an earliness in good 
works, a precocious or continued fructification, and was not 
content with common after-bearing ; and might justly have 
expostulated with the Jews, as God by the prophet Micah 
did with their forefathers ; £ prcecoquas ficus desideravit 
anima mea, " my soul longed for (or desired) early ripe fruits, 
but ye are become as a vine already gathered, and there is 
no cluster upon you." 

Lastly, in this account of the fig tree, the mystery and 
symbolical sense is chiefly to be looked upon. Our Saviour, 
therefore, taking a hint from his hunger to go unto this spe- 
cious tree, and intending, by this tree, to declare a judgment 

* St. Mark xiv, 67. St. Luke xxii, 55, 56. 
f St. John xviii, 18. J Micah, vii, 1. 



166 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

upon the synagogue and people of the Jews, he came unto 
the tree, and, after the usual manner, inquired, and looked 
about for some kind of fruit, as he had done before in the 
Jews, but found nothing but leaves and specious outsides, as 
he had also found in them; and when it bore no fruit 
like them, when he expected it, and come to look for it, 
though it were not the time of ordinary fruit, yet failing when 
he required it, in the mysterious sense, 't was fruitless longer 
to expect it. For he had come unto them, and they were 
nothing fructified by it, his departure approached, and his 
time of preaching was now at an end. 

Now, in this account, besides the miracle, some things are 
naturally considerable. For it may be questioned how the 
fig tree, naturally a fruitful plant, became barren, for it had 
no show or so much as rudiment of fruit : and it was in old 
time, a signal judgment of God, that " the fig tree should 
bear no fruit : " and therefore this tree may naturally be con- 
ceived to have been under some disease indisposing it to such 
fructification. And this, in the pathology of plants, may be 
the disease of pvXXo^av'm, I/a©uXX/o/a6s, or superfoliation mention- 
ed by Theophrastus ; whereby the fructifying juice is starved 
by the excess of leaves ; which in this tree were already so 
full spread, that it might be known and distinguished afar off. 
And this was, also, a sharp resemblance of the hypocrisy of 
the rulers, made up of specious outsides, and fruitless osten- 
tation, contrary to the fruit of the fig tree, which, filled with 
a sweet and pleasant pulp, makes no shew without, not so 
much as of any flower. 

Some naturals are also considerable from the propriety of 
this punishment settled upon a fig tree : for infertility and 
barrenness seems more intolerable in this tree than any, as 
being a vegetable singularly constituted for production ; so far 
from bearing no fruit that it may be made to bear almost any. 
And therefore the ancients singled out this as the fittest tree 
whereon to graft and propagate other fruits, as containing a 
plentiful and lively sap, whereby other scions would prosper : 
and, therefore, this tree was also sacred unto the deity of fer- 
tility ; and the statua of Priapus was made of the fig tree ; 
Olim tnnicus cram ficulneua inutile lignum. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 1G7 

It hath also a peculiar advantage to produce and maintain 
: its fruit above all other plants, as not subject to miscarry in 
j flowers and blossoms, from accidents of wind and weather. 

For it beareth no flowers outwardly, and such as it hath, are 
i within the coat, as the later examination of naturalists hath 
i discovered. 

Lastly, it was a tree wholly constituted for fruit, wherein if 
) it faileth, it is in a manner useless, the wood thereof being 
ii of so little use, that it affordeth proverbial expressions, 

homo Jiculneiis, argumentum Jiculneum, or things of no 

validity. 

44. " I said I will go up into the palm tree, and take hold 
i of the boughs thereof." * This expression is more agreeable 
i unto the palm than is commonly apprehended, for that it is 
i a tall bare tree, bearing its boughs but at the top and upper 

part ; so that it must be ascended before its boughs or fruit 
can be attained : and the going, getting, or climbing up, may 
be emphatical in this tree ; for the trunk or body thereof is 
naturally contrived for ascension, and made with advantage 
for getting up, as having many welts and eminences, and so 
as it were a natural ladder, and staves by which it may be 
climbed, as Pliny observeth palmae teretes atque proceres, 
densis quadratisque pollicibus faciles se ad scandendum 
prcebent,\ by this way men are able to get up into it. And 
the figures of Indians thus climbing the same are graphically 
described in the travels of Linschoten. This tree is often 
mentioned in Scripture, and was so remarkable in Judaea, that 
in after-times it became the emblem of that country, as may 
be seen in that medal of the Emperor Titus, with a captive 
woman sitting under a palm, and the inscription of Judaea, 
capta. And Pliny confirmeth the same when he saith Ju- 
daea palmis inclyta. 

45. Many things are mentioned in Scripture, which have 
an emphasis from this or the neighbour countries : for besides 
the cedars, the Syrian lilies are taken notice of by writers. 
That expression in the Canticles, " thou art fair, thou art 
fair, thou hast dove's eyes,"J receives a particular character, 

* Cant, vii, 8. f PUn. xiii, cap. 4. * Cant, iv, 1. 



168 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

if we look, not upon our common pigeons, but the beauteous 
and fine eyed doves of Syria. 

When the rump is so strictly taken notice of in the sacrifice 
of the peace offering, in these words, " the whole rump, it 
shall be taken off hard by the back-bone,"* it becomes the more 
considerable in reference to this country, where sheep had so 
large tails; which, according to Aristotle, f were a cubit 
broad ; and so they are still, as Bellonius hath delivered. 

When 't is said in the Canticles, " thy teeth are as a flock 
of sheep which go up from the washing, whereof every one 
beareth twins, and there is not one barren among them ;" % it 
may seem hard unto us of these parts to find whole flocks 
bearing twins, and not one barren among them ; yet may this 
be better conceived in the fertile flocks of those countries, 
where sheep have so often two, sometimes three, and some- 
times four, and which is so frequently observed by writers of 
the neighbour country of Egypt. And this fecundity, and 
fruitfulness of their flocks, is answerable unto the expression 
of the psalmist, " that our sheep may bring forth thousands 
and ten thousands in our streets." § And hereby, besides 
what was spent at their tables, a good supply was made for 
the great consumption of sheep in their several kinds of sacri- 
fices ; and of so many thousand male unblemished yearling 
lambs, which were required at their passovers. 

Nor need we wonder to find so frequent mention both of 
garden and field plants ; since Syria was notable of old for 
this curiosity and variety, according to Pliny, Syria hortis 
operosissima ; and since Bellonius hath so lately observed of 
Jerusalem, that its hilly parts did so abound with plants, that 
they might be compared unto mount Ida in Crete or Candia ; 
which is the most noted place for noble simples yet known. 

46. Though so many plants have their express names in 
Scripture, yet others are implied in some texts which are not 
explicitly mentioned. In the feast of tabernacles or booths, 
the law was this, " thou shalt take unto thee boughs of goodly 
trees, branches of the palm, and the boughs of thick trees, 



Lcvit. iii, 9. f Arist. Hist. Animal, lib. viii. \ Cant. 

i) Psalm cxliv, 13. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 169 

and willows of the brook." Now though the text descendeth 
not unto particulars of the goodly trees and thick trees ; yet 
Maimonides will tell us that for a goodly tree they made use 
of the citron tree, which is fair and goodly to the eye, and 
well prospering in that country : and that for the thick trees 
they used the myrtle, which was no rare or infrequent plant 
among them. And though it groweth but low in our gar- 
dens, was not a little tree in those parts ; in which plant also 
the leaves grew thick, and almost covered the stalk. And 
Curtius Symphorianus * in his description of the exotic myr- 
tle, makes it folio densissimo senis in ordinem versibus. The 
paschal lamb was to be eaten with bitterness or bitter herbs, 
not particularly set down in Scripture : but the Jewish writers 
declare, that they made use of succory, and wild lettuce, 
which herbs while some conceive they could not get down, as 
being very bitter, rough, and prickly, they may consider that 
the time of the passover was in the spring, when these herbs 
are young and tender, and consequently less unpleasant : be- 
sides, according to the Jewish custom, these herbs were dip- 
ped in the charoseth, or sauce made of raisins stamped with 
vinegar, and were also eaten with bread ; and they had four 
cups of wine allowed unto them ; and it was sufficient to take 
but a pittance of herbs, or the quantity of an olive. 

47. Though the famous paper reed of Egypt be only par- 
ticularly named in scripture ; yet when reeds are so often 
mentioned without special name or distinction, we may con- 
ceive their differences may be comprehended, and that they 
were not all of one kind, or that the common reed was only 
implied. For mention is made in Ezekielf of "a measuring 
reed of six cubits ; " we find that they smote our Saviour on 
the head with a reed, % and put a sponge with vinegar on a 
reed, which was long enough to reach to his mouth, 9 while he 
was upon the cross. And with such differences of reeds, 
vallatory, sagittary, scriptory, and others they might be fur- 
nished in Judaea. For we find in the portion of Ephraim,§ 

* Curtius de Hortis. f Ezek. xl. 5. 

% St. Matt, xxvii. 30, 48. § Josh. xvi. 17 

9 A reed which was long enough to hood of Suez some reeds grow to the 
reach to his mouth.] In the neighbour- height of twelve yards. 



170' OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

vallis arundineti ; and so set down in the maps of Adricomius, 
and in our translation the river Kana, or brook of Canes. 
And Bellonius tells us that the river Jordan affordeth plenty 
and variety of reeds ; out of some whereof the Arabs make 
darts and light lances, and out of others, arrows; and withal 
that there plentifully groweth the fine calamus, arundo scrip- 
toria, or writing reed, which they gather with the greatest 
care, as being of singular use and commodity at home and 
abroad ; a hard reed about the compass of a goose or swan's 
quill, whereof I have seen some polished and cut with a web 
[neb ? or nib?] ; which is in common use for writing throughout 
the Turkish dominions, they using not the quills of birds. 

And whereas the same author, with other describers of 
these parts, affirmeth, that the river Jordan, not far from 
Jericho, is but such a stream as a youth may throw a stone 
over it, or about eight fathoms broad, it doth not diminish the 
account and solemnity of the miraculous passage of the 
Israelites under Joshua. For it must be considered, that they 
passed it in the time of harvest, when the river was high, and 
the grounds about it under water, according to that pertinent 
parenthesis; — "As the feet of the priests, which carried the 
ark, were dipped in the brim of the water, for Jordan over- 
floweth all its banks at the time of harvest." * In this con- 
sideration it was well joined with the great river Euphrates, 
in that expression in Ecclesiasticus, " God maketh the under- 
standing to abound like Euphrates, and as Jordan in the 
time of harvest." j- 

48. The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which 
sowed good seed in his field, but while men slept, his enemy 
came and sowed tares," or as the Greek, zizania, " among the 
wheat." 

Now, how to render zizania, and to what species of plants 
to confine it, there is no slender doubt ; for the word is not 
mentioned in other parts of Scripture, nor in any ancient 
Greek writer : it is not to be found in Aristotle, Theophras- 
tus, or Dioscorides. Some Greek and Latin fathers have 
made use of the same, as also Suidas and Phavorinus ; but 
probably they have all derived it from this text. 

* Josh, iii, 15. f Eccles. xxiv, 26. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 171 

And, therefore, this obscurity might easily occasion such 
variety in translations and expositions. For some retain the 
word zizania, as the vulgar, that of Beza, of Junius, and also 
the Italian and Spanish. The low Dutch renders it oncruidt, 
the German oncraut, or herba mala, the French yuroye or 
lolium, and the English tares. 

Besides, this being conceived to be a Syriac word, it 
may still add unto the uncertainty of the sense. For though 
this gospel were first written in Hebrew or Syriac, yet it is 
not unquestionable whether the true original be any where 
extant. And that Syriac copy which we now have, is con- 
ceived to be of far later time than St. Matthew. 

Expositors and annotators are also various. Hugo Grotius 
hath passed the word zizania without a note. Diodati, re- 
taining the word zizania, conceives that it was some peculiar 
herb growing among the corn of those countries, and not known 
in our fields. But Emanuel de Sa interprets it plantas semi- 
ninoxias, and so accordingly some others. 

Buxtorfius, in his Rabbinical Lexicon, gives divers inter- 
pretations, sometimes for degenerated corn, sometimes for the 
black seeds in wheat, but withal concludes, an hcec sit eadem 
vox aut species cum zizania apud evangelistam, qucerant alii. 
But lexicons and dictionaries by zizania do almost generally 
understand lolium, which we call darnel, and commonly con- 
fine the signification to that plant. Notwithstanding, since 
lolium had a known and received name in Greek, some may 
be apt to doubt why, if that plant were particularly intended, 
the proper Greek word was not used in the text. For Theo- 
phrastus * named lolium aTga, and hath often mentioned that 
plant ; and in one place saith, that corn doth sometimes lolie- 
scere or degenerate into darnel. Dioscorides, who travelled 
over Judasa, gives it the same name, which is also to be found 
in Galen, ^Etius, and iEgineta ; and Pliny hath sometimes 
Latinized that word into cera. 

Besides, lolium or darnel shews itself in the winter, grow- 
ing up with the wheat ; and Theophrastus observed, that it 
was no vernal plant, but came up in the winter ; which will 

* oi ^ai^ffdat. Thcophrast. Hist. Plant, lib. 8. 



172 OBSERVATIONS UPON PLANTS [TRACT I. 

not well answer the expression of the text, " And when the 
blade came up, and brought forth fruit," or gave evidence of 
its fruit, the zizania appeared. And if the husbandry of the 
ancients were agreeable unto ours, they would not have been 
so earnest to weed away the darnel ; for our husbandmen do 
not commonly weed it in the field, but separate the seed after 
thrashing. And, therefore, Galen delivereth, that in an un- 
seasonable year, and great scarcity of corn, when they ne- 
glected to separate the darnel, the bread proved generally 
unwholesome, and had evil effects on the head. 

Our old and later translators render zizanla tares, which 
name our English botanists give unto aracus, cracca, vicia 
sylvestris, calling them tares and strangling tares. And our 
husbandmen by tares, understand some sorts of wild fitches, 
which grow amongst corn, and clasp unto it, according to the 
Latin etymology, vicia a vinciendo. Now in this uncertainty 
of the original, tares, as well as some others, may make out 
the sense, and be also more agreeable unto the circumstances 
of the parable. For they come up and appear what they are, 
when the blade of the corn is come up, and also the stalk and 
fruit discoverable. They have likewise little spreading roots, 
which may entangle or rob the good roots, and they have also 
tendrils and claspers, which lay hold of what grows near 
them, and so can hardly be weeded without endangering the 
neighbouring corn. 

However, if by zizania we understand herbas segeti noxias, 
or vitia segetum, as some expositors have done, and take the 
word in a more general sense, comprehending several weeds 
and vegetables offensive unto corn, according as the Greek 
word in the plural number may imply, and as the learned 
Laurenbergius * hath expressed, runcare, quod apud nostrates 
weden dicitur, zizanias inutiles est evcllere. If, I say, it be 
thus taken, we shall not need to be definite, or confine unto 
one particular plant, from a word which may comprehend 
divers. And this may also prove a safer sense, 1 in such ob- 
scurity of the original. 

* l)e Hnrti Cultura. 

' This may also prove a safer sense] disposed, with Forskal, to consider it to 
But the later commentators seem rather have been the darnel. 



TRACT I.] MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. 173 

And, therefore, since in this parable the sower of the ziza- 
nia is the devil, and the zizania wicked persons ; if any from 
this larger acception will take in thistles, darnel, cockle, wild 
straggling fitches, bindweed, tribulus, restharrow and other 
vitia segetum ; he may, both from the natural and symbolical 
qualities of those vegetables, have plenty of matter to illustrate 
the variety of his mischiefs, and of the wicked of this world. 

49. When 't is said in Job, " Let thistles grow up instead 
of wheat, and cockle " instead of barley," the words are intel- 
ligible, the sense allowable and significant to this purpose : 
but whether the word cockle doth strictly conform unto the 
original, some doubt may be made from the different transla- 
tions of it ; for the vulgar renders it spina, Tremellius vitia 
Jrugum, and the Geneva yuroye, or darnel. Besides, whether 
cockle were common in the ancient agriculture of those parts, 
or what word they used for it, is of great uncertainty. For the 
elder botanical writers have made no mention thereof, and the 
moderns have given it the name of pseudomelanthium, nigel- 
lastrum, lyclmoides segetum, names not known unto anti- 
quity. And, therefore, our translation hath warily set down 
' noisome weeds ' in the margin. 

2 coc/rfe.] Celsius, and after him Michaelis, supposes this to have been the aconite. 



174 



OF GARLANDS AND 



[tract ir. 



TRACT II. 

of garlands and coronary or garland plants. 1 

Sir, 
The use of flowery crowns and garlands is of no slender 
antiquity, and higher than I conceive you apprehend it. For, 
besides the old Greeks and Romans, the Egyptians made use 
hereof; who, besides the bravery of their garlands, had little 
birds upon them to peck their heads and brows, and so to 
keep them [from] sleeping at their festival compotations. This 
practice also extended as far as India: for at the feast of 
the Indian King, it is peculiarly observed by Philostratus, 
that their custom was to wear garlands, and come crowned 
with them unto their feast. 

The crowns and garlands of the ancients were either gesta- 
tory, such as they wore about their heads or necks ; portatory, 
such as they carried at solemn festivals ; pensile or suspen- 
sory, such as they hanged about the posts of their houses in 
honour of their Gods, as Jupiter Thyraeus or Limeneus ; or 
else they were depository, such as they laid upon the graves 
and monuments of the dead. And these were made up after 



1 In the margin of Evelyn's copy is 
this manuscript note: — " This letter was 
written to me from Dr. Broivne ,• more at 
large in the Coronarie Plants." 

In order to preserve unaltered, as far 
as possible, the order of Sir Thomas 
Browne'spublished works, I have thought 
proper not to transplant into the " Cor- 
respondence " the present and several 
other Tracts, though they were, in fact, 
epistolary, and it has been ascertained 
to whom they were addressed. In the 
preface to Evelyn's Acetaria, (re-printed 
by Mr. Upcott, in his Collection of Eve- 
lyn's Miscellaneous Writings,) we find 
his "Plan of a Royal Garden, in 3 
Books." It was in reference to this pro- 
jected work, (of which however Acetaria 



was the only part ever published,) that 
Browne's assistance was asked and given. 
Among the subjects named in that plan 
the following are referred to in the pre- 
sent Tract, and in other of Browne's 
Letters to Evelyn : — 

Book II. chap. 6*. Of a seminary; nur- 
series ; and of propagating trees, plants, 
and flowers ; planting and transplanting, 
&c. 

Chap. 1 G. Of the coronary garden. 

Chap. 18. Of stupendous and wonder- 
ful plants. 

Book III. chap. 9. Of garden-burial. 

Chap. 10. Of paradise, and of the 
most famous gardens in the world, an- 
cient and modern. 



TRACT II.] CORONARY PLANTS. 175 

all ways of art, compactile, sutile, plectile ; for which work 
there were setpuvovkoxoi, or expert persons to contrive them after 
the best grace and propriety. 

Though we yield not unto them in the beauty of flowery 
garlands, yet some of those of antiquity were larger than any 
we lately met with ; for we find in Athenseus, that a myrtle 
crown, of one and twenty foot in compass, was solemnly car- 
ried about at the Hellotian feast in Corinth, together with the 
bones of Europa. 

And garlands were surely of frequent use among them ; for 
we read in Galen,* that when Hippocrates cured the great 
plague of Athens by fires kindled in and about the city : the 
fuel thereof consisted much of their garlands. And they 
must needs be very frequent and of common use, the ends 
thereof being many. For they were convivial, festival, sacri- 
ficial, nuptial, honorary, funebrial. We who propose unto 
ourselves the pleasures of two senses, and only single out such 
as are of beauty and good odour, cannot strictly confine our- 
selves unto imitation of them. 

For, in their convivial garlands, they had respect unto 
plants preventing drunkenness, or discussing ~ the exhala- 
tions from wine ; wherein, beside roses, taking in ivy, vervain, 
melilote, &c. they made use of divers of small beauty or good 
odour. The solemn festival garlands were made properly 
unto their gods, and accordingly contrived from plants sacred 
unto such deities ; and their sacrificial ones were selected 
under such considerations. Their honorary crowns trium- 
phal, ovary, civical, obsidional, had little of flowers in them : 
and their funebrial garlands had little of beauty in them be- 
side roses, while they made them of myrtle, rosemary, apium, 
&c. under symbolical intimations ; but our florid and purely 
ornamental garlands, delightful unto sight and smell, nor 
framed according to any mystical and symbolical considera- 
tions, are of more free election, and so may be made to excel 
those of the ancients : we having China, India, and a new world 
to supply us, beside the great distinction of flowers unknown 

* Be Theriaca ad Pisonem. 

5 discussing."] Dr. Johnson quotes the word discuss in the sense of dis- 
tliis passage as his example of the use of perse. 



176 OF GARLANDS AND [TRACT II. 

unto antiquity, and the varieties thereof arising from art and 
nature. 

But, beside vernal, aestival and autumnal, made of flowers, 
the ancients had also the hyemal garlands ; contenting them- 
selves at first with such as were made of horn dyed into seve- 
ral colours, and shaped into the figures of flowers, and also 
of ces coronarium or clincquant, or brass thinly wrought out 
into leaves commonly known among us. But the curiosity 
of some emperors for such intents had roses brought from 
Egypt until they had found the art to produce late roses in 
Rome, and to make them grow in winter, as is delivered in 
that handsome epigram of Martial. 

At tu Romanse jussus jam cedere brumae 
Mitte tuas messes, accipe, Nile, rosas. 

Some American nations, who do much excel in garlands, 
content not themselves only with flowers, but make elegant 
crowns of feathers, whereof they have some of greater ra- 
diancy and lustre than their flowers : and since there is an 
art to set into shapes, and curiously to work in choicest fea- 
thers, there could nothing answer the crowns made of the 
choicest feathers of some tomineios and sun birds. 

The catalogue of coronary plants is not large in Theo- 
phrastus, Pliny, Pollux, or Athenaeus : but we may find a 
good enlargement in the accounts of modern botanists ; and 
additions may still be made by successive acquists of fair and 
specious plants, not yet translated from foreign regions, or 
little known unto our gardens ; he that would be complete 
may take notice of these following, 

Flos Tigridis. 

Flos Li/ncis. 

Pinea Indica Recclii, Talama Ouiedi. 

Herba Paradisea. 

Volubilis Mexicanus. 

Narcissus Indicus Serpentarius. 

Helichrysum Mexicanum. 

Xicama. 

Aquilegia nova; Hispanice Cacoxochitli Recchi. 

Aristochcca Mexicana. 



TRACT II.] CORONARY PLANTS. 177 

Camarat'mga sive Caragunta quartet Pisonis. 

Maracuia Granadilla. 

Cambay sive Myrtus Americana. 

Flos Auriculce Flor de la Oreia. 

Floripendlo novce Hispanice. 

Rosa Indica. 

Zilium Indicum. 

Fula Magori Garcice. 

Champe Garcice Champacca Bontii. 

Daullontas frutex odoratus sen Chamcemelum arbores- 

cens Bontii. 
Beidelsar Alpini. 
Sambuc. 

Amberboi Turcarum. 
Nuphar JEgyptium. 
Lilionarcissus Indicus. 
Bamma JEgyptiacum. 
Hiucca Canadensis horti Famesiani. 
Bupthalmum novm Hispanice Alepocapath. 
Valeriana sen Chrysanthemum Americanum Acocotlis. 
Flos Corvinus Coronarius Americanus. 
Capolin Cerasus dulcis Indicus Floribus racemosis. 
Asphodelus Americanus. 
Syringa Lutea Americana. 
Bulbus unifolius. 
Moly latifolium Flore luteo. 3 
Conyza Americana purpurea. 
Salvia Cretica pomifera Bellonii. 
Lausus Serrata Odora. 
Ornithogalus Promontorii Bonce Spei. 
Fritillaria crassa Soldanica Promontorii Bonce Spei. 
Sigillum Solomotiis Indicum. 
Tulipa Promontorii Bonce Spei. 
Iris Uvaria. 
Nopolxock sedum elegans novce Hispanice. 



3 Moly latifolium Flore luteo. \ Sir name; — " for Moly Flore luteo," he says, 

Thomas, in a subsequent letter, (see " you may please to put in Moly Hondi- 

Correspondence, p. 3S0,) corrects this anum novum." 

VOL. IV. K 



178 OF GARLANDS AND CORONARY PLANTS. [TRACT II. 

More might be added unto this list ; 4 and I have only 
taken the pains to give you a short specimen of those, many 
more which you may find in respective authors, and which 
time and future industry may make no great strangers in 
England. The inhabitants of nova Hispania, and a great 
part of America, Mahometans, Indians, Chinese, are eminent 
promoters of these coronary and specious plants; and the 
annual tribute of the Kirig of Bisnaguer in India, arising out 
of odours and flowers, amounts unto many thousands of 
crowns. 

Thus, in brief, of this matter. I am, &c. 

4 More might be added unto this list.] of from Norwich. — MS. note of Evelyn's. 
Which Sir Thomas sent me a catalogue This list has not been found. 



TRACT III.] OF THE FISHES EATEN BY CHRIST. 179 



TRACT III. 

j 
I 

i OF THE FISHES EATEN BY OUR SAVIOUR WITH HIS DISCIPLES 
AFTER HIS RESURRECTION FROM THE DEAD. 

I' 

Sir, 
I have thought a little upon the question proposed by you 
[viz. what kind of fishes those were, 1 of which our Saviour 
ate with his disciples after his resurrection ? *] and I return 
you such an answer, as, in so short a time for study, and in 
the midst of my occasions, occurs to me. 

The books of Scripture (as also those which are apocry- 
phal) are often silent or very sparing, in the particular names 
bf fishes ; or in setting them down in such manner as to leave 
the kinds of them without all doubt and reason for farther 
inquiry. For, when it declareth what fishes were allowed the 
[Israelites for their food, they are only set down in general which 
lave fins and scales : whereas, in the account of quadrupeds 
ind birds, there is particular mention made of divers of them, 
(n the book of Tobit that fish which he took out of the river 
s only named a great fish, and so there remains much uncer- 
tainty to determine the species thereof. And even the fish 
Ivhich swallowed Jonah, and is called a great fish, and com- 
nonly thought to be a great whale, is not received without 
kll doubt ; while some learned men conceive it to have been 
iione of our whales, but a large kind of lamia. 

And, in this narration of St. John, the fishes are only ex- 
Dressed by their bigness and number, not their names, and 
herefore it may seem undeterminable what they were : not- 
vithstanding, these fishes being taken in the great lake or 
ea of Tiberias, something may be probably stated therein. 

* St. John xxi, 9, 10, 11—13. 

' l what kind, $c.~\ MS. Sloan. 1827, were, which fed the multitude in the 
;ads, "of what kind those little fish wilderness, or, &c." 

N 2 



180 OF THE FISHES [TRACT III. 

For since Bellonius, that diligent and learned traveller, in- 
formeth us, that the fishes of this lake were trouts, pikes, 
chevins, and tenches ; it may well be conceived that either 
all or some thereof are to be understood in this Scripture. 
And these kind of fishes become large and of great growth, 
answerable unto the expression of Scripture, " one hundred 
fifty and three great fishes ;" that is, large in their own kinds, 
and the largest kinds in this lake and fresh water, wherein no 
great variety, and of the larger sort of fishes, could be ex- 
pected. For the river Jordan, running through this lake, 
falls into the lake of Asphaltus, and hath no mouth into the 
sea, which might admit of great fishes or greater variety to 
come up into it. 

And out of the mouth of some of these forementioned 
fishes might the tribute money be taken, when our Saviour, 
at Capernaum, seated upon the same lake, said unto Peter, 
" go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish 
that first cometh; and when thou hast opened his mouth 
thou shalt find a piece of money ; that take and give them 
for thee and me." 

And this makes void that common conceit and tradition of 
the fish called faber marinus, by some, a peter or penny fish ; 
which having two remarkable round spots upon either side 
these are conceived to be the marks of St. Peter's fingers or 
signatures of the money : for though it hath these marks, 
yet is there no probability that such a kind of fish was to be 
found in the lake of Tiberias, Gennesareth, or Galilee, which 
is but sixteen miles long and six broad, and hath no commu- 
nication with the sea ; for this is a mere fish of the sea and 
salt water, and (though we meet with some thereof on our 
coast) is not to be found in many seas. 

Thus having returned no improbable answer unto your 
question, I shall crave leave to ask another of yourself con- 
cerning that fish mentioned by Procopius,* which brought the 
famous Kins: Theodorick to his end : his words are to this 
effect : " the manner of his death was this ; Symmachus and 
his son-in-law Boethius, just men and great relievers of the 
poor, senators, and consuls, had many enemies, by whose 
* De Bello Gothico. lib. i. 



i TRACT III.] EATEN BY CHRIST. 181 

false accusations Theodorick being persuaded that they plot- 
ted against him, put them to death, and confiscated their 
estates. Not long after his waiters set before him at supper 
a great head of a fish, which seemed to him to be the head of 
! Symmachus lately murdered: and with his teeth sticking out, 
| and fierce glaring eyes to threaten him : being frighted, he 
;grew chill, went to bed, lamenting what he had done to 
Symmachus and Boethius ; and soon after died." What fish 
do you apprehend this to have been? I would learn of you; 
give me your thoughts about it. 

I am, &c. 



182 ANSWER TO QUERIES ABOUT [TRACT V 



TRACT IV. 

AN ANSWER TO CERTAIN QUERIES RELATING TO FISHES, 

birds, and insects. 

Sir, 
I return the following answers to your queries, which 

were these: — 

1. What fishes are meant by the names, halec and mugil? 

2. What is the bird which you will receive from the bearer, 
and what birds are meant by the names halcyon, nysus, ciris, 
nycticorax ? 

3. What insect is meant by the word cicada ? 
Answer 1. The word halec we are taught to render an 

herring, which, being an ancient word, is not strictly appro- 
priable unto a fish not known or not described by the ancients ; 
and which the modern naturalists are fain to name harengus : 
the word halecula being applied unto such little fish out of 
which they are fain to make pickle ; and halec or alec, taken 
for the liquamen or liquor itself, according to that of the poet, 

Ego faecem primus et alec 

Primus et inveni album 

And was a conditure and sauce much affected by antiquity, 
as was also muria and garum. 

In common constructions mugil is rendered a mullet, which, 
notwithstanding, is a different fish from the mugil described 
by authors ; x wherein, if we mistake, we cannot so closely 
apprehend the expression of Juvenal, 

Quosdam ventres et mugilis intrat. 

And misconceive the fish whereby fornicators were so oppro- 
briously and irksomely punished ; for the mugil, being some- 

1 authors.'] MS. Sloan, proceeds thus: lish ; and otlier nations nearly imitatt 
"for which I know not, perhaps, whe- the Latin, wherein, &c."— MS. Sloan 
ther we have any proper name in Eng- 1827. 



TRACT IV.] FISHES, BIRDS, AND INSECTS. 183 

what rough and hard skinned, did more exasperate the guts 
of such offenders : whereas the mullet was a smooth fish, and 
of too high esteem to be employed in such offices. 

Answer 2. I cannot but wonder that this bird you sent 
should be a stranger unto you, and unto those who had a sight 
thereof; for, though it be not seen every day, yet we often 
meet with it in this country. It is an elegant bird, which 
he that once beholdeth can hardly mistake any other for it. 
From the proper note it is called an hoopebird with us ; in 
Greek epops, in Latin upapa. We are little obliged unto 
our school instruction, wherein we are taught to render upupa 
a lapwing, which bird our natural writers name vannellus ; for 
thereby we mistake this remarkable bird, and apprehend not 
rightly what is delivered of it. 

We apprehend not the hieroglyphical considerations which 
( the old Egyptians made of this observable bird ; who, con- 
sidering therein the order and variety of colours, the twenty- 
s six or twenty-eight feathers in its crest, his latitancy, and 
| mewing this handsome outside in the winter : they made it an 
emblem of the varieties of the world, the succession of times 
and seasons, and signal mutations in them. And, therefore, 
l Orus, the hieroglyphic of the world, had the head of an hoope- 
bird upon the top of his staff. 

Hereby we may also mistake the duchiphath, or bird for- 
bidden for food in Leviticus ; * and, not knowing the bird, 
may the less apprehend some reasons of that prohibition ; 
that is, the magical virtues ascribed unto it by the Egyptians, 
\ and the superstitious apprehensions which that nation held of 
I it, whilst they precisely numbered the feathers and colours 
'} thereof, while they placed it on the heads of their gods, and 
i near their Mercurial crosses, and so highly magnified this 
) bird in their sacred symbols. 

Again, not knowing or mistaking this bird, we may misap- 
1 prehend, or not closely apprehend, that handsome expression 
1 of Ovid, when Tereus was turned into an upupa, or hoope- 
bird :— 
n ... 

Vertitur in volucrem cui sunt pro vertice cristK, 
Protinus iramodicum surgit pro cuspide rostrum 
Nomen epops volucri, fades armata videtur. 

* Levit. xi, 10. 



184 ANSWER TO QUERIES ABOUT [TRACT IV. 

For, in this military shape, he is aptly fancied even still re- 
vengefully to pursue his hated wife, Progne : in the propriety 
of his note crying ovit, pou, pou, ubi, ubi ; or, Where are you? 
Nor are we singly deceived in the nominal translation of 
this bird : in many other animals we commit the like mistake. 
So gracculus is rendered a jay, which bird, notwithstanding, 
must be of a dark colour according to that of Martial, 

Sed quandam volo nocte nigriorem 
Formica, pice, gracculo, cicada. 

Halcyon is rendered a kingfisher,* a bird commonly known 
among us, and by zoographers and naturals the same is named 
ispida, a well coloured bird, frequenting streams and rivers, 
building in holes of pits, like some martins, about the end 
of the spring; in whose nests we have found little else than 
innumerable small fish bones, and white round eggs of a 
smooth and polished surface, whereas the true halcyon is a sea 
bird, makes an handsome nest floating upon the water, and 
breedeth in the winter. 

That nysus should be rendered either an hobby or a spar- 
row-hawk in the fable of Nysus and Scylla in Ovid, because 
we are much to seek in the distinction of hawks according to 
their old denominations, we shall not much contend, and may 
allow a favourable latitude therein : but that the ciris or bird 
into which Scylla was turned should be translated a lark, it 
can hardly be made out agreeable unto the description of 
Virgil, in his poem of that name, 

Indc alias volucrcs mimoque infecta rubcnti crura 

But seems more agreeable unto some kind of hcemantopus or 
redshank ; and so the nysus to have been some kind of hawk, 
which delighteth about the sea and marisb.es, where such prey 
most aboundeth, which sort of hawk, while Scaliger deter- 
mineth to be a merlin, the French translator warily expound- 
eth it to be some kind of hawk. 

Nycticorax we may leave unto the common and verbal 
translation of a night-raven, but we know no proper kind of 

* See J'ulg. Err. b. iii, c. 10. 



TRACT IV.] FISHES, BIRDS, AND INSECTS. 185 

raven unto which to confine the same, and, therefore, some 
take the liberty to ascribe it unto some sort of owls, and 
others unto the bittern; which bird, in its common note, 
which he useth out of the time of coupling and upon the wing, 
so well resembleth the croaking of a raven, that I have been 
deceived by it. 2 

Answer 3. While cicada is rendered a grasshopper, we 
commonly think that which is so called among us to be the 
true cicada; wherein, as we have elsewhere declared,* there 
is a great mistake : for we have not the cicada in England, 3 
and, indeed, no proper word for that animal, which the 
French nameth cigale. That which we commonly call a 
grasshopper, and the French saulterelle, being one kind of 
locust, so rendered in the plague of Egypt, and, in old Saxon, 
named gersthop. 4 ' 

I have been the less accurate in these answers, because the 
queries are not of difficult resolution, or of great moment : 
however, I would not wholly neglect them or your satisfaction, 
as being, Sir, Yours, &c. 

* Vulg. Err. b. v, c. 3. 

2 Nycticorax, 8fC.~\ Very possibly the for a considerable period, nearly twenty 
night-raven, ardea nycticorax, Lin. years since. It has been named C. An- 

3 we have not the cicada in England.] glica, and is figured by Samouelle, Comp. 
Of the true Linnasan cicada ( Tetligonia pi. 5, fig. 2, and by Curtis, British En- 
Fabr.), the first British species was dis- tomology, Feb. 1st, 1832, No. 392. 
covered in the New Forest, by Mr. Byd- 4 gersthop.~\ " Gerstrappa," in MS. 
der, a collector whom I employed there Sloan. 1827. 



186 OF HAWKS AND FALCONRY. [TRACT V. 



TRACT V. 

of hawks and falconry, ancient and modern. 

Sir, 
In vain you expect much information, de re accipitraria, of 
falconry, hawks, or hawking, from very ancient Greek or 
Latin authors ; that art being either unknown or so little ad- 
vanced among them, that it seems to have proceeded no 
higher than the daring of birds : which makes so little thereof 
to be found in Aristotle, who only mentions some rude prac- 
tice thereof in Thracia ; as also in /Elian, who speaks some- 
thing of hawks and crows among the Indians ; little or no- 
thing of true falconry being mentioned before Julius Firmicus, 
in the days of Constantius, son to Constantine the Great. 

Yet, if you consult the accounts of later antiquity left by 
Demetrius the Greek, by Symmachus and Theodotius, and 
by Albertus Magnus, about five hundred years ago, you, 
who have been so long acquainted with this noble recreation, 
may better compare the ancient and modern practice, and 
rightly observe how many things in that art are added, va- 
ried, disused, or retained, in the practice of these days. 

In the diet of hawks, they allowed of divers meats which 
we should hardly commend. For beside the flesh of beef, 1 
they admitted of goat, hog, deer, whelp, and bear. And 
how you will approve the quantity and measure thereof, I 
make some doubt ; while by weight they allowed half a pound 
of beef, seven ounces of swines' flesh, five of hare, eight 
ounces of whelp, as much of deer, and ten ounces of he- 
goats' flesh. 

In the time of Demetrius they were not without the prac- 
tice of phlebotomy or bleeding, which they used in the thigh 
and pounces ; " they plucked away the feathers on the thigh, 

1 ice/.] Lamb, mutton, beef — MS. 2 pounces."] The pounce is the talon 
Sloan. 1827. or claw of a bird of prey. 



TRACT V.] OF HAWKS AND FALCONRY. 187 

and rubbed the part ; but if the vein appeared not in that 
part, they open the vein of the fore talon. 

In the days of Albertus, they made use of cauteries in 
divers places : to advantage their sight they seared them 
under the inward angle of the eye ; above the eye in distill- 
ations and diseases of the head ; in upward pains they seared 
above the joint of the wing, and in the bottom of the foot, 
against the gout ; and the chief time for these cauteries they 
made to be the month of March. 

In great coldness of hawks they made use of fomentations, 
some of the steam or vapour of artificial and natural baths, 
some wrapt them up in hot blankets, giving them nettle seeds 
and butter. 

No clysters are mentioned, nor can they be so profitably 
used; but they made use of many purging medicines. They 
purged with aloe, which, unto larger hawks, they gave in 
the bigness of a Greek bean ; unto lesser, in the quantity of 
a cicerf which notwithstanding I should rather give washed, 
and with a few drops of oil of almonds : for the guts of flying 
fowls are tender and easily scratched by it ; and upon the use 
of aloe both in hens and cormorants I have sometimes ob- 
served bloody excretions. 

In phlegmatic cases they seldom omitted stavesaker, 4 but 
they purged sometimes with a mouse, and the food of boiled 
chickens, sometimes with good oil and honey. 

They used also the ink of cuttle fishes, with smallage, 
betony, wine, and honey. They made use of stronger me- 
dicines than present practice doth allow. For they were not 
afraid to give coccus baphicus; 5 beating up eleven of its 
grains unto a lentor, 6 which they made up into five pills wrapt 
up with honey and pepper : and, in some of their old medi- 
cines, we meet with scammony and euphorbium. Whether, 
in the tender bowels of birds, infusions of rhubarb, agaric 
and mechoachan, be not of safer use, as to take of agaric 
two drachms, of cinnamon half a drachm, of liquorice a 
scruple, and, infusing them in wine, to express a part into 

3 cicer.~] The seed of a vetch. 5 coccus baphicus.'] Or mezerion. — 

4 stavesaker. ,] Or stave' s-acre , a plant; MS. Sloan. 1827. 
Delphinium staphisagria, Lin. 6 lenlor.~\ A stiff paste. 



188 OF HAWKS AND FALCONRY. [TRACT V. 

the mouth of the hawk, may be considered by present 
practice. 

Few mineral medicines were of inward use among them : 
yet sometimes we observe they gave filings of iron in the 
straightness of the chest, as also lime in some of their pecto- 
ral medicines. 

But they commend unguents of quicksilver against the 
scab : and I have safely given six or eight grains of mercurius 
clulcis unto kestrils and owls, as also crude and current 
quicksilver, giving the next day small pellets of silver or lead 
till they came away uncoloured : and this, if any [way], may 
probably destroy that obstinate disease of the fllander or 
back- worm. 

A peculiar remedy they had against the consumption of 
hawks. For, filling a chicken with vinegar, they closed up 
the bill, and hanging it up until the flesh grew tender, they 
fed the hawk therewith : and to restore and well flesh them, 
they commonly gave them hog's flesh, with oil, butter, and 
honey ; and a decoction of cumfory to bouze. 3 

They disallowed of salt meats and fat ; but highly esteemed 
of mice in most indispositions; and in the falling sickness had 
great esteem of boiled bats: and in many diseases, of the 
flesh of owls which feed upon those animals. In epilepsies 
they also gave the brain of a kid drawn through a gold ring ; 
and, in convulsions, made use of a mixture of musk and 
stercus humanwm aridum. 

For the better preservation of their health they strewed 
mint and sage about them ; and for the speedier mewing of 
their feathers, they gave them the slough of a snake, or a 
tortoise out of the shell, or a green lizard cut in pieces. 

If a hawk were unquiet, they hooded him, and placed him 
in a smith's shop for some time, where, accustomed tothe con- 
tinual noise of hammering, he became more gentle and 
tractable. 

They used few terms of art, plainly and intelligibly ex- 
pressing the parts affected, their diseases and remedies. 
This heap of artificial terms first entering with the French 



8 bouze.] MS. Sloan. 1827, read* .against the inflammation of the eyes, by 
" drink ; and had a notable medicine juice of purslain, opium, and saffron." 






TRACT V.] OF HAWKS AND FALCONRY. 189 

artists : who seem to have been the first and noblest falconers 
in the western part of Europe ; although, in their language, 
they have no word which in general expresseth an hawk. 

They carried their hawks in the left hand, and let them fly 
from the right. They used a bell, and took great care that 
their jesses should not be red, lest eagles should fly at them. 
Though they used hoods, we have no clear description of 
them, and little account of their lures. 

The ancient writers left no account of the swiftness of 
hawks or measure of their flight : but Heresbachius* delivers, 
that William Duke of Cleve had an hawk, which in one day, 
made a flight out of Westphalia into Prussia. And upon 
good account, an hawk in this county of Norfolk made a 
flight at a woodcock near thirty miles in one hour. How far 
the hawks, merlins, and wild fowl which come unto us with a 
north-west wind in the autumn, fly in a day, there is no clear 
account : but coming over sea their flight hath been long or 
very speedy. For I have known them to light so weary on 
the coast, that many have been taken with dogs, and some 
knocked down with staves and stones. 

Their perches seemed not so large as ours : for they made 
them of such a bigness that their talons might almost meet: and 
they choose to make them of sallow, poplar, or lime tree. 

They used great clamours and hallowing in their flight, 
which they made by these words, ou hi, la, la, la ; and to 
raise the fowls, made use of the sound of a cymbal. 

Their recreation seem more sober and solemn than ours at 
present, so improperly attended with oaths and imprecations. 
For they called on God at their sitting out, according to the 
account of Demetrius, rh &slv ewhu'hiGavrsg, in the first place 
calling upon God. 

The learned Rigaltius thinketh, that if the Romans had 
well known this airy chase, they would have left or less re- 
garded their Circensial recreations. The Greeks understood 
hunting early, but little or nothing of our falconry. If Alex- 
ander had known it, we might have found something of it 
and more of hawks in Aristotle ; who was so unacquainted 
with that way, that he thought that hawks would not feed 

* De Re Ttiistlca. 



190 OF HAWKS AND FALCONRY. [TRACT V. 

upon the heart of birds. Though he hath mentioned divers 
hawks, yet Julius Scaliger, an expert falconer, despaired to 
reconcile them unto ours. And 't is well if among them, you 
can clearly make out a lanner, a sparrow hawk, and a kestril, 
but must not hope to find your gier falcon there, which is the 
noble hawk ; and I wish you one no worse than that of Henry 
King of Navarre ; which, Scaliger saith, he saw strike down 
a buzzard, two wild geese, divers kites, a crane, and a swan. 

Nor must you expect from high antiquity the distinctions 
of eyes and ramage hawks, of stores and entermewers, of 
hawks of the lure and the fist ; nor that material distinction 
into short and long winged hawks : from whence arise such 
differences in their taking down of stones ; in their flight, 
their striking down or seizing of their prey, in the strength 
of their talons, either in the heel and fore talon, or the mid- 
dle and the heel : nor yet what eggs produce the different 
hawks, or when they lay three eggs, that the first produceth 
a female and large hawk, the second, of a middler sort, and 
the third a smaller bird, tercellene, or tassel, of the male sex ; 
which hawks being only observed abroad by the ancients, 
were looked upon as hawks of different kinds, and not of the 
same eyrie or nest. As for what Aristotle affirmeth, that 
hawks and birds of prey drink not ; although you know that 
it will not strictly hold, yet I kept an eagle two years, which 
fed upon cats, kitlings, whelps, and rats, without one drop 
of water. 

If anything may add unto your knowledge in this noble art, 
you must pick it out of later writers than those you enquire 
of. You may peruse the two books of falconry writ by that 
renowned Emperor, Frederick the Second; as also the works 
of the noble Duke Belisarius, of Tardifte, Francherius, of 
Francisco Sforzino of Vicensa ; and may not a little inform or 
recreate yourself with that elegant poem of Thuanus.'* I 
leave you to divert yourself by the perusal of it, having, at 
present, no more to say but that I am, &c. 

* Dc Re Accipilraria, in 3 books, f 
f Or more of Jate by P. Knpiniis in verse. — MS. Nvle of Evelyn's. 



TRACT VI.] OF CYMBALS. 191 



TRACT VI. 

of cymbals, etc. 

Sir, 
With what difficulty, if possibility, you may expect satisfac- 
tion concerning the music, or musical instruments of the 
Hebrews, you will easily discover if you consult the attempts 
of learned men upon that subject : but for the cymbals, of 
whose figure you enquire, you may find some described in 
Bayfius, in the comment of Rhodius upon Scribonius Largus, 
and others. 
As for xv/j,(3a\ov aXaXalpv mentioned by St. Paul,* and ren- 
i dered a tinkling cymbal, whether the translation be not too 
\ soft and diminutive, some question may be made : for the 
word aXuXafyv implieth no small sound, but a strained and 
I lofty vociferation, or some kind of hallowing sound, according 
i to the exposition of Hesychius, aXaXd^aTi svu^wgccts rr\v ipoivfy. 
A word drawn from the lusty shout of soldiers, crying aXaXa 
at the first charge upon their enemies, according to the cus- 
i torn of the eastern nations, and used by the Trojans in 
Homer ; and is also the note of the chorus in Aristophanes 
i akaXai y kui'Siv. In other parts of scripture we read of loud 
and high sounding cymbals ; and in Clemens Alexandrinus, 
1 that the Arabians made use of cymbals in their wars instead 
i of other military music ; and Polysenus in his Stratagems af- 
i firmeth that Bacchus gave the signal of battle unto his nu- 
i merous army, not with trumpets but with tympans and 
cymbals. 

And now I take the opportunity to thank you for the new 

! book sent me, containing the anthems sung in our cathedral 

and collegiate churches : 't is probable there will be additions, 

the masters of music being now active in that affair. Beside 

my naked thanks I have yet nothing to return you but this 

* 1 Cor. xiii, I. 



192 OF CYMBALS. [TRACT VI. 

enclosed, which may be somewhat rare unto you, and that is 
a Turkish hymn, translated into French out of the Turkish 
metre, which I thus render unto you. 

" O what praise doth he deserve, and how great is that 
Lord, all whose slaves are as so many kings ! 

" Whosoever shall rub his eyes with the dust of his feet, 
shall behold such admirable things that he shall fall into an 
ecstacy. 

" He that shall drink one drop of his beverage, shall have 
his bosom like the ocean, filled with gems and precious 
liquors. 

" Let not loose the reins unto thy passions in this world : 
he that represseth them shall become a true Solomon in the 
faith. 

" Amuse not thyself to adore riches, nor to build great 
houses and palaces. 

" The end of what thou shalt build is but ruin. 

" Pamper not thy body with delicacies and dainties ; it may 
come to pass one day that this body may be in hell. 

"Imagine not that he who findeth riches, findeth hap- 
piness. He that findeth happiness is he that findeth God. 

" All who prostrating themselves in humility shall this day 
believe in Vele,* if they were poor, shall be rich; and if rich, 
shall become kings." 

After the sermon ended, which was made upon a verse in 
the Alcoran containing much morality, the Dervises in a gal- 
lery apart sung this hymn, accompanied with instrumental 
music, which so affected the ears of Monsieur du Loir, that 
he would not omit to set it down, together with the musical 
notes, to be found in his first letter unto Monsieur Bouliau, 
prior of Magny. 

Excuse my brevity : I can say but little where I understand 
but little. I am, &c. 

* Vele, (lie founder of (he convent. 



TRACT VII.] OF GRADUAL VERSES. 193 



TRACT VII. 

OF ROPALIC OR GRADUAL VERSES, ETC. 



Mens mea sublimes rationes prcemedltatur . 



Sir, 
Though I may justly allow a. good intention in this poem 
presented unto you, yet I must needs confess, I have no af- 
fection for it ; as being utterly averse from all affectation in 
poetry, which either restrains the fancy, or fetters the inven- 
tion to any strict disposure of words. A poem of this nature 
is to be found in Ausonius, beginning thus, 

Spes Deus seternaa stationis conciliator. 

These are verses ropalici or clavales, arising gradually 
like the knots in a go-rahy or club ; named also Jistulares by 
Priscianus, as Elias Vinetus * hath noted. They consist 
properly of five words, each thereof encreasing by one syl- 
lable. They admit not of a spondee in the fifth place, nor 
can a golden or silver verse be made this way. They run 
smoothly both in Latin and Greek, and some are scatteringly 
;o be found in Homer. 

- T f! (Au.%ao 'Argeid'/i pwugifysKS 6\(3iodai(iov, 

Libere dicam sed in aurem, ego versibus hujusmodi ropalicis, longo syrmate 
protractis, Ceraunium affigo. 

He that afFecteth such restrained poetry, may peruse the 
ong poem of Hugbaldus the monk, wherein every word be- 
{inneth with a C, penned in the praise of calvities or bald- 
less, to the honour of Carolus Calvus, King of France, 

Carmina clarisonae calvis cantate Camaenae. 

Che rest may be seen at large in the Adversaria of Bar- 
hius : or if he delighteth in odd contrived fancies, may he 
>lease himself with antistropb.es, counterpetories, retrogrades, 

* El Vinet. in Anson. 
VOL. IV. O 



194 OF GRADUAL VERSES. [TRACT VII. 

rebuses, leonine verses, &c. to be found in Sieur des Ac- 
cords. But these and the like are to be looked upon, not 
pursued. Odd work might be made by such ways ; and for 
your recreation I propose these few lines unto you. 1 

Arcu paratur quod arcui sufiBcit. 

Misellorum clamoribus accurrere non tam humanum quam sulphuveum est. 

Asino teratur quae asino teritur. 

Ne asphodelos comedas, phoenices raanduca. 

Coelum aliquid potest, sed quae mira prsestat papilio est. 

Not to put you unto endless amusement, the key hereof is 
the homonomy of the Greek made use of in the Latin words, 
which rendereth all plain. More enigmatical and dark ex- 
pressions might be made if any one would speak or compose 
them out of the numerical characters or characteristical num- 
bers set down by Robertus de Fluctibus. 2 * 

As for your question concerning the contrary expressions 
of the Italians and Spaniards in their common affirmative an- 
swers, the Spaniard answering cy Sennor, the Italian Signior 
cy, you must be content with this distich, 

Why saith the Italian Signior cy, the Spaniard Sy Sennor ? 
Because the one puts that behind, the other puts before. 

And. because you are so happy in some translations, I pray 
return me these two verses in English, 

Occidit hen tandem multos quae occidit aniantes, 
Et cinis est hodie qua? fuit ignis heri. 3 

My occasions make me to take off my pen. I am, &c. 

* Trad 2, part lib. i. 

1 and, 8fC.~\ MS. Sloan, reads thus, mention, though scarce worth your no- 
" And I remember I once pleased a tice : — Two pestels and a book come 
young hopeful person with a dialogue short of a retort, as much as a spear and 
between two travellers, beginning in an ass exceed a dog's tail. This to be 
this manner: well drunk, my old friend, expounded by the numerical characters, 
the famous King of Macedon ; that is, or characteristical numbers set down by 
well overtaken, my old friend Alexan- Robertus de Fluctibus, and speaks only 
der, your friend may proceed. With this text: — two and four come short of 
another way I shall not omit to acquaint six, as much as ten exceed six ; the figure 
you, and for your recreation I present of an ass standing for a cipher." 

these few lines." 3 Occidit lieu tandem, fyc.~\ In MS. 

2 More enigmatical, Sfc.~\ These are Sloan. 1827, is the following translation 
more largely noticed in MS. Sloan. " She is dead at last, who many made expire 
1837: thus, "One way more I shall Is dust to day which yesterday was Are." 



TRACT VIII.] OP LANGUAGES. 195 



TRACT VIII. 

OF LANGUAGES, AND PARTICULARLY OF THE SAXON 
TONGUE. 

Sir, 
The last discourse we had of the Saxon tongue recalled to 
Inky mind some forgotten considerations. 1 Though the earth 
| were widely peopled before the flood, (as many learned men 
1 conceive) yet whether, after a large dispersion, and the space 
of sixteen hundred years, men maintained so uniform a lan- 
; guage in all parts, as to be strictly of one tongue, and readily 
!to understand each other, may very well be doubted. For 
Ithough the world preserved in the family of Noah before the 
[(Confusion of tongues might be said to be of one lip, yet even 
"permitted to themselves their humours, inventions, necessi- 
ties, and new objects (without the miracle of confusion at first), 
i in so long a tract of time, there had probably been a Babel. 
| For whether America were first peopled by one or several 
^nations, yet cannot that number of different planting nations 
answer the multiplicity of their present different languages, 
tof no affinity unto each other, and even in their northern 
nations and incommunicating angles, 2 their languages are 
'• widely differing. A native interpreter brought from Cali- 
fornia proved of no use 3 unto the Spaniards upon the neigh- 
bour shore. From Chiapa to Guatemala, S. Salvador, 
1 3 Honduras, there are at least eighteen several languages ; and 
r 'io numerous are they both in the Peruvian and Mexican 
regions, that the great princes are fain to have one common 
'anguage, which, besides their vernaculous and mother 
wongues, may serve for commerce between them. 
j And since the confusion of tongues at first fell only upon 
hose which were present in Sinaar at the work of Babel, 






1 forgotten considerations.'] " Both of conceived to have most single originals." 
hat and other languages." — MS. Sloan. 3 of no use.] "Of little use." — MS. 
"* angles.] "Where they may be best Sloan. 

O 2 



196 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VILj 

whether the primitive language from Noah were only pre- 
served in the family of Heber, and not also in divers others, 
which might be absent at the same, whether all came away, 
and many might not be left behind in their first plantations 
about the foot of the hills, whereabout the ark rested, and 
Noah became an husbandman, 4 is not absurdly doubted. 

For so the primitive tongue might in time branch out into 
several parts of Europe and Asia, and thereby the first or 
Hebrew tongue, which seems to be ingredient into so many 
languages, might have larger originals and grounds of its 
communication and traduction than from the family of Abra- 
ham, the country of Canaan, and words contained in the 
Bible, which come short of the full of that language. And 
this would become more probable from the Septuagint or 
Greek Chronology strenuously asserted by Vossius ; for 
making five hundred years between the deluge and the days 
of Peleg, there ariseth a large latitude of multiplication and 
dispersion of people into several parts, before the descent of 
that body which followed Nimrod unto Sinaar from the east. 

They who derive the bulk of European tongues from the 
Scythian and the Greek, though they may speak probably 
in many points, yet must needs allow vast difference or cor- 
ruptions from so few originals, which, however, might be 
tolerably made out in the old Saxon, yet hath time much 
confounded the clearer derivations. And as the knowledge 
thereof now stands in reference unto ourselves, I find many 
words totally lost, divers of harsh sound disused or refined 
in the pronunciation, and many words we have also in com- 
mon use not to be found in that tongue, or venially derivable 
from any other from whence we have largely borrowed, and 
yet so much still remaineth with us that it maketh the gross 
of our language. 

The religious obligation unto the Hebrew language hath 
so notably continued the same, that it might still be under- 



4 husbandman. ~\ MS. Sloan. 1827, northward, eastward, or south ward, and 
adds hero the following clause ; " whether many of the posterity of Noah might not 
in that space of 150 years, according to disperse themselves before the great mi- 
common compute, before the conduct of gration unto Sinaar, and many also after- 
Nimrod, many might not expatriate wards ; is not, &c." 



TRACT VIII. J OF LANGUAGES. 197 

stood by Abraham, whereas by the Mazorite points and 
Chaldee character the old letter stands so transformed, that 
if Moses were alive again, he must be taught to read his 
own law. 5 

The Chinese, who live at the bounds of the earth, who 
have admitted little communication, and suffered successive 
incursions from one nation, may possibly give account of a 
very ancient language : but, consisting of many nations and 
tongues, confusion, admixtion, and corruption in length of 
time might probably so have crept in, as, without the virtue 
of a common character and lasting letter of things, they could 
never probably make out those strange memorials which they 
pretend, while they still make use of the works of their great 
Confucius many hundred years before Christ, and in a series 
ascend as high as Poncuus, who is conceived our Noah. 

The present Welch, and remnant of the old Britons, hold so 
much of that ancient language, that they make a shift to under- 
stand the poems of Merlin, Enerin, Telesin, a thousand years 
ago, whereas the Herulian Pater Noster, set down by Wolf- 
gangus Lazius, is not without much criticism made out, and but 
in some words ; and the present Parisians can hardly hack out 
those few lines of the league between Charles and Lewis, the 
sons of Ludovicus Pius, yet remaining in old French. 

The Spaniards in their corruptive traduction and romance, 
have so happily retained the terminations from the Latin, 
that, notwithstanding the Gothic and Moorish intrusion of 
words, they are able 6 to make a discourse completely consist- 



law.~] In MS. Sloan. 1827, the fol- biguous, that translations so little agree ; 

lowing additional paragraph occurs ; — and since, though the radices consist but 

" Though this language be duly magni- of three letters, yet they make two syl- 

fied, and always of high esteem, yet if, lables in speaking; and since the pronun- 

with Geropius Becanus, we admit that ciation is such, as St. Jerome, who was 

tongue to be most perfect which is most born in a barbarous country, thought the 

copious or expressive, most delucid and words anhelent, strident, and of very 

clear unto the understanding, most short, harsh sound. 

or soon delivered, and best pronounced 6 they are able.] " This will ap- 

with most ease unto the organs of speech, pear very unlikely to a man that consi- 

the Hebrew now known unto us will ders the Spanish terminations; and 

hardly obtain the place ; since it consist- Howel, who was eminently skilful in the 

eth of fewer words thai! many others, three provincial languages, declares, that 

audits words begin not with vowels, since after many essays he never could effect 

it is so full of homonymies, and words it." — Dr. Johnson, 
which signify many things, and so am- 



198 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

ing of grammatical Latin and Spanish, wherein the Italians 
and French will be very much to seek. 7 

The learned Casaubon conceiveth that a dialogue might 
be composed in Saxon, only of such words as are derivable 
from the Greek, which surely might be effected, and so as 
the learned might not uneasily find it out. Verstegan made 
no doubt that he could contrive a letter which might be un- 
derstood by the English, Dutch, and East Frislander, which, 
as the present confusion standeth, might have proved no very 
clear piece, and hardly to be hammered out : yet so much of 
the Saxon still remaineth in our English, as may admit an or- 
derly discourse and series of good sense, such as not only the 
present English, but iElfric, Bede, and Alfred might under- 
stand after so many hundred years. 

Nations that live promiscuously under the power and laws 
of conquest, do seldom escape the loss of their language with 
their liberties ; wherein the Romans were so strict, that the 
Grecians were fain to conform in their judicial processes; 8 
which made the Jews lose more in seventy years dispersion 
in the provinces of Babylon, than in many hundred in their 
distinct habitation in Egypt; and the English which dwelt 
dispersedly to lose their language in Ireland, whereas 
more tolerable reliques there are thereof in Fingall, where 
they were closely and almost solely planted ; and the 
Moors which were most huddled together and united about 



7 seek.~\ The following paragraphs consent and study of all ages since, it had 

occur here, in MS. Sloan. 1827. found the same fate, and been swallowed 

" The many mother tongues spoke in like other languages ; since, in its an- 

divers corners of Europe, and quite dif- cient state, one age could scarce under- 

ferent from one another, are not recon- stand another, and that of some genera- 

cileable to any one common original; tions before must be read by a dictionary 

whereas the great languages of Spain, by a few successions after ; as, beside the 

France, and Italy, are derivative from famous pillar of Quillius, may be illus- 

the Latin; that of Greece* and its islands trated in these few lines, ' Eundo om- 

from the old Greek ; the rest of the fa- nibus honestitudo praeterbitunda nemo 

mily of the Dutch or Schlavonian. As escit. Quianam itaque istuc effexis haus* 

for the lingua Fullana, spoken in part of cio, temperi et toppertutemet tarn hibus 

Friuli, and the lingua Curvallea in Rhse- insegne, quod ningribus potestur aut 

tia, they are corruptions of the Italian, ruspare nevolt. Sapsam saperdae sene- 

as that of Sardinia is also of the Spanish, ciones sardare nequinunt cuoi siemps et 

" Even the Latin itself, which hath socienum quissis sperit? '" 

embroiled so many languages of Europe, 8 to conform in their, §"c] "To con- 

if it had been the speech of one country, form, and make use of Latin in their, &c." 

and not continued by writers, and the — MS. Sloan. 



TRACT VIII.] OF LANGUAGES. 199 

Granada have yet left their Arvirage among the Granadian 
Spaniards. 

But shut up in angles and inaccessible corners,, divided by 
laws and manners, they often continue long with little mixture, 
which hath afforded that lasting life unto the Cantabrian and 
British tongues, wherein the Britons are remarkable, who 
having lived four hundred years together with the Romans, 
retained so much of the British as it may be esteemed a lan- 
guage ; which either they resolutely maintained in their co- 
habitation with them in Britain, or retiring after in the time 
of the Saxons into countries and parts 9 less civilized and con- 
versant with the Romans, they found the people distinct, the 
language more entire, and so fell into it again. 

But surely no languages have been so straitly locked up 
as not to admit of commixture. The Irish, although they 
retain a kind of a Saxon character, 1 yet have admitted many 
words of Latin and English. In the Welch are found many 
words from Latin, some from Greek and Saxon. In what 
parity and incommixture the language of that people stood, 
which were casually discovered in the heart of Spain, be- 
tween the mountains of Castile, no longer ago than in the 
time of Duke D'Alva, we have not met with a good account; 
any farther than that their words were Basquish or Canta- 
brian : but the present Basquensa, one of the minor mother 
tongues of Europe, is not without commixture of Latin and 
Castilian, while we meet with santijica, tentationeten, gloria, 
puissanea, and four more [words] in the short form of the 
Lord's prayer, set down by Paulus Merula : but although in 
this brief form we may find such commixture, yet the bulk of 
their language seems more distinct, consisting of words of no 
affinity unto others, of numerals totally different, of differing 
grammatical rules, as may be observed in the Dictionary and 
short Basquensa Grammar, composed by Raphael Nicoleta, 
a priest of Bilboa. 

And if they use the auxiliary verbs of equin and ysan, 



9 into countries, <^c] " Into Wales, Anglo-Saxons, does not prove any affi- 

and countries, &c." — MS. Sloan. nity of language, nor does it exist. 

1 The Irish, although they, 8)-c.~] The They both took their alphabet from the 

Irish using the same characters with the Roman. — G. 



200 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

answerable unto hazer and ser, to have, and be, in the 
Spanish, which forms came in with the northern nations 
into the Italian, Spanish, and French, and if that form 
were used by them before, and crept not in from imitation 
of their neighbours, it may shew some ancienter traduc- 
tion from northern nations, 2 or else must seem very strange : 
since the southern nations had it not of old, and I know 
not whether any such mode be found in the languages of 
any part of America. 

The Romans, who made the great commixture and alter- 
ation of languages in the world, effected the same, not only 
by their proper language, but those also of their military 
forces, employed in several provinces, as holding a standing 
militia in all countries, and commonly of strange nations ; so 
while the cohorts and forces of the Britons were quartered 
in Egypt, Armenia, Spain, Illyria, &c, the Stablassians and 
Dalmatians here, the Gauls, Spaniards, and Germans, in 
other countries, and other nations in theirs, they could not 
but leave many words behind them, and carry away many 
with them, which might make, that, in many words of very 
distinct nations, some may still remain of very unknown and 
doubtful genealogy. 

And if, as the learned Buxhornius contendeth, 3 the Scy- 
thian language as the mother tongue runs through the nations 
of Europe, and even as far as Persia, the community in many 
words, between so many nations, hath a more reasonable ori- 
ginal traduction, and were rather derivable from the common 
tongue diffused through them all, than from any particular 
nation, which hath also borrowed and holdeth but at second 
hand. 

The Saxons, settling over all England, maintained an uni- 
form language, only diversified in dialects, idioms, and minor 
differences, according to their different nations which came 
in unto the common conquest, which may yet be a cause of 

2 traduction from northern nations.] also classes it by itself.— G. 

Adelung considers the Basque to be ra- 3 And if, <$fc] Dr. Jamieson has dis- 

dically different from any European tribe cussed this subject in his Hermes Scy- 

of languages — though many words are thicus, the object of which work is to 

Teutonic borrowed from the Visigoths. connect the Goths and Greeks, through 

The great Danish philologist, Rask, the Pelasgi and Scythians. — G. 



TRACT VIII.] OF LANGUAGES. 201 

the variation in the speech and words of several parts of 
England, where different nations most abode or settled, and 
having expelled the Britons, their wars were chiefly among 
themselves, with little action with foreign nations until the 
union of the heptarchy under Egbert: after which time, al- 
though the Danes infested this land, and scarce left any part 
free, yet their incursions made more havoc in buildings, 
churches, and cities, than [in] the language of the country, 4 
because their language was in effect the same, and such as 
whereby they might easily understand one another. 

And if the Normans, which came into Neustria or Nor- 
mandy with Rollo the Dane, had preserved their language in 
their new acquists, the succeeding conquest of England, by 
Duke William of his race, had not begot among us such 
notable alterations ; but having lost their language in their 
abode in Normandy, before they adventured upon England, 
they confounded the English with their French, and made 
the grand mutation, which was successively increased by our 
possessions in Normandy, Guien, and Acquitain, by our long 
wars in France, by frequent resort of the French, who, to the 
number of some thousands, came over with Isabel, Queen to 
Edward the Second, and the several matches of England 
with the daughters of France before and since that time. 

But this commixture, though sufficient to confuse, proved 
not of ability to abolish the Saxon words, for from the French 
we have borrowed many substantives, adjectives, and some 
verbs, but the great body of numerals, auxiliary verbs, articles, 
pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions, which are 
the distinguishing and lasting part of a language, remain with 
us from the Saxon, which, having suffered no great alteration 
for many hundred years, may probably still remain, though 
the English swell with the inmates of Italian, French, and 
Latin. An example whereof may be observed in this 
following: — 



yet their incursions, Sfc.~] Yet the from the former part, and it is called the 
Danes had a great effect upon the Saxon Dano-Saxon — it is not, however, so 
language. The portion of the Saxon marked a departure from the early Anglo- 
Chronicle written during their sway in Saxon, as the next dialect — the Norman- 
England, is quite in a different dialect Saxon.— G. 



202 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

English i. — The first and foremost step to all good works 
is the dread and fear of the Lord of heaven and earth, which 
through the Holy Ghost enlightneth the blindness of our sin- 
ful hearts to tread the ways of wisdom, and leads our feet 
into the land of blessing. 

Saxon i. — The erst and fyrmost staep to eal gode weorka 
is the drasd and feurt of the Lauord of heofan and eorth, 
while thurh the Heilig Gast onlihtneth the blindnesse of ure 
sinfull heorte to traed the wagg of wisdome, and thone laed 
ure fet into the land of blessung. 

English ii. — For to forget his law is the door, the gate, 
and key to let in all unrighteousness, making our eyes, ears, 
and mouths to answer the lust of sin, our brains dull to good 
thoughts, our lips dumb to his praise, our ears deaf to his gos- 
pel, and our eyes dim to behold his wonders, which witness 
against us that we have not well learned the word of God, 
that we are the children of wrath, unworthy of the love and 
manifold gifts of God, greedily following after the ways of 
the devil and witchcraft of the world, doing nothing to free 
and keep ourselves from the burning fire of hell, till we be 
buried in sin and swallowed in death, not to arise again in 
any hope of Christ's kingdom. 

Saxon ii. — For to fuorgytan his laga is the dure, the gat, 
and caeg to let in eal unrightwisnysse, makend ure eyge, eore, 
and muth to answare the lust of sin, ure braegan dole to gode 
theoht, ure lippan dumb to his preys, ure earen deaf to his 
gospel, and ure eyge dim to behealden his wundra, while ge 
witnysse ongen us that wee cef noht wel gelaered the weord 
of God, that wee are the cilda of ured, unwyrthe of the lufe 
and maenigfeald gift of God, grediglice felygend aefter the 
wasgen of the deoful and wiccraft of the weorld, doend no- 
thing to fry and cajp ure saula from the byrnend fyr of hell, 
till we be geburied in synne and swolgen in death, not to arise 
agen in aenig hope of Christes kynedome. 

English hi. — Which draw from above the bitter doom of 
the Almighty of hunger, sword, sickness, and brings more sad 
plagues than those of hail, storms, thunder, blood, frogs, 
swarms of gnats and grasshoppers, which ate the corn, grass, 
and leaves of the trees in Egypt. 



TRACT VIII.] OF LANGUAGES. 203 

Saxon hi. — While drag from buf the bitter dome of the 
Almagan of hunger, sweorde, seoknesse, and bring mere sad 
plag, thone they of hagal, storme, thunner, blode, frog, swearme 
of gneet and gaersupper, while eaten the corn, gaers, and leaf 
of the treowen in iEgypt. 

English iv. — If we read his book and holy writ, these, 
among many others, we shall find to be the tokens of his hate, 
which gathered together might mind us of his will, and teach 
us when his wrath beginneth, which sometimes comes in open 
strength and full sail, oft steals like a thief in the night, like 
shafts shot from a bow at midnight, before we think upon 
them. 

Saxon iv. — Gyf we rasd his boc and heilig gewrit, these 
gemong maenig othern, we sceall findan the tacna of his ha- 
tung, while gegatherod together miht gemind us of his willan, 
and teac us whone his ured onginneth, while sometima come 
in open strength and fill seyle, oft stael gelye a theof in the 
niht, gelye sceaft scoten fram a boge at midneoht, befor an we 
thinck uppen them. 

English v. — And though they were a deal less, and rather 
short than beyond our sins, yet do we not a whit withstand 
or forbear them, we are wedded to, not weary of our misdeeds, 
we seldom look upward, and are not ashamed under sin ; we 
cleanse not ourselves from the blackness and deep hue of our 
guilt ; we want tears and sorrow, we weep not, fast not, we 
crave not forgiveness from the mildness, sweetness and good- 
ness of God, and with all livelihood and steadfastness to our 
uttermost will hunt after the evil of guile, pride, cursing, 
swearing, drunkenness, over-eating, uncleanness, all idle lust 
of the flesh, yes many uncouth and nameless sins, hid in our 
inmost breast and bosoms, which stand betwixt our forgive- 
ness, and keep God and man asunder. 

Saxon v. — And theow they waere a dael lesse, and reither 
scort thone begond oure sinnan, get do we naht a whit with- 
stand and forbeare them, we eare bewudded to, noht werig of 
ure agen misdeed, we seldon loc upweard, and ear not ofschas- 
mod under sinne, we cleans noht ure selvan from the blacnesse 
and daep hue of ure guilt ; we wan teare and sara, we weope 
noht, fsest noht, we craft noht foregyfnesse fram the mildnesse, 



204 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

sweetnesse and goodnesse of God, and mit eal lifelyhood and 
stedfastnesse to ure uttermost will hunt aefter the ufel of guile, 
pride, cursung, swearung, druncennesse, overeat, uncleannesse 
and eal idle lust of the flaesc, yis maenig uncuth and nameleas 
sinnan, hid in ure inmaest brist and bosome, while stand be- 
twixt ure foregyfnesse, and csep God and man asynder. 

English vi. — Thus are we far beneath and also worse 
than the rest of God's works ; for the sun and moon, the 
king and queen of stars, snow, ice, rain, frost, dew, mist, 
wind, fourfooted and creeping things, fishes and feathered 
birds, and fowls either of sea or land, do all hold the laws 
of his will. 

Saxon vi. — Thus eare we far beneoth and ealso wyrse 
thone the rest of Gods weorka; for the sun and mone, 
the cyng and cquen of stearran, snaw, ise, ren, frost, deaw, 
miste, wind, feower fet and crypend dinga, fix yefetherod 
brid, and faslan auther in sag or land do eal heold the laj 
of his willan. 

Thus have you seen in few words how near the Saxon am 
English meet. 5 

Now of this account the French will be able to make no- 
thing; the modern Danes and Germans, though from several 
words they may conjecture at the meaning, yet will they be 
much to seek in the orderly sense and continued constructioi 
thereof. Whether the Danes can continue such a series of 
sense out of their present language and the old Runick, as tc 
be intelligible unto present and ancient times, some doubt 
may well be made ; and if the present French would attempt 
a discourse in words common unto their present tongue an< 
the old Romana Rustica spoken in elder times, or in the old 
language of the Francks, which came to be in use some suc- 



5 how near the Saxon, §e.~\ Johnson coincides with that of a still higher autho- 

observes, " the words are, indeed, Sax- rity,MissGurney, of Northrepps Cottage, 

on, but the phraseology is English ; and, the translator of the Saxon Chronicle ; on 

I think, would not have been understood whose recommendation I have preferred 

by Bede or yElf'ric, notwithstanding the to reprint the Saxon passages as they 

confidence of our author. He has, how- stand, rather than to adopt any additions 

ever, sufficiently proved his position, or variations from partial transcripts of 

that the English resembles its parental them in the British Museum and Bod- 



language more than .any modern Euro- leian. 
pean dialect." This opinion exactly 



TRACT VIII.] 



OF LANGUAGES. 



205 



cessions after Pharamond, it might prove a work of some 
trouble to effect. ■ 

It were not impossible to make an original reduction of 
many words of no general reception in England, but of com- 
mon use in Norfolk, or peculiar to the East Angle countries; 
as, bawnd, bunny, thurck, enemmis, sammodithee, mawther, 
kedge, seele, straft, clever, matchly, dere, nicked, stingy, 
noneare, feft, thepes, gosgood, kamp, sibrit, fangast, sap, 
cothish, thokish, bide owe, paxwax: 6 of these and some 



6 Bawnd, 8fc.~\ Some time before the 
appearance of " The Vocabulary of East 
Anglia, by the Rev. W. Forby," I had 
been favoured with valuable illustrations 
of this curious list of words in common 
use in Norfolk during Sir Thomas's life, 
by Miss Gurney, and Mr. Black, of the 
British Museum, of which I have availed 
myself in the following notes. 

Bawnd; — swollen. Not in present 
use ; at least, not known to be so. Isl. 
bon, tumidus — Forby. 

Bunny ; — a common word for a rabbit, 

especially among children. — Blk. A 

small swelling caused by a fall or blow. 
Perhaps a diminutive bump. One would 
be glad to derive it from the Greek 
(3ovvog, a hillock. It may be so through 
the Gothic. — Forby. 

Thurck ; — appears to mean dark, if it 
be the same as in the Promptorium Par- 

vulorum Clericorum MS. Harl. 221. 

" Therke or dyrk, tenebrosus, cali- 
ginosus ; terknesse or derknesse." — Blk. 

Dark. So say Hickes and Ray; 

may have been for ought we can say to 
the contrary. — Forby. 

Enemmis; — Qu. et neanmoins? — G. 

I will not say that this is the old word 
anempst for anenst (anent in modern 
Scottish), about, concerning ; because I 

know not its proper collocation Blk. 

Of very obscure and doubtful mean- 
ing, like most of Sir Thomas Browne's 
words. Hickes says it means lest (ne 
forte), and he derives it from Isl. einema, 
an adv. of exclusion, as he says. It 
may mean, notwithstanding, N. Fr. 
nemis. Or it may be an adjective, signi- 
fying variable, as emmis is in L. sc. 
which Jam. derives from Isl. ymiss, 
varius. But as the word is quite extinct, 
it is impossible to decide upon its mean- 
ing, when it was in use. — Forby 

The word is not extinct, but still used in 



Norfolk in the sense of lest : though its 
usual sound would rather lead us to spel5 
it enammons. 

Sammodithee; — Samod o 'thi ; the like of 

that. — G. Sammodithee is an old oath 

or asseveration, sd mot I the, so may I 
thrive. " Als mote I the " is common in 
ancient English, and " So the ik " in 
Chaucer. See Tyrwhitt's and other 
Glossaries, in v. The, which is the A. S. 

dean, to thrive.— Blk. This uncouth 

cluster of .little words (for such it is) is 
recorded by Sir Thomas Browne as cur- 
rent in his time. It is now totally ex- 
tinct. It stands thus in the eighth tract, 
" On Languages^" Dr. Hickes has taken 
the liberty of changing it to sammoditha, 
and interprets it, " Say me how dost 
thou;" in pure Saxon "sag me hu 
dest thu." "Say me," for "tell me," 
is in use to this day in some coun- 
ties. It is in the dialect of Sedgraoor. 
Ray adduces, as a sort of parallel to this 
jumble of words, one which he says was 
common in his time ; muchgooditte, 
" much good do it thee." — F. 

Mawther; — the same as the vulgar 

mawkes, a wench — Blk. A girl. Tus- 

ser uses it. So does B. Johnson : — ■" You 
talk like a foolish mauther,". says Restive 
to Dame Pliant, in the Alchemist. It 
seems peculiarly an East Anglian word. 
So at least it was considered by Sir 
Henry Spelman. It is highly amusing 
to find so grave an antiquary endeavour- 
ing earnestly, and at no inconsiderable 
length, to vindicate the honour of his 
mother-tongue ; and to rescue this impor- 
tant word from the contempt with which 
some, as it seems, through their igno- 
rance, were disposed to treat it. " Quod 
rident caeteri Angli,"' says he, " vocis 
nescientes probitatem." He assures us 
that it was applied by our very early an- 
cestors, even to the noble virgins who 



206 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

others of no easy originals, when time will permit, the resolu- 
tion may be attempted ; which to effect, the Danish language 



were selected to sing the praises of heroes. 
They were called scald-moers, q. d. sing- 
ing mouthers! "En quantum in spreta 
jam voce antiquae glorise ! " He com- 
plains that the old word moer had been 
corrupted to mother, and so confounded 
with a very different word. We distin- 
guish them very effectually by pronuncia- 
tion, and, what is more, we actually 
come very near to the original word in 
the abbreviated form we use in address- 
ing a mauther. We commonly call her 
mau'r. Dam. moer. Belg. modde, in- 
nupta puella. — Forby. 

Kedge ; — I should rather think is the 
" Kygge or Joly, Jocundus, Hillaris," of 
Prompt, than " cadge, to carry, of Wilbr. 

Appendix." — Blk. Brisk, active. 

This is Sir Thomas Browne's spelling. 
We pronounce it kidge, and apply it ex- 
clusively, or nearly so, to hale and cheer- 
ful old persons. In Ray, the word cadge 
has the same meaning. It is by mere 
change of vowels cadge, hedge, kidge. 
Dan. kaud, lascivus. Lowland Scotch 
kedgie and caigie. — Forby. 

Seele ; — is this our sell, haysell, or seel 

time ?■ — G. Take these from Prompt. 

" sele, horsysharneys, arquillus." "Selle, 
stoddyng howse cella." " Sylle of an 
howse. Silla Solma." I cannot offer 

any thing else. — Blk. Seal, time, 

season. Hay-sea/, wheat-seal, barley- 
seal, are the respective seasons of mow- 
ing or sowing those products of the earth. 
But it goes as low as hours. Of an idle 
and dissipated fellow, we say that he 
" keeps bad seals," of poachers, that they 
are out at all seals of the night; of a 
sober, regular, and industrious man, that 
he attends to his business at all seals," 
or that " he keeps good seals and meals." 
Sir Thomas Browne spells it seele ; but 
we seem to come nearer to the Saxon 
seel, opportunitas Forby. 

Straft ; — Iratus, ira exclamans, vox in 
agro Norf. usitata. Hickes derivat ab Is. 
straffa, objurgere, corripere, increpare. 
L. Junius Etymol. I cannot find the 
passage on a cursory examination of 
Hickes in his little Diet. Islandicum. In 
the 2nd vol. of the Thesaur. p. 89, 
Hickes gives " Straff, gannitus," but the 
usual meaning is punishment, and this is 
themeaninggivenby Biorn Halderson.-G. 

1 will adduce a word from Wachler's 

German Glossary. " Straff, rigidus, du- 



rus, astrictus, severus." — Blk. A 

scolding bout ; an angry strife of 
tongues. Isl. straffa, iratus Forby. 

Clever; — perhaps some unusual mean- 
ing of our present adj. unless the first 
vowel should be pronounced long. — Blk. 

Dextrous, adroit ; Ray says, neat, 

elegant: in either sense it is so very 
common and general, and appears so to 
have been for so many years, that it 
seems difficult to conceive how Sir Tho- 
mas Browne should have been struck with 
it as a provincialism, and still more, how 
Ray, long afterwards, should have let it 
pass as such without any remark. If 
not when Sir Thomas wrote his tract, 
certainly long before the second edition 
of Ray, S.E.C., published by the author, 
it had been used by Butler, L'Estrange, 
and South. In L'Estrange, indeed, it 
might be positively provincial ; in Butler 
low, ludicrous, or even burlesque ; in 
South too familiar and undignified for 
the pulpit ; but in neither provincial. 
But what shall we say of Addison, who 
had also used it 1 In Todd's Johnson it 
is said to be low, and scarcely ever used 
but in burlesque, and in conversation. 
A colloquial and familiar term it certainly 
is ; but assuredly not provincial, nor even 
low. Sir Thomas Browne is the only 
guarantee of its insertion here. And if 
it must be ours, Jet it by all means be 
taken with our own rustic pronunciation, 

claver. — Forby. My friend Mr. 

Black's suggestion, — that there is some 
unusual meaning attached in Norfolk to 
this word, which justifies its insertion 
among provincialisms, — is correct. The 
poor in this county, speaking of any one 
who is kind and liberal towards them, 
say very commonly, " He is a claver 
gentleman ! " " 'Twas a claver thing he 
did for us ! " " He always behave very 

claver to the poor." Moor says that 

it means handsome, good-looking; — e. 
g. a clever horse, a clever gal (girl). 

Matchly ; — perhaps may mean pro- 
portionately, or corresponding Blk. 

Exactly alike, fitting nicely. Ano- 
ther of Sir Thomas Browne's words, 
happily explained by modern pronuncia- 
tion, mackly. A. S. maka, par — Forby. 

Dere ; — dire, sad. But it is Old Eng- 
lish. Chaucer has it, and Shakspeare, 
in "Love's Labour Lost:" — " DeaPd 
with the clamour of their own dear 



TRACT VIII.] OF LANGUAGES. 207 

new and more ancient may prove of good advantage : which 
nation remained here fifty years upon agreement, and have 



groans." Dr. Johnson observes that 
dear is for dere. And yet the words 
"own dear" may seem to come very 
nearly to the sense of the adjective <piXog 
in Homer ; <p'i\ov rirog, (p'i'kov ofifMX,, 
<piXa yoiivara. It is a sense of close 
and particular endearment, in which cer- 
tainly we often use those two words, in 
speaking of any thing we particularly 
cherish, as our beloved kindred or friends, 
or, as in Homer, the limbs or organs of 
our bodies Forty. 

Nicked; — cheated, as yet among the 
vulgar. I think to have seen (in Wach- 

ter) nicken, obstinate Blk. Exactly 

hit ; in the very nick : at the precise 
point. Another of Sir Thomas Browne's 
words, at which one cannot but marvel. 
The very same authorities are produced 
by Johnson, for the verb nick in this 
sense, as for the adjective clever ; — ■ 
those of Butler, L'Estrange, and South. 
It is not possible to conceive that the 
word had at that time any other sense in 
which it might be considered as a provin- 
cial word. Ray explains it thus : Nick- 
led, beaten down and intricately en- 
tangled, as growing corn or grass by rain 
and wind. Might not this be the word 
meant by Sir Thomas Browne, and im- 
perfectly heard ? — Forby. Both these 

are wrong ; the following is the correct 
explanation: — To nick is to notch the 
under part of a horse's tail, to make it 
stand out or erect. An instance occurs 
in the Monthly Mag. for 1812, part T, p. 
28, in the memoir of John Fransham ; 
who, when at Norwich, could not bear 
1 the cruel practices there carried on of 
cropping, nicking, and docking horses." 
I transcribe this from a more recent com- 
munication from Mr. Black. But that a 
Norfolk man (Mr. Forby) should have 
been ignorant of the meaning of so com- 
mon a provincialism, seems singular. 

Stingy ; — with a soft g, commonly 

means parsimonious Blk. This is 

its commonly received sense. Its pro- 
vincial acceptation is given by Forby : — . 
1. Cross, ill-humoured ; 2. Churlish, bit- 
ing ; as applied to the state of the air. It 
was most probably in one or in both these 
senses in which Sir Thomas Browne re- 
marked it as provincial. He must surely 
have been acquainted with it in its com- 
monly current sense. That, indeed, 



seems to be perverted from another word, 
of very different origin. This of ours, in 
both its senses, is very clearly from A.S. 
stinge, aculeus. — Forby. Moor re- 
marks that, " in bees the propensity to 
hoard and resent is proverbial ; " here 
the two principal meanings of the word 
stingy equally apply. 

Noneare ; — Lye thus explains this 
word between brackets, marking it as an 
addition of his own to Junius's Etymol. 
Angl. [Modo — vox Norf. etiamnum in 
usu, ab Isl. nuncer idem significante, ut 
monet Hickesius. L.] I cannot find it in 
Hickes. Nor is the compound word 
nuncer in Biorn Halderson's Ice. Diet, 
but it is, in fact, now-near, anon. — G. 

Not till now. So says Ray. But 

we know nothing of the word whatever. 
Sir Thomas Browne might. Isl. nuncer. 
modo. — Forby. 

Feft; — Prompt, feffyd, feofatus ; but 
not likely to be the right word. — Blk. 
To persuade, or endeavour to per- 
suade, says Ray in pref. to N. C. W. 
Yet he adds that in his own county, 
Essex, it meant, to "put off wares;" 
but that he was to seek for an etymon. 
So are we. But it is of no importance. 
It is one of Sir Thomas Browne's words 
become obsolete Forby. 

Thepes; — or rather thapes. Gooseberries. 
I cannot find any word resembling this as 
a fruit; but Tap in Danish is the uvula of 
the throat. V. Fapes. — Forby, p. 110. 

Gosgood ; — A vulgar London word for 

a gooseberry is goosgog. — Blk Yeast. 

Ray says, that in his time, it was in use 
also in Kent. But he does not say, nor 
is it possible to conceive, how it is entitled 
to so exalted an interpretation as he be- 
stows upon it — God's Good! A meaning 
much more suitable and seemly, and 
surely not improbable, may be conjectur- 
ed. It may have had its origin from 
A. S. gos, anser. In Norfolk, if not in 
every part of East Anglia, yeast dump- 
lings have been immemorially associated 
with a roasted goose ; and when proper- 
ly soaked in the natural gravy of the 
fowl, are of a very delicious savour to a 
true East Anglian palate. In this sense 
yeast may be said to be good with goose, 
and called goose-good, or in the most an- 
cient form, gos-good. But the word is 
now utterly extinct. The taste remains. 
— Forby. 



208 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

left many families in it, and the language of these parts had 
surely been more commixed and perplext, if the fleet of Hugo 



Kamp ; — May, perhaps, be the game of 
foot-ball, from these words in Prompt. 
" Camper, or player at foot-ball," also 
"camping." I suppose so named by 
reason of the space required for this game. 
—BUc. 

Sibrit ; — or Sibberet, means the bands 
of marriage; " sibberidge " in Wilbr. 
and " sybrede banna " in Prompt. — Blk. 

It is one of Sir Thomas Browne's 

words, and in full use at this day. It is 
explained by Hickes, A. S. syb, cognatio, 
and byrht, manifestus, q. d. a public an- 
nouncing or proclamation of an intended 
affinity. This is unquestionably prefer- 
able to the unfounded notion, that the 
word is corrupted from " Si quis sciverit," 
the supposed first words of the publica- 
tion of banns in the Roman Latin service. 

— Forby. This word has been derived 

from sib, said to mean akin ; and to im- 
ply, that by banns the parties have a 
right to become akin, that is, sib-right. 
Some say it is rib-right, the right to take 
a rib. Ray has this proverb : — As much 
sibb'd as sieve and riddle that grew in 
the same wood. p. 225. And he says 
that "sibb'd means akin, and that in 
Suffolk the banns of matrimony are call- 
ed sibberidge," which is correct ; though 
sibrit be most common. Both are in ex- 
tensive use. Sib is also Scottish. It 
occurs twice in the sense of relationship 
in Scottish colloquialism in Guy Manner- 
ing, ii, 183, 219. It occurs also in the 
Antiquary, iii, 7/5;— "By the religion 
of our holy church they are ower sibb 
thegither." Again, " They may be 
brought to think themselves sae sibb as 
on Christian law will permit them wed- 
lock." I do not find, however, that sib- 
rit or sibridgc is Scottish. — Moor. 

Fangast ;— A marriageable maid. The 
word is not now known, and is, there- 
fore, given with Ray's interpretation and 
etymon. A. S. fangan, capere, and gast, 
amor. — Forby. 

Sap ; — sapy, foolish ; perhaps only 
sappy, ill pronounced. — G. Mr. For- 
by was unacquainted with the meaning 
suggested by Miss Gurney, and in which 
I have often heard the word used : — a 
silly fellow is called a sap ; he is also 
termed sapy or sappy. The comparison 
intended is possibly to the sap in tim- 
ber, which is of little value, and soon be- 
comes unsound and useless. 



Cothish ; — is likely to be an adj. from 
this noun in Prompt, "collie, orswown- 

ing, sincopa." — Blk.- Cothish, colhy, 

adj. faint, sickly, ailing. There can 
surely be no doubt of the identity of 
these words ; the former is Sir Thomas 
Browne's, the latter the modern form. 
Yet in the pref. to R. N. C. it is inter- 
preted morose, without a word of expla- 
nation or proof. It never could have 
been used in that sense. Its derivation 
is so very obvious, that it is wonderful it 
escaped Ray. It is amply justified by 
modern and very frequent use. A dog 
is said to be cothy when he is meek and 
delicate. A. S. cothe, morbus. 

Thokish ; — thoke, as on-sadde (sad 
meant firm) fysh, humorosus,insolidus, 

Prompt, applied to bofgy land Blk. 

Slothful: sluggish. This is Ray's 

interpretation, and may be right for 

ought we know.— Forby. The sense 

suggested by Mr. Black I believe to be 
the true one. 

Bid e -owe ; — interpreted by Ray (Pr. 
to N. C.) " poenas dare." It may be so. 
It is impossible to assent or gainsay, as it 
is totally extinct. It is one of Sir Tho- 
mas Browne's words. — Forby. Let 

us, in such failure of authorities, hazard 
a conjecture ; that it means " wait a 
while," — bide a wee. 

"Pax toax; — synewe," Prompt. It is 
still used dialectically for our pathwax or 

packwax Blk. The strong tendon 

in the neck of animals. It is a word 
which has no proper claim to admission 
here, for it is quite general ; yet must be 
admitted, because it is on Sir Thomas 
Browne's list. It must certainly have 
been in use in his time. And it is very 
strange he should not have heard it till 
he came into Norfolk. Ray, in the pre- 
face to N. C, makes no remark to this 
effect, but takes this as he finds it with 
the other words. Yet he had himself 
used it in his great work on the Creation, 
and to all appearance as a word well 
known. He spells it pack-wax, indeed, 
but that can surely make no difference. 
He not only gives no derivation, but de- 
clines giving one, at the same time de- 
claring his own knowledge of the very 
extensive, if not general, use of the word. 
The fact is, that it is not even confined 
to the English language. It is used by 
Linnaeus, somewhere in the Upsal Amoe- 



TRACT VIII.] 



OF LANGUAGES. 



209 



de Bones had not been cast away, wherein threescore thou- 
sand soldiers out of Britany and Flanders were to be wafted 
over, and were by king John's appointment to have a settled 
habitation in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. 7 

But beside your laudable endeavours in the Saxon, you are 
not like to repent you of your studies in the other European 
and western languages, for therein are delivered many excel- 
lent historical, moral, and philosophical discourses, wherein 
men merely versed in the learned languages are often at a 
loss : but although you are so well accomplished in the 
French, you will not surely conceive that you are master of 
all the languages in France, for to omit the Briton, Britonant 
or old British, yet retained in some part of Britany, I shall 
only propose this unto your construction. 

Chavalisco d'aquestes Boemes chems an freitado lou cap 
cun taules Jargonades, ero necy chi voluiget bouta sin tens 



nitates Academics. A friend, who un- 
dertook the search, has not been able to 
find the passage ; but it is not likely that 
any thing explanatory would be found. 
Indeed, it is a sort of crux etymologorum. 
They, very reasonably, do not care to 
come near it. And they might all 
frankly avow, as Ray does, that they 
"have nothing to say to it." Br. has 
fix-fax. — Forby. 

7 the Danish language, fycJ] I do not 
see the Danish original of most of the 
Norfolk words here given ; but there are 
several which can be traced to no other, 
and I have found several which are, I 
suspect, peculiar to the coast : — 

Hefty ; — stormy. Dan. heftig, angry. 

Swale /—shade. Dan. or Ice. svala, 
cold. 

Willock ; — a guillemot, or any sea 
bird of the awk or diver kind. 

Roke ; — fog or sea haze. Rak, 

wet, Ice., "With cloudy gum and rak 
ouerquhelmstthe are." — Gawin Douglas. 

To shrepe ; — used by the fishermen in 
the sense of " to clear." "The fog begins 
to shrepe yonder." Ice. skreppa. Dila- 
bi, se subducere. 

Lum ; — the handle of an oar. Icel. 
hlummr. In other parts of England, 
however, it is called the loom of an oar. 

Rooms; — the spaces between the 
thwarts of a boat. Ice. rum, used only 
in this sense. 

Togo driving ; — to go fishing ; chiefly 

VOL. IV. 



applied to the herring fishers, I think. — 
G. 

I have added, from a list of Norfolk 
words furnished me by the same corres- 
pondent, the following, which are either 
new to Forby, or with different deriva- 
tions : — 

" Wips and strays," not waifs and 
strays, but " wipper and straae." Dan. 
" heads and straws of corn," odds and 
ends. I found this expression in a list of 
provincialisms of the Danish island of 
Zealand. 

To lope ; — to stride along. Ger. hlaup- 
en, to run. 

Unstowly ; — applied to children; un- 
ruly. 

Car ; — a low marshy grove. Alder 
car, osier car. Kior, Ice., marsh. 

Skep or skip ; — a basket ; toad's skep, 
(not cap, I think). Skieppe is a Danish 
half bushel measure. 

Pottens ; — crutches. 

Hobby ; — small horse. Dan. hoppe, a 
mare. 

Wunl ; — to sit as a hen. Sax. wuni- 
an, to abide. 

Shacking. In German yechen is to 
club — and "zur yechegehen," literally, 
" to go to shack" is an expression in use, 
meaning to take a common share. The 
essence of our shacking is that the pigs 
and geese run in common over the fields 
to pick up the remains of the harvest.. 
—G. 



210 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

embe aquelles. Anin a lous occells, che dizen tat prou ben 
en ein voz L' ome nosap comochodochi yen ay jes de plazer, 
d' ausir la mitat de paraulles, en el mon. 

This is a part of that language which Scaliger nameth 
Idiotismus Tectofagicus or Langue d'oc, counterdistinguish- 
ing it unto the Idiotismus Francicus or Langue d'ouy, not 
understood in a petty corner or between a few mountains, but 
in parts of early civility, in Languedoc, Provence and Cata- 
lonia, which put together will make little less than England. 

Without some knowledge herein you cannot exactly under- 
stand the works of Rabelais : by this the French themselves 
are fain to make out that preserved relique of old French, 
containing the league between Charles and Lewis the sons of 
Ludovicus Pius. Hereby may tolerably be understood the se- 
veral tracts, written in the Catalonian tongue ; and in this is 
published the Tract of Falconry written by Theodosius and 
Symmachus ; in this is yet conserved the Poem Vilhuardine 
concerning the French expedition in the holy war, and the 
taking of Constantinople, among the works of Marius iEqui- 
cola an Italian poet. You may find in this language, a plea- 
sant dialogue of love ; this, about an hundred years ago, was 
in high esteem, when many Italian wits flocked into Provence; 
and the famous Petrarcha wrote many of his poems in Vau- 
cluse in that country. 8 

8 country.'] In the MS. Sloan. 1827, que vo3 dependants. II s'est desi'a queri 

I find the following very odd passage ; de mal St. Francois, et bride sa mule 

respecting which, most certainly, the a vostre despens. Croyez moi, il ne 

author's assertion is incontrovertible, s'amusera pas a la moutarde ; mais, 

that " the sense may afford some tron- vous ayant mine et massacre vos affaires, 

ble." I insert it, not expecting that many au dernier coup il vous rendra Monsieur 

readers will take that trouble — but it ap- sans queue, 

peared too characteristic to be omitted. " Mais pour l'autre goulafie et benueur 

"Nowhaving wearied you withold Ian- a tire la rigau, qui vous a si rognement 

guages or little understood, I shall put fait la barbe, l'envoyes vous a Pampe- 

an end unto your trouble in modern lune. Mais auparavant, a mon advis, il 

French, by a short letter composed by auroit a miserere jusques a vitulos, etje 

me for your sake, though not concerning le ferois un moutton de Berry. En le 

yourself; wherein, though the words be traittant bellement et de bon conseil, 

plain and genuine, yet the sense may vous assuyes de rompre un anguille sur 

afford some trouble. les genoux. Ne lui fies poynt: il ne 

"Monsieur, — Ne vous laisses plus rabbaissera le menton, et mourra dans 

manger la laine sur le dors. Regardes sa peau. II scait bien que les belles 

bien ce gros magot, lequel vous voyez de paroles n'escorchent pas la guele, les 

si bon ceil. Assurement il fait le mitou. quelles il payera a sepmaine de deux 

Monsieur, vous chausses les lunettes de Jeudies. Chasses le de chez vous a 

travers, ne voyant point comme il prati- bonne heure, car il a est6 a Naples sans 



TRACT VIII.] OF LANGUAGES. 211 

For the word (Dread) in the royal title (Dread sovereign) of 
which you desire to know the meaning, I return answer unto 
your question briefly thus. 

Most men do vulgarly understand this word dread after 
the common and English acceptation, as implying fear, awe, or 
dread. 

Others may think to expound it from the French word 
droit or droyt. For, whereas, in elder times, the presidents 
and supreme s of courts were termed sovereigns, men might 
conceive this a distinctive title and proper unto the king as 
eminently and by right the sovereign. 

A third exposition may be made from some Saxon original, 
particularly from Driht, Domine, or Drihten, Dominus, in the 
Saxon language, the word for Dominus throughout the Saxon 
Psalms, and used in the expression of the year of our Lord 
in the Decretal Epistle of Pope Agatho unto Athelred King 
of the Mercians, anno 680. 

Verstegan would have this term Drihten appropriate unto 
God. Yet, in the constitutions of Withred King of Kent,* 
we find the same word used for a Lord or Master, si in ves- 
perd prtecedente solem servus ex mandato Domini aliquod 
opus servile egerit, Dominus (Drihten) 80 solidis luito. 
However, therefore, though Driht, Domine, might be most 
eminently applied unto the Lord of heaven, yet might it be 
also transferred unto potentates and gods on earth, unto 
whom fealty is given or due, according unto the feudist term 

* V. CI. Spelmanni Concil. 

passer les monts ; et ancore que parle en loran * lui vault autant que l'isle de 

maistre, est patient de St. Cosme. France, et la tour de Cordan + lui vault 

" Soucies vous aussi de la garcionaire, le mesme avec la Louvre, 
chez vous, qu'elle n'ayst le mal de neuf " Serviteur tres- humble, 
mois. Assurement elle a le nez tourne " THOMAS BROUNE." 
a la friandise, et les talons bien courts. * Note; — "Alloran, Allusama, orln- 
Elle jouera voluntiers a l'Home ; et si le sula Erroris ; a small desolate barren 
hault ne defend le bas, avant la venue island, whereon nothing liveth but co- 
des cicoignes, lui s'enlevera la juppe. neys, in the Mediterranean sea, between 

"Mais, pour le petit Gymnosophiste Carthagena and Calo-de-tres-furcus, in 

chez vous, caresses le vous aux bras Barbary." 

ouverts. Voyez vous pas comme a f Note ; — ' ' A small island or rock, in 

toutes les menaces de Fortune il branle the mouth of the river Garonne, with 

comme la Bastille 1 Vrayment il est one tower in it, where a man liveth, to 

Stoic a vingt-quatre carrats, et de mesme take care of lights for such as go to, or 

calibre avec les vieux Ascetiques. Al- come from, Bordeaux." 

P 2 



212 OF LANGUAGES. [TRACT VIII. 

ligeus, 9 a ligando, unto whom they were bound in fealty. 
And therefore from Driht, Domine, dread sovereign, may, 
probably, owe its original. 

I have not time to enlarge upon this subject : pray let this 
pass, as it is, for a letter and not for a treatise. I am, 

Yours, &c. 

9 ligeus.] " Or liege lord. "—M.S'. Sloan. 1827. 



TRACT IX.] OF THE TUMULI. 2\'S 



TRACT IX. 

OF ARTIFICIAL HILLS, MOUNTS, OR BURROWS, 

IN MANY PARTS OF ENGLAND: WHAT THEY ARE, TO WHAT 

END RAISED, AND BY WHAT NATIONS. 

My Honoured Friend Mr. W, D.'s x Query. 

In my last journey through Marshland, Holland, and a great 
part of the Fens, I observed divers artificial heaps of earth 
of a very large magnitude, and I hear of many others which 
are in other parts of those countries, some of them are at 
least twenty foot in direct height from the level whereon they 
stand. I would gladly know your opinion of them, and 
whether you think not that they were raised by the Romans 
or Saxons, to cover the bones or ashes of some eminent 
persons ? 



My Answer. 

Worthy Sir, 
Concerning artificial mounts and hills, raised without fortifi- 
cations attending them, in most parts of England, the most 
considerable thereof I conceive to be of two kinds ; that is, 
either signal boundaries and land marks, or else sepulchral 
monuments or hills of interment for remarkable and eminent 
persons, especially such as died in the wars. 

1 Mr. W. Z).] " The initials, in both shew that he availed himself of the re- 

the preceding editions, are " E. D. :" ply he obtained to his enquiry: for he 

but it has been clearly ascertained that has transcribed the quotations from Le- 

this is an error. The query was Sir land and Wormius in illustration of the 

William Dugdale's ; and his reply to the Saxon and Danish mode of sepulture ; 

present discourse will be found vol. i, and has given almost verbatim the pas- 

p. 381. A reference to Dugdale's His- sage referring to Germanicus. 
tory of Embanking and Draining, will 



214 OF THE TUMULI. [TRACT IX. 

As for such which are sepulchral monuments, upon bare 
and naked view, they are not appropriable unto any of the 
three nations of the Romans, Saxons, or Danes, who, after 
the Britons, have possessed this land; because upon strict 
account, they may be appliable unto them all. 2 

For that the Romans used such hilly sepultures, beside 
many other testimonies, seems confirmable from the practice 
of Germanicus, who thus interred the unburied bones of the 
slain soldiers of Varus ; and that expression of Virgil, of high 
antiquity among the Latins, 

facit ingens monte sub alio 

Regis Dercenni terreno ex aggerebustum. 

That the Saxons made use of this way is collectible from 
several records, and that pertinent expression of Lelandus,* 
Saxones, gens Christi ignara, in hortis amoenis, si domi forte 
cegroti moriebantur ; sin foris et bello occisi, in egestis per 
campos terrce tumulis, (qaos burgos appellabant) sepulti sunt. 

That the Danes observed this practice, their own antiqui- 
ties do frequently confirm, and it stands precisely delivered 
by Adolphus Cyprius, as the learned Wormius f hath ob- 
served. Dani olim in memoriam regum et heroum, ex terra 
coacervata ingentes moles, montium instar eminentes, erex- 
isse, credibile omnino ac probabile est, atque illis in locis ut 
plurimum, quo scspe homines commearent, atque iter habe- 
rent, ut in viis publicis posteritati memoriam consecrarent, 
et quodammodo immortalitati mandarent. And the like monu- 
ments are yet to be observed in Norway and Denmark in no 
small numbers. 

* Lcland in Assertione Regis Arthuri. 
\ Wormius in Monumentis Danicis. 

2 appliable unto them all.] Mr. Pegge, muli generally are. The Danish lows 

in a paper published in the Archoeologia, would frequently exhibit a circle of stones 

on the Arbour Lows, in Derbyshire, ex- round their base. But the contents 

presses the same opinion; — ascribing would furnish the best and perhaps the 

these burrows or tumuli to Britons, Ro- only sure criterion to judge by; kist- 

mans, Saxons, and Danes, — and not to vaens and stone coffins, rings, beads, 

any one of those people exclusively, and other articles, peculiar to the Bri- 

Some he supposes to be British, from tons, being found in some ; Roman coins, 

their being dispersed over moors, and urns, and implements in others, and the 

usually on eminences; not placed witli arms and utensils of the Saxons or Danes 

any regard to roads, as the Roman tu- in others Arclucologia, vii, 131, &c. 



TRACT IX.] OF THE TUMULI. 215 

So that upon a single view and outward observation they 
may be the monuments of any of these three nations : although 
the greatest number, not improbably, of the Saxons; who 
fought many battles with the Britons and Danes, and also 
between their own nations, and left the proper name of bur- 
rows for these hills still retained in many of them, as the 
seven burrows upon Salisbury plain, and in many other parts 
of England. 

But of these and the like hills there can be no clear and 
assured decision without an ocular exploration, and subter- 
raneous enquiry by cutting through one of them either di- 
rectly or cross-wise. For so with lesser charge discovery 
may be made what is under them, and consequently the in- 
tention of their erection. For if they were raised for remark- 
able and eminent boundaries, then about their bottom will be 
found the lasting substances of burnt bones of beasts, of ashes, 
bricks, lime, or coals. 

If urns be found, they might be erected by the Romans 
before the term of urn-burying or custom of burning the dead 
expired : but if raised by the Romans after that period, in- 
scriptions, swords, shields, and arms, after the Roman mode, 
may afford a good distinction. 

But if these hills were made by Saxons or Danes, disco- 
very may be made from the fashion of their arms, bones of 
their horses, and other distinguishing substances buried with 
them. 

And for such an attempt there wanteth not encouragement. 
For a like mount or burrow was opened in the days of King 
Henry the Eighth upon Barham Down, in Kent, by the care 
of Mr. Thomas Digges, and charge of Sir Christopher Hales ; 
and a large urn with ashes was found under it, as is delivered 
by Thomas Twinus, de Rebus Albionicis, a learned man of 
that country, sub incredibili terrce acervo, urna cinere ossium 
magnorum fragmentis plena, cum galeis, clypeis ceneis et 
ferrets rubigine fere consumptis, inusitatce magnitudinis, eruta 
est : sed nulla inscriptio nomen, nullum testimonium tempus, 
autfortunam exponebant : and not very long ago, as Camden 
delivereth,* in one of the mounts of Barklow hills, in Essex, 

* Camd. Brit p. 326. 



216 OF THE TUMULI. [TRACT IX. 

being levelled, there were found three troughs, containing 
broken bones, conceived to have been of Danes : and in later 
time we find, that a burrow was opened in the Isle of Man, 
wherein fourteen urns were found with burnt bones in them ; 
and one more neat than the rest, placed in abed of fine white 
sand, containing nothing but a few brittle bones, as having 
passed the fire ; according to the particular account thereof 
in the description of the Isle of Man.* Surely many noble 
bones and ashes have been contented with such hilly tombs ; 
which neither admitting ornament, epitaph, or inscription, 
may, if earthquakes spare them, out-last all other monuments. 
Suce sunt metis metce. Obelisks have their term, and pyra- 
mids will tumble, but these mountainous monuments may 
stand, and are like to have the same period with the earth. 

More might be said, but my business of another nature, 
makes me take off my hand. I am, 

Yours, &c. 

* Published 1656, by Dan. King. 



TRACT X.] OF TROAS. 217 






TRACT X. 

of troas, what place is meant by that name. 

also, of the situations of sodom, gomorrha, admah, 

zeboim, in the dead sea. 

Sir, 
To your geographical queries, I answer as follows : — 

In sundry passages of the New Testament, in the Acts of 
the Apostles, and Epistles of St. Paul, we meet with the 
word Troas ; x how he went from Troas to Philippi, in Mace- 
donia, from thence unto Troas again : how he remained seven 
days in that place : from thence on foot to Assos, whither the 
disciples had sailed from Troas, and, there taking him in, 
made their voyage unto Caesarea. 

Now, whether this Troas be the name of a city or a certain 
region of Phrygia seems no groundless doubt of yours : for 
that it was sometimes taken in the signification of some coun- 
try, is acknowledged by Ortelius, Stephanus, and Grotius ; 
and it is plainly set down by Strabo, that a region of Phrygia 
in Asia minor, was so taken in ancient times ; and that at the 
Trojan war, all the territory which comprehended the nine 
principalities subject unto the King of Ilium Tgo/jj Xsyovp'svn, 
was called by the name of Troja. And this might seem suffi- 
ciently to solve the intention of the description, when he came 
or went from Troas, that is some part of that region ; and will 
otherwise seem strange unto many how he should be said to 
go or come from that city which all writers had laid in the 
ashes about a thousand years before. 

1 Troas.~\ Troas was a small country Alexandri, in honour of his master Alex- 
lying to the west of Mysia, upon the ander ; who began the work, but lived 
sea. Jt took this name from its princi- not to bring it to any perfection. But 
pal city, Troas, a sea-port, and built, as in following times it came to be called 
is said, about some four miles from the simply Troas. The name may be un- 
situation of old Troy, by Lysimachus, derstood as taken by the sacred writers 
one of Alexander the Great's captains, to denote the country as well as city so 
■who peopled it from the neighbouring called, but chiefly the latter, 
cities, and called it Alexandria, or Troas 



218 OF TROAS. [TRACT X. 

All which notwithstanding, — since we read in the text a 
particular abode of seven days, and such particulars as leav- 
ing of his cloak, books, and parchments at Troas, and that 
St. Luke seems to have been taken in to the travels of St. 
Paul at this place, where he begins in the Acts to write in 
the first person — this may rather seem to have been some city 
or special habitation, than any province or region without 
such limitation. 

Now, that such a city there was, and that of no mean note, 
is easily verified from historical observation. For though old 
Ilium was anciently destroyed, yet was there another raised 
by the relicts of that people, not in the same place, but about 
thirty furlongs westward, as is to be learned from Strabo. 

Of this place Alexander, in his expedition against Darius, 
took especial notice, endowing it with sundry immunities, 
with promise of greater matters, at his return from Persia ; 
inclined hereunto from the honour he bore unto Homer, 
whose earnest reader he was, and upon whose poems, by the 
help of Anaxarchus and Callisthenes, he made some obser- 
vations : as also much moved hereto upon the account of 
his cognation with the iEacides and Kings of Molossus, 
whereof Andromache, the wife of Hector, was Queen. After 
the death of Alexander, Lysimachus surrounded it with a 
wall, and brought the inhabitants of the neighbour towns 
unto it ; and so it bore the name of Alexandria ; which, from 
Antigonus, was also called Antigonia, according to the in- 
scription of that famous medal in Goltsius, Colonia Troas 
Antigonia Alexandrea, legio vicesima prima. 

When the Romans first went into Asia against Antiochus, 
it was but a xu^oitokig, and no great city ; but, upon the peace 
concluded, the Romans much advanced the same. Fimbria, 
the rebellious Roman, spoiled it in the Mithridatick wars, 
boasting that he had subdued Troy in eleven days, which 
the Grecians could not take in almost as many years. But it 
was again rebuilt and countenanced by the Romans, and be- 
came a Roman colony, with great immunities conferred on 
it ; and accordingly it is so set down by Ptolemy. For the 
Romans, deriving themselves from the Trojans, thought no fa- 
vour too great for it ; especially Julius Ca?sar, who, both in 



TRACT X.] OF TROAS. 219 

imitation of Alexander, and for his own descent from Julus, 
of the posterity of ^Eneas, with much passion affected it, and 
in a discontented humour,"* was once in mind to translate the 
Roman wealth unto it ; so that it became a very remarkable 
place, and was, in Strabo's time,f one of the noble cities of 
Asia. 

And, if they understood the prediction of Homer in refer- 
ence unto the Romans, as some expound it in Strabo, it might 
much promote their affection unto that place ; which being a 
remarkable prophecy, and scarce to be paralleled in Pagan 
story, made before Rome was built, and concerning the lasting 
reign of the progeny of iEneas, they could not but take es- 
pecial notice of it. For thus is Neptune made to speak, when 
he saved iEneas from the fury of Achilles. 

Verum agite hunc subito prsesenti a morte trahamus 
Ne Cronides ira flammet si fortis Achilles 
Hunc mactet, fati quem lex evadere jussit. 
Ne genus intereat de lasto semine totum 
Dardani ab excelso prae cunctis prolibus olim, 
Dilecti quos e mortali stirpe creavit, 
Nunc etiam Priami stirpem Saturnius odit, 
Trojugenum post haec jEneas sceptra tenebit 
Et nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis. 

The Roman favours were also continued unto St. Paul's 
days ; for Claudius, J producing an ancient letter of the Ro- 
mans unto King Seleucus concerning the Trojan privileges, 
made a release of their tributes ; and Nero elegantly pleaded 
for their immunities, and remitted all tributes unto them. § 

And, therefore, there being so remarkable a city in this 
territory, it may seem too hard to lose the same in the gene- 
ral name of the country ; and since it was so eminently fa- 
voured by emperors, enjoying so many immunities, and full 
of Roman privileges, it was probably very populous, and a 
fit abode for St. Paul, who being a Roman citizen, might live 
more quietly himself, and have no small number of faithful 
well-wishers in it. 

Yet must we not conceive that this was the old Troy, or 
re-built in the same place with it : for Troas was placed about 
thirty furlongs west, and upon the sea shore : so that, to hold 

* Sueton. f iKhoy'ifiw voXtuv. \ Sueton. § Tacit. Ann. 1. 13. 



-20 OF TROAS. [TRACT X. 

a clearer apprehension hereof than is commonly delivered in 
the discourses of Troy, we may consider one inland Troy, or 
old Ilium, which was built farther within the land, and so was 
removed from the port where the Grecian fleet lay in Homer ; 
and another maritime Troy, which was upon the sea coast, 
placed in the maps of Ptolemy, between Lectum and Sigaeum 
or Port Janizam, southwest from the old city, which was this 
of St. Paul, and whereunto are appliable the particular ac- 
counts of Bellonius, when, not an hundred years ago, he de- 
scribed the ruins of Troy with their baths, aqueducts, walls, 
and towers, to be seen from the sea as he sailed between it 
and Tenedos ; and where, upon nearer view, he observed some 
signs and impressions of his conversion in the ruins of churches, 
crosses, and inscriptions upon stones. 

Nor was this only a famous city in the days of St. Paul, 
but considerable long after. For, upon the letter of Adria- 
nus, Herodes, Atticus,* at a great charge, repaired their 
baths, contrived aqueducts and noble water courses in it. 
As is also collectible from the medals of Caracalla, of Severus, 
and Crispina ; with inscriptions, Colonia Alexandria Troas, 
bearing on the reverse either an horse, a temple, or a woman ; 
denoting their destruction by an horse, their prayers for the 
emperor's safety, and, as some conjecture, the memory of Si- 
bylla Phrygia, or Hellespontica. 

Nor wanted this city the favour of christian princes, but 
was made a bishop's see under the archbishop of Cyzicum ; 
but in succeeding discoi'ds was destroyed and ruined, and the 
nobler stones translated to Constantinople by the Turks to 
beautify their mosques and other buildings. 

Concerning the Dead Sea, accept of these few remarks. 
In the map of the Dead Sea we meet with the figure of the 
cities which were destroyed : of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, 
and Zeboim ; but with no uniformity ; men placing them va- 
riously, and from the uncertainty of their situation, taking a 
fair liberty to set them where they please. 

For Admah, Zeboim, and Gomorrah, there is no light 
from the text to define their situation. But, that Sodom 
could not be far from Segor which was seated under the 
* Pkilostrat, in Vila HerocHs Altici. 



TRACT X.] OF TROAS. ?JZ\ 

mountains near the lake, seems inferrible from the sudden 
arrival of Lot, who coming from Sodom at day break, at- 
tained to Segor at sun rising; and therefore Sodom is to 
be placed not many miles from it, not in the middle of 
the lake, which against that place is about eighteen miles 
over, and so will leave nine miles to be gone in so small a 
space of time. 

The valley being large, the lake now in length about 
seventy English miles, the river Jordan and divers others 
running over the plain, 'tis probable the best cities were 
seated upon those streams ; but how the Jordan passed or 
winded, or where it took in the other streams, is a point too 
old for geography to determine. 

For, that the river gave the fruitfulness unto this valley by 
over-watering that low region, seems plain from that expres- 
sion in the text,* that it was watered, sicut Paradisus ef 
JEgyptus, like Eden and the plains of Mesopotamia, where 
Euphrates yearly overfloweth ; or like Egypt where Nilus 
doth the like ; and seems probable also from the same course 
of the river not far above this valley where the Israelites pas- 
sed Jordan, where 't is said that " Jordan overfloweth its banks 
in the time of harvest." 

That it must have had some passage under ground in the 
compass of this valley before the creation of this lake, seems 
necessary from the great current of Jordan, and from the 
rivers Arnon, Cedron, Zaeth, which empty into this valley ; 
but where to place that concurrence of waters or place of its 
absorbition, there is no authentic decision. 

The probablest place may be set somewhat southward, 

below the rivers that run into it on the east or western shore : 

and somewhat agreeable unto the account which Brocardus 

received from the Saracens which lived near it, Jordanem 

, ingredi mare mortuiim et rursum egredi, sedpost exiguum in- 

i tervallum a terra absorberi. 

Strabo speaks naturally of this lake, that it was first caused 

1 by earthquakes, by sulphureous and bituminous eruptions, 

arising from the earth. But the Scripture makes it plain to 

! have been from a miraculous hand, and by a remarkable ex- 

* Gen. xiii, 10. 



222 OF TROAS. [tract X. 

pression, pluit dominus ignem et sulphur a domino." See 
also Deut. 29, in ardore salts: burning the cities and destroy- 
ing all things about the plain, destroying the vegetable na- 
ture of plants and all living things, salting and making barren 
the whole soil, and, by these fiery showers, kindling and set- 
ting loose the body of the bituminous mines, which shewed 
their lower veins before but in some few pits and openings, 
swallowing up the foundation of their cities ; opening the 
bituminous treasures below, and making a smoke like a fur- 
nace able to be discerned by Abraham at a good distance 
from it. 

If this little may give you satisfaction, I shall be glad, as 
being, Sir, Yours, &c. 

2 But the Scripture, #c] Dr. Wells arguments. See Geography of the Old 
supports this opinion at considerable and New Testament, i, 153. 
length and by a series of very satisfactory 



TRACT XI.] ANSWERS OF THE DELPHIAN ORACLE. 



223 



TRACT XI. 

of the answers of the oracle of apollo at delphos 
to crcesus king of lydia. 

Sir, 1 
Among the oracles of Apollo* there are none more cele- 
brated than those which he delivered unto Croesus King of 
Lydia ; f who seems of all princes to have held the greatest 
dependence on them. But most considerable are his plain and 
intelligible replies which he made unto the same king, when 
he sent his chains of captivity unto Delphos, after his over- 
throw by Cyrus, with sad expostulations why he encouraged 
him unto that fatal war by his oracle, saying tgtikiyovmi Kgo/tfw, 
Jjv 6r%anvrirai ttl Tlsgctag, ^iyctXriv ag%?)v fjuiv %ara~kbSiiv, Crcesus, if 
he wars against the Persians, shall dissolve a great empire.^ 
Why, at least, he prevented not that sad infelicity of his devot- 
ed and bountiful servant, and whether it were fair or honourable 



f Herod. 1. 



* See Vul. Err. 1. vii, c. 12 
46, 47, &;c 90, 91. 



Herod, ibid. 54. 



1 Sir-] The copy of this tract in 
MS. Sloan, is thrown more into the form 
of an essay, by the following introduc- 
tory passage : — " Men looked upon ancient 
oracles as natural, artificial, demoniacal, 
or all. They conceived something na- 
tural of them, as being in places afford- 
ing exhalations, which were found to 
operate upon the brains of persons unto 
raptures, strange utterances, and divi- 
nations ; which being observed and ad- 
mired by the people, an advantage was 
taken thereof; an artificial contrivance 
made by subtle crafty persons confeder- 
ating to carry on a practice of divination ; 
pretending some power of divinity there- 
in ; but because they sometimes made 
very strange predictions, and above the 
power of human reason, men were in- 
clined to believe some demoniacal co- 
operation, and that some evil spirit 



ruled the whole scene ; having so fair an 
opportunity to delude mankind, and to 
advance his own worship ; and were 
thought to proceed from the spirit of 
Apollo or other Heathen deities ; so that 
these oracles were not only apprehended 
to be natural, human, or artificial, but 
also demoniacal, according to common 
opinion, and also of learned men ; as 
Vossius hath declared : — " Constitere 
quidem oracula fraudibus vatum, sed 
non solis ; solertia humana, sed saepe 
etiam diabolica. Cum multa predixerint, 
ad quae nulla ratione humana mentis 
acumen perlegisset in natura ^humana 
non est subsistendum, sed assurgendum 
ad causas superioris naturae, quales sunt 
dsemones." According to which sense 
and opinion we shall enlarge upon this 
following oracle of Delphos." 



224 ANSWERS OF THE DELPHIAN ORACLE [TRACT XL 

for the gods of Greece to be ungrateful : which being a plain 
and open delivery of Delphos, and scarce to be paralleled in 
any ancient story, it may well deserve your farther consider- 
ation. 

1. His first reply 2 was, that Croesus suffered not for him- 
self; but paid the transgression of his fifth predecessor, 
who killed his master, and usurped the dignity unto which he 
had no title. 

Now whether Crcesus suffered upon this account or not, 
hereby he plainly betrayed his insufficiency to protect him ; 
and also obliquely discovered he had a knowledge of his mis- 
fortune ; for knowing that wicked act lay yet unpunished, he 
might well divine some of his successors might smart for it: 
and also understanding he was like to be the last of that race, 
he might justly fear and conclude this infelicity upon him. 

Hereby he also acknowledged the inevitable justice of God; 
that though revenge lay dormant, it would not always sleep; 
and consequently confessed the just hand of God punishing 
unto the third and fourth generation, nor suffering such ini- 
quities to pass for ever unrevenged. 3 

Hereby he flatteringly encouraged him in the opinion of 
his own merits, and that he only suffered for other men's 
transgressions : meanwhile he concealed Crcesus his pride, 
elation of mind and secure conceit of his own unparalleled fe- 
licity, together with the vanity, pride, and height of luxury 
of the Lydian nation, which the spirit of Delphos knew well 
to be ripe and ready for destruction. 

2. A second excuse was, that it is not in the power of God 
to hinder the decree of fate. A general evasion for any fal- 
sified prediction founded upon the common opinion of fate, 
which impiously subjecteth the power of heaven unto it ; 
widely discovering the folly of such as repair unto him con- 



2 His first reply.] This is a mistake ; 3 unrevenged.] In MS. Sloan, occurs 

the oracle began his answer by alleging here this passage: — " The devil, who sees 

the impossibility of avoiding the deter- how things of this nature go on in king- 

mination of fate. It was the second doms, nations, and families, is able to 

observation, that Crcesus was expiating say much on this point; whereas, we, 

the crimes of Gyges, his ancestor in the that understand not the reserved judg- 

fifth descent. (Ardys, Sadyattes, and ments of God, or the due time of their 

Atyattes, were the intervening descend- executions, are fain to be doubtfully 

ants.) silent." 



TRACT XI.] TO CRCESUS KING OF LYDIA. 225 

cerning future events : which, according unto this rule, must 
go on as the fates have ordered, beyond, his power to prevent 
or theirs to avoid ; and consequently teaching that his oracles 
had only this use to render men more miserable by foreknow- 
ing their misfortunes ; whereof Croesus himself had sensible 
experience in that daemoniacal dream concerning his eldest 
son, that he should be killed by a spear, which, after all care 
and caution, he found inevitably to befall him. 

3. In his third apology he assured him that he endeavoured 
to transfer the evil fate and to pass it upon his children ; and 
did, however, procrastinate his infelicity, and deferred the de- 
struction of Sardis and his own captivity three years longer 
than was fatally decreed upon it. 

Wherein while he wipes off the stain of ingratitude, he 
leaves no small doubt whether, it being out of his power to 
contradict or transfer the fates of his servants, it be not also 
beyond it to defer such signal events, and whereon the fates 
of whole nations do depend. 

As also, whether he intended or endeavoured to bring to 
pass what he pretended, some question might be made. For 
that he should attempt or think he could translate his infeli- 
city upon his sons, it could not consist with his judgment, 
which attempts not impossibles or things beyond his power ; 
nor with his knowledge of future things, and the fates of 
succeeding generations : for he understood that monarchy 
was to expire in himself and could particularly foretell the 
infelicity of his sons, and hath also made remote predictions 
unto others concerning the fortunes of many succeeding de- 
scents, as appears in that answer unto Attalus, 

Be of good courage, Attalus, thou shalt reign, 
And thy sons' sons, but not their sons again. 

As also unto Cypselus, King of Corinth. 

Happy is the man who at my altar stands, 
Great Cypselus, who Corinth now commands. 
Happy is he ; his sons shall happy be ; 
But for their sons, unhappy days they'll see. 

Now, being able to have so large a prospect of future 
things, and of the fate of many generations, it might well be 

VOL. IV. Q 



226 ANSWERS OF THE DELPHIAN ORACLE [TRACT XI. 

granted he was not ignorant of the fate of Croesus's sons, 
and well understood it was in vain to think to translate his 
misery upon them. 

4. In the fourth part of his reply, he clears himself of in- 
gratitude, which hell itself cannot hear of; alleging that he 
had saved his life when he was ready to be burnt, by sending 
a mighty shower, in a fair and cloudless day, to quench the 
fire already kindled, which all the servants of Cyrus could 
not do. Though this shower might well be granted, as much 
concerning his honour, and not beyond his power ; 4 yet whe- 
ther this merciful shower fell not out contingently, or were 
not contrived by an higher power, 5 which hath often pity upon 
Pagans, and rewardeth their virtues sometimes with extraor- 
dinary temporal favours ; also, in no unlike case, who was the 
author of those few fair minutes, which, in a showry day, 
gave only time enough for the burning of Sylla's body, some 
question might be made. 

5. The last excuse devolveth the error and miscarriage of 
the business upon Croesus, and that he deceived himself by 
an inconsiderate misconstruction of his oracle ; that if he had 
doubted, he should not have passed it over in silence, but 
consulted again for an exposition of it. Besides, he had 
neither discussed, nor well perpended his Oracle concerning 
Cyrus, whereby he might have understood not to engage 
against him. 

Wherein, to speak indifferently, the deception and miscar- 
riage seems chiefly to lie at Croesus's door, who, if not in- 

4 not beyond his power.~\ MS. Sloan, the mere juggle of the piiests, imposing 
adds 'when countenanced by divine per- on the ignorance and superstition of the 
mission or decree.' people ; but, assuming the fact that a 

5 or were not contrived by an higher real divination, through the agency of 
power.~\ — i. e. " that of the devil." Satan, was permitted to exist in Pagan 
The whole course of these observations antiquity, he only discusses the question 
on the Delphian oracle reminds us of how and when such permission was with- 
what in his former works Sir Thomas drawn and oracles ceased to exist. 

had declared to be his opinion — viz. that Since the preceding remarks were 
it was a Satanic agency. And several pas- written, I turned to Dr. Johnson's brief 
sages of Jleligio Medici betray this sen- account of these Miscellany Tracts, in 
timent — (see §§ 13 and 46) : and in his his life of the author, and find the follow- 
larger work, Pseud. Epid. he devotes a ing observation: — " In this tract nothing 
chapter (the 13th of book 7) to the sub- deserves notice, more than that Browne 
ject of the "cessation of oracles;" in considers the oracles as evidently and in- 
which he takes no pains to prove them dubitably supernatural, and founds all 
to have existed in any other way than by his disquisition upon that postulate." 



TRACT XI.] TO CRCESUS KING OF LYDIA. 227 

fatuated with confidence and security, might justly have 
doubted the construction ; besides, he had received two 
Oracles before, which clearly hinted an unhappy time unto 
him : the first concerning Cyrus. 

Whenever a mule shall o'er the Medians reign, 
Stay not, but unto Hermus fly amain. 

Herein, though he understood not the Median mule, or Cyrus, 
that is, of his mixed descent from Assyrian and Median 
parents, yet he could not but apprehend some misfortune from 
that quarter. 

Though this prediction seemed a notable piece of divina- 
tion, yet did it not so highly magnify his natural sagacity or 
knowledge of future events as was by many esteemed ; he 
having no small assistance herein from the prophecy of 
Daniel concerning the Persian monarchy, and the prophecies 
of Jeremiah and Isaiah, wherein he might read the name of 
Cyrus, who should restore the captivity of the Jews, and 
must, therefore, be the great monarch and lord of all those 
nations. 

The same misfortune was also foretold when he demanded 
of Apollo if ever he should hear his dumb son speak. 

O foolish Croesus ! who hast made this choice, 
To know when thou shalt hear thy dumb son's voice ; 
Better he still were mute, would nothing say ; — 
When he first speaks, look for a dismal day ! 

This, if he contrived not the time and the means of his 
recovery, was no ordinary divination .- yet how to make out 
i the verity of the story, some doubts may yet remain. For, 
1 though the causes of deafness and dumbness were removed, 
! yet since words are attained by hearing, and men speak not 
without instruction, how he should be able immediately to 
|l utter such apt and significant words, as " A&g&wre, ^ xriTifs KgoTfrot/, 
j " O man ! slay not Croesus," * it cannot escape some doubt ; 
jsince the story also delivers, that he was deaf and dumb, that 
she then first began to speak, and spake all his life after. 

* Herod. 1. i, 85. 

Q 2 



228 ANSWERS OF THE DELPHIAN ORACLE [TRACT XI. 

Now, if Croesus 6 had consulted again for a clearer exposi- 
tion of what was doubtfully delivered, whether the Oracle 
would have spake out the second time, or afforded a clearer 
answer, some question might be made from the examples of 
his practice upon the like demands. 

So, when the Spartans had often fought with ill success 
against the Tegeates, they consulted the Oracle, what God 
they should appease, to become victorious over them. The 
answer was, " That they should remove the bones of Orestes." 
Though the words were plain, yet the thing was obscure, and 
like finding out the body of Moses. And, therefore, they 
once more demanded in what place they should find the 
same; unto whom he returned this answer, 

When in the Tegean Plains a place thou find's t 
Where blasts are made by two impetuous winds, 
Where that that strikes is struck, blows follow blows, 
There doth the earth Orestes' bones enclose. 

Which obscure reply the wisest of Sparta could not make 
out, and was casually unriddled by one talking with a smith, 
who had found large bones of a man buried about his house ; 
the Oracle implying no more than a smith's forge, expressed 
by a double bellows, the hammer and anvil therein. 

Now, why the Oracle should place such consideration 
upon the bones of Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, a mad 
man and a murderer, if not to promote the idolatry of the 
Heathens, and maintain a superstitious veneration of things of 
no activity, it may leave no small obscurity. 

Or why, in a business so clear in his knowledge, he should 
affect so obscure expressions it may also be wondered ; if it 
were not to maintain the wary and evasive method in his an- 
swers : for, speaking obscurely in things beyond doubt within 
his knowledge, he might be more tolerably dark in matters be- 
yond his prescience. 

Though EI were inscribed over the gate of Delphos, yet 
was there no uniformity in his deliveries. Sometimes with 
that obscurity as argued a fearful prophecy ; sometimes so 
plainly as might confirm a spirit of divinity ; sometimes moral- 

6 Now, if Croesus. ] BIS. Sloan, plausible apology and evasion, if Crce- 
reads " Now, notwithstanding this sus." 



TRACT XI.] TO CRCESUS KING OF LYDIA. 

ly, deterring from vice and villany ; another time vitiously, 
and in the spirit of blood and cruelty ; observably modest in 
his civil aenigma and periphrasis of that part which old Numa 
would plainly name,* and Medea would not understand, when 
he advised iEgeus not to draw out his foot before, until he 
arrived upon the Athenian ground ; whereas another time he 
seemed too literal in that unseemly epithet unto Cyanus, King 
of Cyprus,f and put a beastly trouble upon all Egypt to find 
out the urine of a true virgin. 

Sometimes, more beholding unto memory than invention, he 
delighted to express himself in the bare verses of Homer. 
But that he principally affected poetry, and that the priest 
not only nor always composed his prosal raptures into verse, 
seems plain from his necromantical prophecies, whilst the dead 
head in Phlegon delivers a long prediction in verse ; and at 
the rising of the ghost of Commodus unto Caracalla, when 
none of his ancestors would speak, the divining spirit versified 
his infelicities ; corresponding herein unto the apprehensions of 
elder times, who conceived not only a majesty but something 
of divinity in poetry, and, as in ancient times, the old theo- 
logians delivered their inventions. 

Some critical readers might expect in his oraculous poems 
a more than ordinary strain and true spirit of Apollo ; not 
contented to find that spirits make verses like men, beating 
upon the filling epithet, and taking the licence of dialects and. 
lower helps, common to human poetry ; wherein, since Scali- 
ger, who hath spared none of the Greeks, hath thought it 
wisdom to be silent, we shall make no excursion. 

Others may wonder how the curiosity of elder times, hav- 
ji ing this opportunity of his answers, omitted natural questions ; 
() or how the old magicians discovered no more philosophy ; 
\\ and if they had the assistance of spirits, could rest content 
\ with the bare assertions of things, without the knowledge of 
J] their causes ; whereby they had made their acts iterable by 
•i sober hands, and a standing part of philosophy. Many wise di- 
j vines hold a reality in the wonders of the Egyptian magicians, 
t and that those magnolia which they performed before Pha- 
raoh were not mere delusions of sense. Rightly to under- 

* Hut. in Thes. f V. Herod. 



230 ANSWERS OF THE DELPHIAN ORACLE. [TRACT XI. 

stand how they made serpents out of rods : frogs, and blood 
of water, were worth half Porta's magic. 

Hermolaus Barbarus was scarce in his wits, when, upon con- 
ference with a spirit, he would demand no other question than 
an explication of Aristotle's Entelecheia. Appion, the gram- 
marian, that would raise the ghost of Homer to decide the 
controversy of his country, made a frivolous and pedantic 
use of necromancy, and Philostratus did as little, that called 
up the ghost of Achilles for a particular of the story of Troy. 
Smarter curiosities would have been at the great elixir, the 
flux and reflux of the sea, with other noble obscurities in na- 
ture ; but, probably, all in vain : in matters cognoscible and 
framed for our disquisition, our industry must be our Oracle, 
and reason our Apollo. 

Not to know things without the arch of our intellectuals, 
or what spirits apprehend, is the imperfection of our nature, 
not our knowledge, and rather inscience than ignorance in 
man. Revelation might render a great part of the creation 
easy, which now seems beyond the stretch of human indaga- 
tion ; and welcome no doubt from good hands might be a 
true almagest, and great celestial construction ; a clear sys- 
tem of the planetical bodies of the invisible and seeming use- 
less stars unto us; of the many suns in the eight sphere: 
what they are ; what they contain ; and to what more imme- 
diately those stupendous bodies are serviceable. But being 
not hinted in the authentic revelation of God, nor known how 
far their discoveries are stinted ; if they should come unto us 
from the mouth of evil spirits, the belief thereof might be as 
unsafe as the enquiry. 7 

This is a copious subject ; but having exceeded the bounds 
of a letter, I will not now pursue it further. I am, 

Yours, &c, 

7 enquiry^ MS. Sloan, adds this truth, might yet be obscure unto us." 
sentence, "and how far to credit the Here the MS. terminates, 
father of darkness and great obscurer of 



TRACT XII.] 



A PROPHECY ETC. 



231 



TRACT XII. 1 

A PROPHECY CONCERNING THE FUTURE STATE OF SEVERAL 
NATIONS, IN A LETTER "WRITTEN UPON OCCASION OF AN 
OLD PROPHECY SENT TO THE AUTHOR FROM A FRIEND 
WITH A REQUEST THAT HE WOULD CONSIDER IT. 



Sir, 
I take no pleasure in prophecies so hardly intelligible, and 
pointing at future things from a pretended spirit of divina- 
tion ; of which sort this seems to be which came unto your 
hand, and you were pleased to send unto me. And there- 
fore, for your easier apprehension, divertisement, and con- 



1 Tract xii.] Dr. Johnson remarks, 
that in this tract the author plainly dis- 
covers his expectation to be the same 
with that entertained lately with more 
confidence by Dr. Berkley, " that Ame- 
rica will be the seat of the fifth em- 
pire." 

If this alludes to Berkley's favourite 
" Scheme for Converting the Savage 
Americans to Christianity," no just com- 
parison can be drawn between it and 
Browne's speculations on the possible 
advancement of the New World in poli- 
tical consequence. I can, however, find 
nothing in Berkley about ''America be- 
coming the seat of the fifth empire," un- 
less it be in his " Verses on the prospect 
of planting arts and learning " there ; — ■ 
which he closes, after an allusion to the 
four ages, (viz. of gold, silver, brass, 
and iron,) by anticipating the arrival 
of a second age of gold, which he terms 
the " fifth act in the course of em- 
pire." 

Many of the more important specula- 
tions of our author, respecting the New 
World, remain, after a lapse of nearly 
two centuries, matter of speculation still ; 
— though, perhaps, to judge from the 
course of events since Sir Thomas wrote, 
we may not unreasonably look forward 
to their more complete fulfilment. 

A very spirited writer in our own days 
has indulged himself (in the specimen 



number of The Argus newspaper,) with 
a similar anticipation of events yet (if 
ever) to come. — By the provisions of 
that abomination — in a land of liberty 
and literature — the stamp act, it was 
forbidden to relate real incidents, unless 
on stamped paper — He therefore filled 
his paper with imaginary events. Some 
of his paragraphs relating to " Foreign 
Affairs" may afford an amusing parallel 
to the present tract. 

" Despatches have been this morning 
received at the Foreign Office, from the 
allied Greek and Polish army before Mos- 
cow, announcing a truce between the al- 
lies and the besieged, under the media- 
ation of the federative republic of France. 
Negociations for a final pacification are 
to be immediately entered on, under the 
joint mediation of Great Britain, France, 
and Austria ; and it is confidently hoped 
that the united efforts of these powers to 
put an end to the destructive five years' 
war, will be finally successful, and will 
end in the acknowledgement, by the 
Emperor Nicholas, of the independence 
of the crown of Warsaw, in the person 
of Constantine." 

" As we gather these facts from what 
may be considered official sources, we 
give them this prominent place, out of 
the general order of our foreign news, 
on which we now enter, however, in de- 
tail, having carefully examined all the 



232 A PROPHECY CONCERNING [TRACT XII. 

sideration, I present you with a very different kind of pre- 
diction : not positively or peremptorily telling you what shall 
come to pass, yet pointing at things not without all reason or 
probability of their events ; not built upon fatal decrees or 
inevitable designations, but upon conjectural foundations, 
whereby things wished may be promoted, and such as are 
feared may more probably be prevented. 



The Prophecy. 



When New England shall trouble 2 New Spain ; 

When Jamaica shall be lady of the isles and the main ; 

When Spain shall be in America hid, 

And Mexico shall prove a Madrid ; 

When Mahomet's ships on the Baltic shall ride, 

And Turks shall labour to have ports on that side; 3 



letters of this morning's mail, from our 
established and exclusive correspondents ; 
not doubting but that many will be a 
little surprised at the extent and variety, 
to say nothing of the novelty and inter- 
est, of the facts thus, for the first time, 
made public." 

" United Empire of America. — Since 
the last census of the United Empire of 
North and South America, it has been 
found that the population now amounts 
to 180,620,000 inhabitants, including 
the whole country, from Cape Horn to 
the Frozen Sea; Upper and Lower Ca- 
nada, as well as Peru and Patagonia, 
being now incorporated in the Union. 
The General Senate still holds its Parlia- 
ment in the magnificent city of Colum- 
bus, which reaches quite across the Isth- 
mus of Darien, and has its fortifications 
washed by the Atlantic on one side, and 
the Pacific on the other, while the two 
Provincial Senates are held at Washing- 
ton for the north, and at Bolivar for the 
south, thus preserving the memory of the 
first great discoverer, and the two great- 
est patriots, of this magnificent quarter 
of the globe." 

"Turkey. — Since the elevation of 
Count Capo d'Istria to the throne of the 
New Greek Kingdom of the East, tran- 
quillity reigns at Constantinople, and 



that city promises again to be the centre 
of commerce and the arts." 

" China. — Letters from the capital of 
China state, that there are now not less 
than fifty commission-houses of Liver- 
pool merchants established at Pekin alone, 
besides several agents from London es- 
tablishments, and a few depots for Bir- 
mingham and Manchester goods. The 
English nankeens are much preferred by 
the Chinese over their own, and Staf- 
fordshire porcelain is sold at nearly twice 
the price of the original china manufac- 
ture, in the bazaars." 

"Syria. — Lady Hester Stanhope had 
left her beautiful residence between Tyre 
and Sidon, as well as her summer retreat 
amid the snows and cedars of Lebanon, 
and taken up her new abode in the valley 
of Jehoshaphat, between the Mount of 
Olives and Mount Zion, at Jerusalem. 
Her ladyship, though growing old, still 
retained all her benevolence and vivacity ; 
and her house was the chief resort of all 
the intelligent visitors to the Jewish ca- 
pital, which was increasing in splendour 
every day." 

2 trouble.'] ' Terrify.'— MS. Rawl. 
58. 

3 And Turks, iyc] ' When we shall 
have ports on the Pacific side.' — MS. 
Raivt. 58. 



TRACT XII.] SEVERAL NATIONS. %33 

When Africa shall no more sell out their blacks, 

To make slaves and drudges to the American tracts ; 4 

When Batavia the Old shall be contemn'd by the New ; 

When a new drove of Tartars shall China subdue ; 

When America shall cease to send out 5 its treasure, 

But employ it at home in 6 American pleasure ; 

When the new world shall the old invade, 

Nor count them their lords but their fellows in trade ; 

When men shall almost pass to Venice by land, 

Not in deep water but from sand to sand ; 

When Nova Zembla shall be no stay 

Unto those who pass to or from Cathay ; — 

Then think strange things are come to light, 

Whereof but few 7 have had a foresight. 



The Exposition of the Prophecy. 

When New England shall trouble New Spain ; 

That is, when that thriving colony, which hath so much en- 
creased in our days, and in the space of about fifty years, 
that they can, as they report, raise between twenty and thirty 
thousand men upon an exigency, shall in process of time be 
so advanced, as to be able to send forth ships and fleets, and 
to infest 8 the American Spanish ports and maritime dominions 
by depredations or assaults ; for which attempts they are not 
like to be unprovided, as abounding in the materials for ship- 
ping, oak and fir. And when length of time shall so far en- 
crease that industrious people, that the neighbouring country 
will not contain them, they will range still farther and be 
able, in time, to set forth great armies, seek for new pos- 
sessions, or make considerable and conjoined migrations, ac- 

4 To make slaves, $c.~\ 'But slaves 8 in.] 'For.' — MS. Rawl. 58. 
must be had from incognita tracts.' — 7 few.] 'Few eyes.' — MS. Rawl. 58, 
MS. Rawl. 58. 8 infest.] ' Be a terror to.'— MS. 

5 out.] ' Forth.'— MS. Raivl. 58. Rawl. 58. 



234 A PROPHECY CONCERNING [TRACT XII. 

cording to the custom of swarming northern nations ; wherein 
it is not likely that they will move northward, but toward the 
southern and richer countries, which are either in the domini- 
ons or frontiers of the Spaniards : and may not improbably 
erect new dominions in places not yet thought of, and yet, 
for some centuries, beyond their power or ambition. 

When Jamaica shall be lady of the isles and the main ; 

That is, when that advantageous island shall be well peo- 
pled, it may become so strong and potent as to overpower the 
neighbouring isles, and also a part of the main land, especi- 
ally the maritime parts. And already in their infancy they 
have given testimony of their power and courage in their 
bold attempts upon Campeche and Santa Martha; and in 
that notable attempt upon Panama on the western side of 
America: especially considering this island is sufficiently 
large to contain a numerous people, of a northern and war- 
like descent, addicted to martial affairs both by sea and land, 
and advantageously seated to infest their neighbours both of 
the isles and the continent, and like to be a receptacle for co- 
lonies of the same originals from Barbadoes and the neigh- 
bour isles. 

When Spain shall be in America hid, 
And Mexico shall prove a Madrid ; 

That is, when Spain, either by unexpected disasters or 
continued emissions of people into America, which have al- 
ready thinned the country, shall be farther exhausted at 
home ; or when, in process of time, their colonies shall grow 
by many accessions more than their originals, then Mexico 
may become a Madrid, and as considerable in people, wealth, 
and splendour : wherein that place is already so well advanced, 
that accounts scarce credible are given of it. And it is so ad- 
vantageously seated, that, by Acapulco and other ports on the 
south sea, they may maintain a communication and commerce 
with the Indian isles and territories, and with China and 
Japan, and on this side, by Porto Bello and others, hold cor- 
respondence with Europe and Africa. 



TRACT XII.] SEVERAL NATIONS. 235 

When Mahomet's ships in the Baltic shall ride, 

Of this we cannot be out of all fear ; for if the Turk should 
master Poland, he would be soon at this sea. And from the 
odd constitution of the Polish government, the divisions 
among themselves, jealousies between their kingdom and re- 
public ; vicinity of the Tartars, treachery of the Cossacks, and 
the method of Turkish policy, to be at peace with the Em- 
peror of Germany when he is at war with the Poles, there 
may be cause to fear that this may come to pass. And then 
he would soon endeavour to have ports upon that sea, as not 
wanting materials for shipping. And, having a new acquist 
of stout and warlike men, may be a terror unto the confiners 
on that sea, and to nations which now conceive themselves 
safe from such an enemy. 9 

When Africa shall no more sell out their blacks, 1 

That is, when African countries shall no longer make it a 
common trade to sell away their people to serve in the drud- 
gery of American plantations. And that may come to pass 
whenever they shall be well civilized, and acquainted with 
arts and affairs sufficient to employ people in their countries : 
if also they should be converted to Christianity, but especially 
unto Mahometism ; for then they would never sell those of 
their religion to be slaves unto Christians. 2 

When Batavia the old shall be contemn'd by the new ; 

When the plantations of the Hollander at Batavia in the 
East Indies, and other places in the East Indies, shall, by 

9 enemy.] MS. Rawl. 58, proceeds the emancipation of the slaves in the 

thus; — " When we shall have ships, &c. West Indies: — a measure of equity — 

on the Pacific side, or west side of Ame- which, if not carried by legislation, will, 

rica, which may come to pass hereafter, ere long, be effected by means far less 

upon enlargement of trade or industrious desirable. — Dec. 1S32. 
navigation, when the streights of Magel- 2 Christians.] MS. Raivl. adds this 

Ian, or more southerly passages be well sentence ; — " then slaves must be sought 

known, and frequently navigated." for in other tracts, not yet well known, 

1 When Africa, fyc] The abolition or perhaps from some parts of terra in- 
of the slave trade, and the American ef- cognita, whenever hereafter they shall 
forts to colonize and evangelize Africa, be discovered and conquered, or else 
may be regarded as two important steps when that trade shall be left, and slaves 
towards the fulfilment of this prophecy, be made from captives, and from male- 
One measure remains to be adopted, — factors of the respective countries. 



236 A PROPHECY CONCERNING [TRACT XII. 

their conquests and advancements, become so powerful in 
the Indian territories ; then their original countries and states 
of Holland are like to be contemned by them, and obeyed 
only as they please. And they seem to be in a way unto it 
at present by their several plantations, new acquists, and en- 
largements : and they have lately discovered a part of the 
southern continent, and several places which may be service- 
able unto them, whenever time shall enlarge them unto such 
necessities. 

And a new drove of Tartars shall China subdue ; 

Which is no strange thing if we consult the histories of 
China, and successive inundations made by Tartarian nations. 
For when the invaders, in process of time, have degenerated 
into the effeminacy and softness of the Chinese, then they 
themselves have suffered a new Tartarian conquest and in- 
undation. And this hath happened from time beyond our 
histories: for, according to their account, the famous wall 
of China, built against the irruptions of the Tartars, was 
begun above a hundred years before the incarnation. 

When America shall cease to send forth its treasure, 
But employ it at home in American pleasure ; 

That is, when America shall be better civilized, new poli- 
cied and divided between great princes, it may come to pass 
that they will no longer suffer their treasure of gold and sil- 
ver to be sent out to maintain the luxury of Europe and other 
parts : but rather employ it to their own advantages, in great 
exploits and undertakings, magnificent structures, wars, or 
expeditions of their own. 

When the new world shall the old invade, 

That is, when America shall be so well peopled, civilized, 
and divided into kingdoms, they are like to have so little regard 
of their originals, as to acknowledge no subjection unto them: 
they may also have a distinct commerce between themselves, 



TRACT XII.] SEVERAL NATIONS. 237 

or but independently with those of Europe, 3 and may hostilely 
and piratically assault them, even as the Greek and Roman 
colonies after a long time dealt with their original countries. 

When men shall almost pass to Venice by land, 
Not in deep waters but from sand to sand ; 

That is, when, in long process of time, the silt and sands 
shall so choke and shallow the sea in and about it. And this 
hath considerably come to pass within these fourscore years : 
and is like to encrease from several causes, especially by the 
turning of the river Brenta, as the learned Castelli hath de- 
clared. 

When Nova Zembla shall be no stay 
Unto those who pass to or from Cathay ; 

That is, when ever that often sought for north-east passage 4 
unto China and Japan shall be discovered ; the hindrance 
whereof was imputed to Nova Zembla ; for this was conceived 
to be an excursion of land shooting out directly, and so far 
northward into the sea, that it discouraged from all naviga- 
tion about it. And therefore adventurers took in at the 
southern part at a strait by Waygatz next the Tartarian 
shore: and sailing forward they found that sea frozen and 
full of ice, and so gave over the attempt. But of late years, 
by the diligent enquiry of some Muscovites, a better discovery 
is made of these parts, and a map or chart made of them. 
Thereby Nova Zembla is found to be no island extending 
very far northward, but, winding eastward, it joineth to the 
Tartarian continent, and so makes a peninsula : and the sea 



3 Europe.] Here ends the MS. hope; indeed the various unsuccessful 
Rawl. 58. attempts by the English and the Dutch 

4 North-east passage.] These specu- on the one side, and by the Russians on 
lations may well be contrasted with some the other, go far to prove the utter im- 
observations of Mr. Barrow on the same practicability of a navigable passage 
subject, in his Chronological History of round the northern extremity of Asia ; 
Voyages into the Arctic Regions, p. 370. though the whole of this coast, with the 
" Of the three directions in which a pas- exception perhaps of a single point, has 
sage has been sought for from the At- been navigated in several detached parts, 
lantic to the Pacific, that by the north- and at different times." 

east holds out the least encouraging 



238 A PROPHECY ETC. [TRACT XII. 

between it which they entered at Waygatz, is found to be 
but a large bay, apt to be frozen by reason of the great river of 
Oby, and other fresh waters, entering into it ; whereas the 
main sea doth not freeze upon the north of Zembla except 
near unto shores ; so that if the Muscovites were skilful navi- 
gators, they might, with less difficulties, discover this passage 
unto China ; but, however, the English, Dutch, and Danes 
are now like to attempt it again. 

But this is conjecture, and not prophecy : and so (I know) 
you will take it. I am, Sir, &c. 






TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 



TRACT XIII. 1 

museum clausum, or, bibliotheca abscondita: contain- 
ing- some remarkable books, antiquities, pictures, and 
rarities of several kinds, scarce or never seen by 
any man now living. 

Sir, 
With many thanks I return that noble catalogue of books, 
rarities, and singularities of art and nature, which you were 
pleased to communicate unto me. There are many collections 
of this kind in Europe. And, besides the printed accounts 
of the Museum Aldrovandi, Calceolarianum, Moscardi, Wor- 
mianum ; the Casa Abbellita at Loretto, and Tresor of St. 
Dennis, the Repository of the Duke of Tuscany, that of the 
Duke of Saxony, and that noble one of the Emperor at 
Vienna, and many more, are of singular note. Of what in 
this kind I have by me I shall make no repetition, and you 
having already had a view thereof, I am bold to present you 
with the list of a collection, which I may justly say you have 
not seen before. 

The title is as above : — Musceum Clausum, or Bibliotheca 
Abscondita; containing some remarkable books, antiquities, 
pictures, and rarities of several kinds, scarce or never seen by 
any man now living. 

1 Tract xiii.] This curious Tract is had been suggested to me by a passage 

well characterised by Mr. Crossley, as in ReJigio Medici (Part I, § 21); and 

" the sport of a singular scholar. War- seems to be in perfect consonance with 

burton, in one of his notes on Pope, is Sir Thomas's character as a writer. He 

inclined to believe that this list was delighted, perhaps from the very origi- 

imitated from Rabelais's Catalogue of the nality of his own mind, to emulate the 

Books in the library of St. Victor ; but singularities of others. The preceding 

the design of the two pieces appears so Tract was occasioned by some similar 

different, that this suggestion seems en- production which had been submitted to 

titled to little regard." — Preface to Tracts, his criticism. His Christian Morals ap- 

18mo. Edin. 1822. pears to have been written on the model 

Bishop Warburton's opinion seems to of the Book of Proverbs ; see an allusion, 

me, nevertheless, highly probable. It in his 21st section, p. 107. 



240 MUS.EUM CLAUSUM. [TRACT XIII. 



1. Rare and generally unknown Books. 2 

1. A Poem of Ovidius Naso, 3 written in the Getick lan- 
guage, * during his exile at Tomos ; found wrapt up in wax, 
at Sabaria, on the frontiers of Hungary, where there remains 
a tradition that he died in his return towards Rome from 
Tomos, either after his pardon or the death of Augustus. 

2. The Letter of Quintus Cicero, which he wrote in an- 
swer to that of his brother, Marcus Tullius, desiring of him an 
account of Britany, wherein are described the country, state 
and manners of the Britans of that age. 

3. An ancient British Herbal, or description of divers 
plants of this island, observed by that famous physician Scri- 
bonius Largus, when he attended the Emperor Claudius in 
his expedition into Britany. 

4. An exact account of the Life and Death of Avicenna, con- 
firming the account of his death by taking nine clysters together 
in a fit of the cholic, and not as Marius, the Italian poet, de- 
livereth, by being broken upon the wheel : left with other 
pieces, by Benjamin Tudelensis, as he travelled from Sa- 
ragossa to Jerusalem, in the hands of Abraham Jarchi, a 
famous Rabbi of Lunet, near Montpellier, and found in a vault 
when the walls of that city were demolished by Lewis the 
Thirteenth. 

5. A punctual relation of Hannibal's march out of Spain 
into Italy, and far more particular than that of Livy : where- 
about he passed the river Rhodanus, or Rhone ; at what 
place he crossed the Isura, or L'Isere ; when he marched 
up towards the confluence of the Soane and the Rhone, or the 
place where the city of Lyons was afterward built : how 
wisely he decided the difference between King Brancus and 

* Ah pudet et scripsi Getico sermone libellum. 

2 Books.'] The Irish antiquaries men- 3 A Poem, of Ovidius, §c.~\ Mr. Tay- 

tion public libraries that were before lor, in his Historic Survey of German 

the flood : and Paul Christian lis- Poetry, has a curious section on this 

ker, with profounder erudition, has Poem of Ovid, whom he considers as the 

given an exact catalogue of Adam's ! — earliest German Poet on record. — See 

/Jr. Israeli's Cur. of Lit. 7th edit. vol. vol. i, § 2. 
ii, 250. 



TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 241 

his brother; at what place he passed the Alps ; what vinegar 
he used ; and where he obtained such a quantity as to break 
and calcine the rocks made hot with fire. 

6. A learned comment upon the Periplus of Hanno the 
Carthaginian ; or his navigation upon the western coast of 
Africa, with the several places he landed at ; what colonies 
he settled ; what ships were scattered from his fleet near the 
^Equinoctial Line, which were not afterward heard of, and 
which probably fell into the trade winds, and were carried 
over into the coast of America. 

7. A particular Narration of that famous Expedition of the 
English into Barbary, in the ninety-fourth year of the Hegira, 
so shortly touched by Leo Africanus, whither called by the 
Goths, they besieged, took and burnt the city of Arzilla pos- 
sessed by the Mahometans, and lately the seat of Guyland ; 
with many other exploits, delivered at large in Arabic, lost in 
the ship of books and rarities which the King of Spain took 
from Siddy Hamet, King of Fez, whereof a great part were 
carried into the Escurial, and conceived to be gathered out of 
the relations of Hibnu Nachu, the best historian of the 
African affairs. 

8. A Fragment of Pythseas, that ancient traveller of Mar- 
seilles ; which we suspect not to be spurious ; because, in the 
description of the northern countries, we find that passage 
of Pythaeas mentioned by Strabo ; that all the air beyond 
Thule is thick, condensed and gellied, looking just like sea 
lungs. 

9. A Submarine Herbal, describing the several vegetables 
found on the rocks, hills, vallies, meadows, at the bottom of the 
sea, with many sorts of alga,fucus, quercus, polygonum, gra- 
men, and others not yet described. 

10. Some Manuscripts and Rarities brought from the li- 
braries of ^Ethiopia, by Zaga Zaba, and afterwards transport- 
ed to Rome, and scattered by the soldiers of the Duke of 
Bourbon, when they barbarously sacked that city. 

11. Some Pieces of Julius Scaliger, which he complains to 
have been stolen from him, sold to the Bishop of Mende, in 
Languedoc, and afterward taken away and sold in the civil 
wars under the Duke of Rohan. 

VOL. IV. R 



242 MUSEUM CLAUSUM. [TRACT XIII 

12. A Comment of Dioscorides upon Hippocrates, procur- 
ed from Constantinople by Amatus Lusitanus, and left in the 
hands of a Jew of Ragusa. 

13. Marcus Tullius Cicero his Geography ; as also a part 
of that magnified piece of his, De Republica, very little 
answering the great expectation of it, and short of pieces 
under the same name by Bodinus and Tholosanus. 

14. King Mithridates his Oneirocritica. 
Aristotle, De Precationibus. 

Democritus, de his quae fiunt apud orcum, et oceani cir- 
cumnavigation 

Epicurus De Pietate. 

A Tragedy of Thyestes, and another of Medea, writ by 
Diogenes the Cynick. 

King Alfred, upon Aristotle de Plantis. 

Seneca's Epistles to St. Paul. 

King Solomon, de Umbris Idcearum, which Chicus Ascu- 
lanus, in his comment upon Johannes de Sacrobosco, would 
make us believe he saw in the library of the Duke of Ba- 
varia. 

15. Arlemidori Oneirocritici Geographia. 
Pythagoras, de Mare Rubro. 
The works of Confutius, the famous philosopher of China, 

translated into Spanish. 

16. Josephus, in Hebrew, written by himself. 

17. The Commentaries of Sylla the Dictator. 

18. A Commentary of Galen upon the Plague of Athens, 
described by Thucydides. 

19. Duo Cce saris Anti-Catones, or the two notable books 
writ by Julius Caesar against Cato ; mentioned by Livy, Sal- 
lustius, and Juvenal ; which the Cardinal of Liege told Lu- 
dovicus Vives were in an old library of that city. 

Mazhapha Einok or the prophecy of Enoch, which yEgi- 
dius Lochiensis, a learned eastern traveller, told Peireschius 
that he had found in an old library at Alexandria, containing 
eight thousand volumes. 



4 Democritus, Sfc] MS. Sloan. 1847, ed Postellus conceived to be the author 
adds the following article : — A defence of of De Tribus Impostoribus. 
Arnoldus de Villa Nova, whom the learn- 



TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 243 

20. A collection of Hebrew Epistles, which passed be- 
tween the two learned women of our age, Maria Molinea of 
Sedan, and Maria Schurman of Utrecht. 

A wondrous collection of some writings of Ludovica Sara- 
cenica, daughter of Philibertus Saracenicus, a physician of 
Lyons, who, at eight years of age, had made a good progress 
in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin tongues. 



2. Rarities in Pictures. 

1 . A picture of the three remarkable steeples or towers in 
Europe, built purposely awry, and so as they seem falling. 
Torre Pisana at Pisa, Torre Garisenda in Bononia, and that 
other in the city of Colein. 

2. A draught of all sorts of sistrums, crotaloes, cymbals, 
tympans, &c. in use among the ancients. 

3. Large submarine pieces, well delineating the bottom of 
the Mediterranean sea ; the prairie or large sea-meadow upon 
the coast of Provence ; the coral fishing ; the gathering of 
sponges ; the mountains, valleys, and deserts ; the subterra- 
neous vents and passages at the bottom of that sea. 5 Toge- 
ther with a lively draught of Cola Pesce or the famous Sici- 
lian swimmer, diving into the Voragos and broken rocks by 
Charybdis, to fetch up the golden cup, which Frederick, 
King of Sicily, had purposely thrown into that sea. 

4. A moon piece, describing that notable battle between 
Axalla, General of Tamerlane, and Camares the Persian, 
fought by the light of the moon. 

5. Another remarkable fight of Inghimmi, the Florentine, 
with the Turkish galleys, by moonlight ; who being for three 
hours grappled with the Basha galley, concluded with a sig- 
nal victory. 

6. A delineation of the great fair of Almachara in Arabia, 
which, to avoid the great heat of the sun, is kept in the night, 
and by the light of the moon. 



5 passages, 8fC.~\ MS. Sloan. 1874, about Egypt, and rose again in the Red 
reads — ' the passage of Kircherus in his Sea.' 
Iter Submarinus when he went down 

R 2 



244 MUSEUM CLAUSUM. [TRACT XIII. 

7. A snow piece, of land and trees covered with snow and 
ice, and mountains of ice floating in the sea, with bears, seals, 
foxes, and variety of rare fowls upon them. 

8. An ice piece, describing the notable battle between the 
Jaziges and the Romans, fought upon the frozen Danubius ; 
the Romans settling one foot upon their targets to hinder 
them from slipping ; their fighting with the Jaziges when they 
were fallen ; and their advantages therein, by their art in vo- 
lutation and rolling contention or wrestling, according to the 
description of Dion. 

9. Socia, or a draught of three persons notably resembling 
each other. Of King Henry the Fourth of France and a mil- 
ler of Languedoc \ of Sforza, Duke of Milan, and a soldier ; 
of Malatesta, Duke of Rimini, and Marchesinus the jester. 6 

10. A picture of the great fire which happened at Con- 
stantinople in the reign of Sultan Achmet. The janizaries 
in the mean time plundering the best houses, Nassa Bassa, 
the vizier, riding about with a symetre in one hand and a 
janizary's head in the other to deter them ; and the priests 
attempting to quench the fire, by pieces of Mahomet's shirt 
dipped in holy water and thrown into it. 

1 1 . A night piece of the dismal supper and strange enter- 
tain of the senators by Domitian, according to the descrip- 
tion of Dion. 

12. A vestal sinner in the cave, with a table and a candle. 

13. An elephant dancing upon the ropes, with a negro 
dwarf upon his back. 

14. Another describing the mighty stone falling from the 
clouds into /Egospotamos or the goats' river in Greece; which 
antiquity could believe that Anaxagoras was able to foretel 
half a year before. 

15. Three noble pieces ; of Vercingetorix, the Gaul, sub- 
mitting his person unto Julius Caesar ; of Tigranes, King of 
Armenia, humbly presenting himself unto Pompey ; and of 
Tamerlane ascending his horse from the neck of Bajazet. 

16. Draughts of three passionate looks; of Thyestes when 
he was told at the table that he had eaten a piece of his own 

6 jester.'] " Of Charles the First, and employ." — MS. note by Evelyn. 
one Osburn, an hedger, whom I often 



TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 245 

son ; of Bajazet when he went into the iron cage ; of CEdipus 
when he first came to know that he had killen his father and 
married his own mother. 

17. Of the Cymbrian mother in Plutarch, who, after the 
overthrow by Marius hanged herself and her two children at 
her feet. 

18. Some pieces delineating singular inhumanities in tor- 
tures. The Scaphismus of the Persians. The living trunca- 
tion of the Turks. The hanging sport at the feast of the 
Thracians. The exact method of flaying men alive, begin- 
ning between the shoulders, according to the description of 
Thomas Minadoi, in his Persian war. Together with the 
studied tortures of the French traitors at Pappa, in Hungaria: 
as also the wild and enormous torment invented by Tiberius, 
designed according unto the description of Suetonius. Ex- 
cogitaverunt inter genera cruciatus, nt larga meri potione 
per fallaciam oneratos repente veretris deligatis Jidicularum 
simul urinceque tormento distenderet. 

19. A picture describing how Hannibal forced his passage 
over the river Rhone with his elephants, baggage, and mixed 
army ; with the army of the Gauls opposing him on the con- 
trary shore, and Hanno passing over with his horse much 
above to fall upon the rear of the Gauls. 

20. A neat piece describing the sack of Fundi by the fleet 
and soldiers of Barbarossa, the Turkish admiral, the confu- 
sion of the people and their flying up to the mountains, and 
Julia Gonzaga, the beauty of Italy, flying away with her 
ladies half naked on horseback over the hills. 

21. A noble head of Franciscus Gonzaga, who being im- 
prisoned for treason, grew grey in one night, with this 
inscription, 

O nox quam longa est quae facit una senem. 

22. A large picture describing the siege of Vienna by So- 
lyman the Magnificent, and at the same time the siege of 
Florence, by the Emperor Charles the Fifth and Pope Cle- 
ment the Seventh, with this subscription, 

Turn vacui capitis pop'uliim Phaeaca p'utares I 



246 MUSEUM CLAUSUM. [TRACT XIII. 

23. An exquisite piece properly delineating the first course 
of Metellus's pontificial supper, according to the description 
of Macrobius ; together with a dish of Pisces Fossiles, gar- 
nished about with the little eels taken out of the backs of 
cods and perches ; as also with the shell fishes found in stones 
about Ancona. 

24. A picture of the noble entertain and feast of the Duke 
of Chausue at the treaty of Collen, 1673, when in a very 
large room, with all the windows open, and at a very large 
table he sat himself, with many great persons and ladies ; 
next about the table stood a row of waiters, then a row of 
musicians, then a row of musketeers. 

25. Miltiades, who overthrew the Persians at the battle of 
Marathon, and delivered Greece, looking out of a prison 
grate in Athens, wherein he died, with this inscription, 

Non hoc terribiles Cymbri non Britones unquam, 
Sauromataeve truces aut immanes Agathyrsi. 

26. A fair English lady drawn Al Negro, or in the Ethi- 
opian hue excelling the original white and red beauty, with 
this subscription, 

Sed quandam volo nocte nigriorem. 

27. Pieces and draughts in caricatura, of princes, cardi- 
nals, and famous men ; wherein, among others, the painter 
hath singularly hit the signatures of a lion and a fox in the 
face of Pope Leo the Tenth. 

28. Some pieces a la ventura, or rare chance pieces, either 
drawn at random, and happening to be like some person, or 
drawn for some, and happening to be more like another; 
while the face, mistaken by the painter, proves a tolerable 
picture of one he never saw. 

29. A draught of famous dwarfs with this inscription, 

Nos facimus Bruti puerum nos Lagona vivum. 

30. An exact and proper delineation of all sorts of dogs 
upon occasion of the practice of Sultan Achmet ; who in a 



TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 247 

great plague at Constantinople, transported all the dogs 
therein unto Pera, and from thence into a little island, where 
they perished at last by famine : as also the manner of the 
priests curing of mad dogs by burning them in the forehead 
with Saint Bellin's key. 

31. A noble picture of Thorismund, King of the Goths, 
as he was killed in his palace at Tholouze, who being let 
blood by a surgeon, while he was bleeding, a stander by took 
the advantage to stab him. 

32. A picture of rare fruits with this inscription, 

Credere qua? possis surrepta sororibus Afris. 

33. An handsome piece of deformity expressed in a no- 
table hard face, with this inscription, 

Ora 

Julius in Satyris qualia Rufus habet. 

34. A noble picture of the famous duel between Paul Manes- 
si and Caragusa the Turk, in the time of Amurath the Second ; 
the Turkish army and that of Scanderbeg looking on ; wherein 
Manessi slew the Turk, cut off his head, and carried away 
the spoils of his body. 



3. Antiquities and Rarities of several sorts. 

1. Certain ancient medals with Greek and Roman inscrip- 
tions, found about Crim Tartary : conceived to be left in those 
parts by the soldiers of Mithridates, when overcome by Pom- 
pey, he marched round about the north of the Euxine to 
come about into Thracia. 

2. Some ancient ivory and copper crosses found with many 
others in China ; conceived to have been brought and left 
there by the Greek soldiers who served under Tamerlane in 
his expedition and conquest of that country. 

3. Stones of strange and illegible inscriptions, found about 
the great ruins which Vincent le Blanc describeth about Ce- 
phala in Africa, where he opinioned that the Hebrews raised 



248 MUSjEUM clausum. [tract xiii. 

some buildings of old, and that Solomon brought from there- 
about a good part of his gold. 

4. Some handsome engraveries and medals of Justinus and 
Justinianus, found in the custody of a Banyan in the remote 
parts of India, conjectured to have been left there by the 
Friars mentioned in Procopius, who travelled those parts in 
the reign of Justinianus, and brought back into Europe the 
discovery of silk and silk worms. 

5. An original medal of Petrus Aretinus, who was called 
flagellum principum, wherein he made his own figure on the 
obverse part with this inscription, 

II Divino Aretino. 

On the reverse sitting on a throne, and at his feet ambas- 
sadors of kings and princes bringing presents unto him, with 
this inscription, 

I Principi tributati dai Popoli tributano il Servitor Ioro. 

6. Mummia Tholosana; or the complete head and body of 
father Crispin, buried long ago in the vault of the cordeliers 
at Tholouse, where the skins of the dead so dry and parch 
up without corrupting, that their persons may be known very 
long after, with this inscription, 

Ecce iterum Crispinus. 

7. A noble quandros or stone taken out of a vulture's head. 

8. A large ostrich's egg, whereon is neatly and fully 
wrought that famous battle of Alcazar, in which three kings 
lost their lives. 

9. An Etiudros Alberti or stone that is apt to be always 
moist : useful unto dry tempers, and to be held in the hand 
in fevers instead of crystal, eggs, lemons, cucumbers. 

10. A small vial of water taken out of the stones therefore 
called Enhydri, which naturally include a little water in them, 
in like manner as the /Etites or Eagle stone doth another 
stone. 






TRACT XIII.] MUSEUM CLAUSUM. 249 

11. A neat painted and gilded cup made out of the con- 
Jiti di Tivoli, and formed up with powdered egg-shells; as 

Nero is conceived to have made his piscina admirabilis, sin- 
gular against fluxes to drink often therein. 

12. The skin of a snake bred out of the spinal marrow of 
a man. 

13. Vegetable horns mentioned by Linschoten, which set 
in the ground grow up like plants about Goa. 

14. An extract of the ink of cuttle fishes reviving the old 
remedy of Hippocrates in hysterical passions. 

15. Spirits and salt of Sargasso, made in the western 
ocean covered with that vegetable; excellent against the 
scurvy. 

16. An extract of Cachitnde or Liber ans, that famous and 
highly magnified composition in the East Indies against me- 
lancholy. 

17. Diarrhizon mirificum ; or an unparalleled composition 
of the most effectual and wonderful roots in nature. 

R Had. Butuae Cuamensis. 
Rad. Moniche Cuamensis. 
Rad. Mongus Bazainensis. 
Rad. Casei Bazainensis. 
Rad. Columbae Mozambiguensis. 
Gim. Sem. Sinicae. 
Fo. Lim. lac. Tigridis dictae. 
Fo. seu Cort. Rad. Soldas. 
Rad. Ligni Solorani. 

Rad. Malacensis madrededios dictse an. |ij. 
M. fiat pulvis, qui cum gelatina Cornu Cervi Moschati 
Chinensis formetur in massas oviformes. 

18. A transcendent perfume made of the richest odorates 
of both the Indies, kept in a book made of the Muschie stone 
of Niarienburg, with this inscription, 



Deos rogato, 

Totum ut te faciant, Fabulle, Nasum. 



19. A Clepselcea, or oil hour glass, as the ancients used 
those of water. 



250 MUSEUM CLAUSUM. [TRACT XIII. 

20. A ring found in a fish's belly taken about Gorro ; con- 
ceived to be the same wherewith the Duke of Venice had 
wedded the sea. 

21. A neat crucifix made out of the cross bone of a frog's 
head. 

22. A large agath, containing a various and careless figure, 
which looked upon by a cylinder representeth a perfect cen- 
taur. By some such advantages King Pyrrhus might find 
out Apollo and the nine Muses in those agaths of his whereof 
Pliny maketh mention. 

23. BatrachomyomacJda, or the Homerican battle between 
frogs and mice, neatly described upon the chisel bone of a 
large pike's jaw. 

24. Pyxis Pandorce, or a box which held the unguentum 
pestiferum, which by anointing the garments of several per- 
sons begat the great and horrible plague of Milan. 

25. A glass of spirits made of aethereal salt, hermetically 
sealed up, kept continually in quick-silver; of so volatile a 
nature that it will scarce endure the light, and therefore only 
to be shewn in winter, or by the light of a carbuncle, or bo- 
nonian stone. 

He who knows where all this treasure now is, is a great 
Apollo. I 'm sure I am not he. However, I am, 

Sir, Yours, &c. 



JWtscellantes* 



CONCERNING THE TOO NICE CURIOSITY OF CENSURING THE 
PRESENT, OR JUDGING INTO FUTURE DISPENSATIONS. 1 

[posthumous works, p. 23. ms. sloan. 1885 & 1869.] 

We have enough to do rightly to apprehend and consider 
things as they are, or have been, without amusing ourselves 
how they might have been otherwise, or what variations, con- 
sequences, and differences might have otherwise arisen upon 
a different face of things, if they had otherwise fallen out in 
the state or actions of the world. 

The learned King Alphonso would have had the calf of a 
man's leg placed before rather than behind : and thinks he 
could find many commodities from that position. 

If, in the terraqueous globe, all that now is land had been 
sea, and all that is sea were land, what wide difference there 
would be in all things, as to constitution of climes, tides, dis- 
parity of navigation, and many other concerns, were a long 
consideration. 

If Sertorius had pursued his designs to pass his days in 
the Fortunate Islands, who can tell but we might have had 
many noble discoveries of the neighbouring coasts of Africa ; 
and perhaps America had not been so long unknown to us. 

1 Concerning, ^c] This most incor- Place Book. — Different copies of the first 

rect title I strongly incline to suspect is occur in two volumes of MSS. in the 

not genuine. Sloanian Collection, from which I have 

This piece and the following are mere inserted several additional passages, 
extracts from Sir Thomas's Common 



252 AGAINST CENSURE. 

If Nearchus, Admiral to Alexander the Great, setting out 
from Persia, had sailed about Africa, and come into the Me- 
diterranean, by the straits of Hercules, as was intended, we 
might have heard of strange things, and had probably a bet- 
ter account of the coast of Africa than was lost by Hanno. 

If King Perseus had entertained the barbarous nations but 
stout warriors, which in so great numbers offered their ser- 
vice unto him, some conjecture it might be, that Paulus Emi- 
lius had not conquered Macedon. 

If [Antiochus ?] had followed the counsel of Hannibal, and 
come about by Gallia upon the Romans, who knows what 
success he might have had against them ? 

If Scanderbeg had joined his forces with Hunniades, as 
might have been expected before the battle in the plains of 
Cossoan, in good probability they might have ruined Maho- 
met, if not the Turkish empire. 

If Alexander had marched westward, and warred with the 
Romans, whether he had been able to subdue that little but 
valiant people, is an uncertainty i we are sure he overcame 
Persia ; histories attest, and prophecies foretell the same. It 
was decreed that the Persians should be conquered by Alex- 
ander, and his successors by the Romans, in whom Provi- 
dence had determined to settle the fourth monarchy, which 
neither Pyrrhus nor Hannibal must prevent ; though Hanni- 
bal came so near it, that he seemed to miss it by fatal infatua- 
tion: which if he had effected, there had been such a traverse 
and confusion of affairs, as no oracle could have predicted. 
But the Romans must reign, and the course of things was 
then moving towards the advent of Christ, and blessed dis- 
covery of the Gospel : our Saviour must suffer at Jerusalem, 
and be sentenced by a Roman judge ; St. Paul, a Roman 
citizen, must preach in the Roman provinces, and St. Peter 
be Bishop of Rome, and not of Carthage. 



UPON READING HUDIBRAS. 253 



UPON READING HUDIBRAS. 



[posthumous works, p. 24.] 



The way of Burlesque Poems is very ancient, for there was 
a ludicrous mock way of transferring verses of famous poets 
into a jocose sense and argument, and they were called Cthiai, 
or Parodies; divers examples of which are to be found in 
Athenaeus. 

The first inventor hereof was Hipponactes, but Hegemon, 
Sopater and many more pursued the same vein ; so that the 
Parodies of Ovid's Buffoon, Metamorphoses, Burlesques, 
Le Eneiade Travastito, are no new inventions, but old fan- 
cies revived. 

An excellent Parody there is of both the Scaligers upon an 
Epigram of Catullus, which Stephens hath set down in his 
Discourse of Parodies : a remarkable one among the Greeks 
is that of Matron, in the words and epithets of Homer, de- 
scribing the feast of Xenocles, the Athenian Rhetorician, to 
be found in the fourth book of Athenaeus, page 134, Edit. 
Casaub. 



254 AN ACCOUNT OF ICELAND. 



AN ACCOUNT OF ISLAND, alias ICELAND, IN THE YEAR 
MDCLXII. 1 

[posthumous works, p. I.] 

Great store of drift-wood or float-wood, is every year cast 
up on their shores, brought down by the northern winds, 
which serveth them for fuel and other uses, the greatest part 
whereof is fir. 

Of bears there are none in the country, but sometimes 
they are brought down from the north upon ice, while they 
follow seals, and so are carried away. Two in this manner 
came over and landed in the north of Island, this last year, 
1662. 

No conies or hares, but of foxes great plenty, whose white 
skins are much desired, and brought over into this country. 

The last winter, 1 662, so cold and lasting with us in Eng- 
land, was the mildest they have had for many years in Island. 

Two new eruptions, with slime and smoke, were observed 
the last year in some mountains about Mount Hecla. 

Some hot mineral springs they have, and very effectual, 
but they make but rude use thereof, 

The rivers are large, swift, and rapid, but have many falls, 
which render them less commodious; they chiefly abound 
with salmons. 

They sow no corn, but receive it from abroad. 

They have a kind of large lichen, which dried, becometh 
hard and sticky, growing very plentifully in many places ; 



1 An account, &c] The following land; — three of whose letters have been 

brief notices respecting Iceland were col- preserved in the British Museum. These 

lected at the request of the Royal Soci- letters I have preferred to place immedi- 

ety. They were partly obtained through ately after the paper to which they re- 

corrcspondcnce with Theodore Jonas, a late, rather than in the Correspondence. 
Lutheran minister, resident in the Is- 



AN ACCOUNT OF ICELAND. 255 

whereof they make use for food, either in decoction or pow- 
der, some whereof I have by me, different from any with us. 

In one part of the country, and not near the sea, there is 
a large black rock, which, polished, resembleth touchstone, 
as I have seen in pieces thereof, of various figures. 

There is also a rock, whereof I received one fragment, 
which seems to make it one kind of pisolithes or rather oro- 
bites, as made up of small pebbles, in the bigness and shape 
of the seeds of ervum or orobus. 

They have some large well-grained white pebbles, and 
some kind of white cornelian or agath pebbles, on the shore, 
which polish well. Old Sir Edmund Bacon, of these parts, 
made use thereof in his peculiar art of tinging and colouring 
of stones. 

For shells found on the sea shore, such as have been 
brought unto me are but coarse, nor of many kinds, as ordi- 
nary turbines, chamas, aspers, laeves, &c. 

I have received divers kinds of teeth and bones of cetace- 
ous fishes, unto which they could assign no name. 

An exceeding fine russet down is sometimes brought unto 
us, which their great number of fowls afford, and sometimes 
store of feathers, consisting of the feathers of small birds. 

Beside shocks and little hairy dogs, they bring another sort 
over, headed like a fox, which they say are bred betwixt 
dogs and foxes ; these are desired by the shepherds of this 
country. 

Green plovers, which are plentiful here in the winter, are 
found to breed there in the beginning of summer. 

Some sheep have been brought over, but of coarse wool, 
and some horses of mean stature, but strong and hardy ; one 
whereof kept in the pastures by Yarmouth, in the summer, 
would often take the sea, swimming a great way, a mile or 
two, and return the same : when its provision failed in the 
ship wherein it was brought, for many days fed upon hoops 
and cask; nor at the land would, for many months, be 
brought to feed upon oaths. 

These accounts I received from a native of Island, who 
comes yearly into England ; and by reason of my long ac- 
quaintance and directions I send unto some of his friends 



256 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

against the elephantiasis, (leprosy,) constantly visits me before 
his return ; and is ready to perform for me what I shall desire 
in his country; wherein, as in other ways, I shall be very am- 
bitious to serve the noble society, whose most honouring ser- 
vant I am, 

THOMAS BROWNE. 

Norwich, January 15, 16G3. 



Theodore Jonas to Dr. Browne. 

[.MS. SLOAN. 3418, fill. 189.] 

Prima, qvam instituit Auctor, ^rjjtf/j difficilis mihi et sub- 
obscura videtur. 

1. De Arboribus et Herbis in Islandia quales vulgd occur- 
rant, qva ratione cum Anglicis conveniant, qva discrepent? 
Cum nunquam contigit olim felicem illam Terrain Anglicam 
adire ac lustrare, nedum in pernoscendis discernendisque 
istius soli proventibus operas qvicqvam sumere, frustra meo 
judicio, de Arborum aut Herbarum convenientia cum nos 
tratibus, compelletur. Verum ne videar, vel faciendo inhu 
manus, vel in patria recensendo, qvas fert Islandia, [primum 
sejungam, deindeetiam illas, non omnes qvidem sed praecipua 
et mihi visas, succincte memorem. 

Multi patriam nostram, praeter solam Betulam, ne qvic 
qvam arborum sunt procreare rati, sed falso : proveniunt ver 
hie Arbusculse permultae, et qvidem frugiferae ; ut Morus 
Buxus, Juniperus, Rubus, Myrtillus, cum suis qvaelibet bac 
cis : qvanquam libenter do has arborum species non altiu 
assurgere qvam ut Virgulta merito dicantur; impediuntur 
vero frigore, et assiduis opprimuntur nivibus, qvo minus ad 
excellentem et justam qvantitatem naturaliter possint per 
venire. Abundat etiam Islandia Salice, nee unius tantum- 
modo generis sed cum Punicea, qvae Plinio Viminalis, turn 
Candida, eidem Vitellina, turn Cinerea. Habet praeterea 
qvoddam Arboris Genus, nostratibus Reyner dictum, Sam 
buci nomine a nonnullis insignitum, nee refragabor tantisper 



LETTERS FROM. THEODORE JONAS. 257 

dum Auctores et herbarios cum ipsa confero experientia. 
Spinas, vepres, sentesque prudens omitto ; nee ejus generis 
nimium ferax haec terra. 

2. Num hyems hie aut aestas virescat, qvave alia facie tel- 
lus gaudeat? Prior pars rfo tyirfiteug vix est vestigationis 
nomine digna, cum ubique locorum aestas inducat viriditatem 
terras, et hyems contra marcorem ac flaccedinem. Posterior 
scriptionis est longioris : id saltern nunc significabo, ab asqvi- 
noctio autumnali procellis et imbribus ut plurimum nos con- 
cuti, Kalendas usque Novembrias, circa Solstitium brumale 
nivosissimam esse cceli constitutionem. Sole [autem] pe- 
ragrante signa Aqvarii et Piscium frigus vehementer affligere 
et intendi, raroque hyems se remittet ante Kal. April. 
iEstas plerumque siccior initio, ac ver ipsum, media calidior, 
fine pluviosa et turbida. Nox fere nulla aut notabilis umbra 
in nostro hemisphaerio sentitur aestivali solstitio praesertim in 
septentrionali plaga. Et tamen brumali die brevissimo, du- 
arum nempe horarum, aut fere trium, solem, sereno caslo, 
clare conspicimus, terras collustrantem, caloremque sentimus ; 
ut pro commento sit habendum qvod Cosmographi et Astro- 
nomi qvidam de Islandia scripserunt, corpus solare bruma 
non videri nobis, nee verum diem oriri. 

3. Qvi flores aut herbae in littore aut alibi reperiantur ? — 
qvamvis animo intendam annotare, vix tamen vacat, sed li- 
belli alicujus paginis inserere qvas commode ad vos integrae 

i veniant : operam omnino luderam, si tentarem herbas ac 
olera, ut jam sunt matura, foliis floribusque gravia, libro in- 

■ volvere, in Angliam usque perferenda. Nominatim vero 
recensebo nonnullas, qvas hie nascuntur herbas vulgatiores, 

(et qvae usibus humanis esse solent, alioqvi multitudine et 
varietate obruerer. Seqvar autem ordinem D. Adami 
Leoniceri Medico-Physici Francfurt: Herbarii non contem- 
nendi, qvo cum sedulo species arborum et herbarum contuli, 
atque ex lib. 2do didici, seqventes H. Islandiam nostram pro- 
ducere. Sempervivam seu Sedum majus et minus, cap. 8. 
delineatum. Trixaginem et Teucrion, c. 15. Lapathi et 

; Rumicis genera varia, c. 62, 63, 64. Chrysanthemum, c. 65. 
Buphthalmum, 66. Calthum, c. 67. Chamomillum, c. 68. 

! Hieracium seu Traxacon majus et minus, c. 71. Auriculum 

VOL. IV. S 



258 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

Muris, vulgo Pilosellam, c. 80. Tithymalum Myarinites seu 
faamin'am et Tithymalium paralium, seu Esulam marinam, c. 
82. Melissam, c. 99. Calamintham, c. 100. Mentham, c. 101. 
Serpillum, c. 109. Bellem seu Solidaginem minimam; Lysi- 
machiam seu Salicariam, herbam pedicularem, sive Staphi- 
sagriam, c. 146. Tanacetum, c. 175. Geranium rostrum- 
ciconise.' Ibid. Chelidonium seu Gratiam Dei, c. 177. 
Ranunculum, c. 197. Asinen seu morsum Gallinas, c. 204. 
Arundinem, c. 217. Gramen et Caricem, c. 218. Holosteon, 
vel denticulum canis, c. 219. Eqvisetum, c. 223. Rapunculura 
Rapum, c. 244, 245. Cepas, c. 248. Bulbos, 249. Porrum, et 
c. 250. Allium, c. 25L Fragariam, c. 275. Tormentillam et 
Pentaphyllum, c. 277. Saniculam, c. 278. Ledum Leonis, c. 
279. Filicis genera nonnulla, c. 291. Gyllitem seu hngvam 
cervinam, c. 294. Angelicam, c. 302. Petroselinum, c. 316. 
Millefolium, 321. Potentillam, 322. Gallium, c. 326. Apen- 
nens vulgo Aspergulam, c. 327. Matrisylvam seu herbam 
stellarem, c. 328. Crithmnm vulgo cretam marinam, c. 330. 
Ornithogalum, c. 337. Vicia, c. 364, et Lentem, 366. Alias- 
que innumeras, qvae licet non omnimodo et vsque qvoque 
congruant cum herbariorum descriptionibus et pigmentis, 
specie tamen easdem esse nulli dubitamus, ideoque et depic 
tis annumerandas. Multas, ut ubique obvias prudens prate 
reo; plurimae quoque neglectae, nobis etiam non visae, qvas 
patrium fert solum, sunt omissae. Nonnullas, in iisque igno- 
tas haud paucas, libello et fasciculo involvi, Dno Literatiss. 
perferendas, si fortasse nativam repraesentent arefactae figu- 
ram et innotescant. Nemini vero videbitur mirum si turn 
qvantitate turn forma utcunque et qvalitate nonnihil nostrae 
dissideant ab Anglicis, aut exoticis, et ob soli sterilitatem 
et aeris asperitatem. Adjunxi etiam Culmos cum spica, ir 
australi Islandise plaga sponte nascentes, qvos resectos et are 
factos nostrates quotannis concutiunt et copiosum eliciun 
frumentum, qvale sacculo inclusum mittimus. Sed et alib 
tritico simile frumentum provenit, ab incolis annuatim resec 
turn, arefactum, molaque subactum, panibus et pulmentarii 
utiliter aptatum, terreni quidem saporis, eo qvod non seritui 
nihilo tamen minus frugaliter atque ad satietatem alere fertui 
Haec autem quae intuenda mittuntur, eo exhibentur fine, t 



LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 259 

et sagaci indagatori fiat satis, et nos in pleniorem harum re- 
rum notitiam, per amicam vestram informationem, mutuam- 
que collationem, si Diis placet, perducamnr. 

4. Crustulum vel placentam panis istius qvi fit e pulvere 

confusorum piscium, non habemus Pise siccatus aut 

sole induratus funditur hie communiter (qvemadmodum etiam 
Rasa, salmo etc. indurati) et qvidem in superficiarium ut ita 
dicam, pulverem, sed qvi vel mox cum butyro et sale comme- 
ditur vel ex lacte aut alio jure pro obsonio habetur. Estque 
hie piscium apparatus Islandicse plebi cocti panis instar, 
qvanqvam ditiores et nobiliores, eo non contenti, pane exotico 
ut plurimum bis cocto mensas solent adornare suas. Interim 
non obliviscendum reor, moris esse vulgi nautici, ad levandam 
panis penuriam, ova piscium advectitio frumento ut admis- 
ceant, depsant in formam placentae, et pro pane utantur 
escarito. 

5. Chylus stomachis vitulorum contentus, hie ut in aliis 
regionibus usui qvidem est, omni parte anni, ad lac coagulan- 
dum, quo turn in caseum, turn in oxygalas concrescat, qvales 
nee Anglia nee Dania vidit, utpote crassas, pingves, consis- 
tentes et sine singulari aciditate perdurantes in annum, ut 
non Islandis solum, sed extraneis etiam, cibum gratissimum 
et fere dixerim Jovis cerebrum esse censendum. 

6. Qvid rerum ferat Hekla mons pene friget referre, prop- 
ter variorum scriptorum commenta et aniles [fabulas], qvibus 
Heklam Islandiae modo Orcum, modo glacialem Infernvm 
esse, petulanter astruere, imperitisque persvadere velle viden- 
tur. Verissime Dns Arngrinus Jonas Islandus de monte hoc 
mirabili scripsit, Apologet. suo, par. I, § 6, 7, ubi commenta 
solide refutavit et explosit. Mons Hekla sulphure et bitu- 
mine dives ardorem in cavernis ab exhalationum et ventorum 
motu confhetuque concipiens saepenumero fumum flammamque 
eructavit. Prima h3ec ignis eruptio legitur, Anno Dni 1106, 
facta; qvam varise, per dissimilia temporum intervalla, sunt 
subsecutae, nee tantum ex Hekla, sed aliis etiam sublimiori- 
bus montibus et alpibus, australis et maxime orientalis Islandiae 
partis, imo et ex mari, prope promontorium Reylianes, plas- 
risque Anglis qvi hue velificati sunt pernotum, flamma non 
semel erupit, et ignis per aliqvot dies arsit. Imprimis fuit 

S 2 



260 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

memorabilis ignis eruptio, Ao. 1625, cum aqvarum et cineris, 
pumicisque ingenti eluvie, ex alpium ruptura et commotione 
prope Heklam, concomitantibus fragoribus tremendis et terras 
motu, ccelo cinere, ceu nubilissimo imbre, aut eclipsi, ob- 
dueto et obscurato ; unde magnus orientalis Islandiae tractus, 
diffugientibus hominibus et pecoribus est evastatus. Nee 
multo remissior fuit ignis vis Anno 1636, cum Hekla ipsa jam 
octavum (ut habent annales) tremere et conflagrare coepit idi- 
bus Maijs ad vesperam, erumpente flamma, prima ad austrum 
ex montis illius barathro, deinde per bina, tandem sena, sep- 
tena, vel octona spiracula se vis effudit ignea, large diffundens 
fumum, cineres, et pumices, atros seu lapideos carbones, qvi- 
bus terra circumqvaque obducta, pabulum denegat armentis 
in hunc usque diem. In hac eruptione tellus itidem tremuit, 
flamma longe conspecta, fragores eminus auditi, maximo cum 
stupore et consternatione incolarum ad remotiora tutioraque 
loca dilabentium ; lux etiam diurna favillis et fumo intercepta, 
cinis in nubem coactus ad loca remotissima, prout venti flaver- 
unt, deferebatur, ipse mons ignivomus, alioqui cum alpibus 
nive certans, ab hac eruptione denigratus magnitudinem rei 
diu testatus est, tota ilia aestate ignes in monte conspecti sunt, 
sub initium hyemis paulatim se remiserunt et qvanquam 
rarius postea apparuerunt, primo tamen vere tandem ex 
defectu materiei, imo ex divina dispensatione penitus defer- 
buerunt ; nee indidem ab ullo hactenus animadversi. Atque 
haec de Monte mirabili scripsisse sat sit. 

7. De Noctuis, Vespertilionibus, Ranis, et Talpis ed 
brevior ero qvo in Islandia sunt animalcula rariora, mihi 

* neque visa hie neque audita. Animalia qua; 

habent nostrates omnis generis castrant, e jumentis, eqvos 
et boves, ex pecudibus, oves, imo canes, feles, etc., adeo ut 
parce ministrent admissarios, cuique gregi sobolis procre- 
andae gratia. 

8. Morborum genere vario vexantur Islandi. Universalis 
et vernaculus esse videt morbus pustularum, quo plerique in 
adolescentia et juventute semel tantum corripiunter, paucissi- 
mi in senectute, idque lethaliter ; rccurrit autem fere vicenorum 
annorum interstitio, diramque falcem in nostram solet immit- 

* The paper is torn here. 



LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 261 

tere messem. Cephalea multi utriusque sexus et catarrho 
gravantur, Plevritis, peripneumonia et ossium, ut vocant, 
dolor, haud paucos deijcit. Interim Morbus Comitialis, 
Cholera, Dysenteria, Spasmus, Ophthalmia, Odontalgia, An- 
gina, Asthma, Morbus regius, Dysuria, Hydrops, Gangraena ; 
Erysipelas non nullos affligit, sed raro ad mortem ducit. 
Nullus Elephantiasi, vel abominabilior vel pestilentior hie ex- 
istimatur, et tamen postremo hoc seculo pavendus se diffund.it. 
Fluentem morbum non agnoscimus alium, Febris itidem spe- 
cies prorsus ignoramus, nisi medicos evolvamus. 

9. De Canitie et Calvitio nihil habeo notabile scribere, nisi 
diverse nostrates afficiantur prout cujusque ferat complexio. 
Alii ante 30 annum nokiag conseqvuntur, alii vix 80m canes- 
cunt. Qvidam septimo lustro calvescunt, qvidam bene criniti 
promissoque capillo seculum simul et vitam absolvunt, tam 
longagvos namque senes vidimus. 

10. iEtites an in nidis aqvilarum aliqvando fuerit repertus, 
nescio, nostra certe memoria Islandis, etiam inqvirentibus non 
contigit invenisse qvare in fabulis habendum. 

11. Cervos Islandia non vidit, nedum decidua eorum cornua 
autumamus. 

13. Minutula testaceorum conchyliorumque genera qvae 
apud nos reperiuntur sigillatim indigitare aut describere, non 
opis est nostrae, qvippe qvi mediterranea incolimus et hoc 
studium liberale otium et industriam poscit. Qvas vero 
poteram obiter ac quasi in transcursu conqvirere collecta 
mittuntur, precor amanter et qua par est observantia, Rev. 
et Doct. Lectorem in qvemcunque perfunctus hasc incident 
epistola, ut dexter, qvag scripsi candido animo, accipiat, nee 
existimet ullus honori proprio me velificari voluisse, dum nude 
strictimque res patrias memoro rogatus ; malui autem honestae, 
viri Naturas studiosi <pi\6(fo(pou xai <piX6<pgovog Islandiaeque nostras 
bene cupientis petitioni, accedente Charissimi Syrnpatriotae 
mei in Anglia degentis appellatione morem gerere laconico et 
rudi responso, qvam vel inciviiiter abnuere, vel occupationes 
meas laboriosissimo hoc anni tempore, inhumanitati obtendere. 
Qvod si D.no Literat. qvi qvaesita huic transferri voluit, qvibus 
utcunque respondi, porro libuerit, super his vel aliis disqvirere, 
nosque suis propriis dignari Uteris, habebit me, Deo vitam 



262 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

prorogante, facilem et sibi, pro mea tenuitate, gratificandi 
studiosissimum. 

Christus Jesus, aeterni Sapientia Patris suo nos collustret 
spiritu, ut, qvae nobis saluti maxime sunt, impense sectemur, 
fidem veram retinentes, et charitatem non fucatam invicem 
exercentes, donee in pleniorem Salvatoris nostri cognitionem 
transformemur et aeternam consequamur haereditatem in coelis. 
Amen. 

Dabam Hitterdalae, 2 ids. Julias, Anno 1651. 

THEODORUS JONAS, ISLANDUS, 

Ecclesiae Hitterd. Pastor. 

The first account from Island, T. Jona: 1651.* 



Theodore Jonas to Dr. Browne. 

[MS. SLOAN. 3418, fol. 191.] 

Salve Vir Humanissime, 
Qvanti amicam tuam compellationem faciam, vir eruditissi- 
me et solertissime, D. Thoma Broune, et affatum tuum ami- 
cum, facilius sentio qvam exprimo. Beneficium enim est, sic 
interpretor, meliores istas mentes ad me sub extremo fere 
caeli climate constitutum, inclinare et ignotum complecti. 
Pauci hodie ita comparati, saltern in aliqvo honoris apice, et 
blandientis fortuna? cumulo, vel sub apricante sole viventes, 
ut in sterili Musarum contubernio qvaerant qvem amicitia sua 
dignentur. Opum aut dignitatum splendor passim affectum 
conciliat; & ut solem orientem omnes adorant, sic crescentem 
fortunam minorum gentium liomunculi, vappae fere apud eos, 
qvi se et sua tan turn suspiciunt. Tu melius, Vir Humanissi- 
me, qvi virum non purpura et pecunia? censu metiri didicisti, 
sed doctrinae et virtutis, qvanqvam ego mihi ipse neutrum fere 
arrogo, aliorum benevolentia abblandiente qvidem, verum non 
titillante: qua certe inductus, D. Broune, non semel me, 
de uno atque altero, per literas sciscitando consuluisti, sed 
irrito conatu, cum ab occupationibus meis anniversariis, hoc 

* The indorse. 



LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 263 

potissimum tempore usque ad adultam asstatem qvotannis in- 
cumbentibus, turn ab imperitia mea, et ignorantia rerum de 
qvibus qvaeritur. Et qvantum ad proximas D. Thomas lite- 
ras, a viro probo sympatriota meo Jona Aruaso mihi redditas, 
cvm adjuncto munusculo, ad unciae argenteas plus-minus pre- 
tium, qvorum utrumque longe nobis gratissimum. Non us- 
qveqvaqve difficile videbitur, qvas sitis, respondere, si plus otii 
nunc haberemus. De Avibus, qvas vocas migratorias, an sint 
in Islandia, nullus dubitat, et qvidem variarum specierum ; qvo 
vero nomine insigniendae, qvove exulent, magis in dubio re- 
linqvitur. Anseres agrestes habemus duum generum : sunt 
quos appellant Tardam, Tetracem; Anatumque varia, qvae 
vocantur, Boscas, Penelops, Qverqvedula, et Anas torqvata. 
Commorantur nobiscum, magno numero Alaudas, sed sine 
crista ; item Motacilla, annuus et certus exterarum nationum 

praesertim Anglicarum ; turn Fringilla, Cuculus, 

et id genus; alias aviculas, qvorum latina nomina non ex- 
acte nunc memini: hae vero omnes verno terram nostram 
tempore assiliunt, primo autem autumno, vel exeunte asstate, 
nemine advertente avolant. Qvo ? disqvirant ingenia acutiora, 
et otio abundantiora. Continue nobiscum inhabitant insulam 
Aqvila, olor, corvus, perdix, Falco, iEsalo seu merillus, pas- 
ser, curruca : nee multo pluras memini nobiscum hyemantes, 
in mediae hujus insulaa regione : de maritimis enim volatilibus 
cum adventitijs, turn permanentibus, hactenus non fui sollici- 
tus. Longiorem qvippe disqvisitionem pra? varietate et mul- 
titudine postulant. Habito autem in meditullio hujus insulae, 
vallem saltuosam Hitterdal, qvam in bonis allodiabus numera- 
mus, beneficio Serenissimi Danorum et Norvegorum Regis 
patri meo, venerando seniori (nunc ^axag/r»] :) mihique succes- 
sori concessam. Qvare mari navigatoribusque remotior ex- 
istens, postulatis tuis, qvanqvam aeqvissimis et jucundis, tem- 
pestive non qveo facere satis. Caetera qvaesitorvm qvod at- 
tinet, nescit nostra terra Serpentes, id est Colubros, Ranas> 
Talpas. A morborum variis generibus, Divina disponente 
dementia, liberi qvidem sunt Islandi, non tamen omnibus, ut 
nee a morbillis et variolis, qvas ut pituitosae aut biliosas erup- 
tiones, ceu congenita scabies, plurimis hie accidunt in pueritia 
vel in cunabulis : raro adultis : praeterqvam qvod aetati decri- 



264 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

pitse sua Psora adheret. Plantas, qvas pw», herbas nempe et 
frutices intelligo, olim a nobis designatas, expetivisti, sicco 
pede nunc transeo; tot enim hie suppetunt genera, forma, 
flore, fructu, usu varia, ut vel ipsi Chironi negotium facerent : 
interim diversas, et contrarias etiam facultates habere nemo 
nostrum nescit. Maxima autem difficultas, de his scribere vo- 
lenti metuenda, ab auctorum dissensu, discrepantiaque, cum 
circa nomenclaturam cujusvis plantee, turn multo-maxime for- 
mam et efficaciam, quorum litem si qvis suam facit, omnium 
Aristarchus audiat necesse est. Verum antequam manum de 
tabula, dominum meum et amicum D. Thomam Brounium 
cupio rogatum, velit anno seqvente, vitam Deo prorogante } 
distincte mihi significare per literas et statum suarum rerum, 
aetatis, professionis, habitationis, conjugii: et Anglicanae Rei- 
publicas formam, administrationem, [itemque] religionem. Tunc 
qvae floreant Academiae, qvi Doctores seu professores celeberri- 
mi vel sint vel habeuntur ? qvot Episcopi, Archiepiscopi, qvae 
eorum authoritas, et vis sive in religione propaganda et refor- 
manda, sive in rebus civilibus administrandis dijudicandisque. 
Haac enim omniaque: somnium nobis enarrant a morte Regis 
Caroli L vestrates, qvare commentarium rerum Anglicarum 
latino idiomate a D.no Amico, nisi est molestum, expeterem : 
[cui] vicissim pro meo modulo, qva possim gratificaturus. 
Qvod restat, Deum patrem omnis misericordiae obsecro, nos 
in sui cognitione et amore aaternum conservet, vitam et valetu- 
dinem nobis pro suo beneplacito protollat, et in caslestem pa- 
triam, qvos fide hie et charitate conjunxit, olim benigne susci- 
piat. Vale vir Humanissime; dabam Hitterdalae idib. Jul. 
Tibi addictissimus. Anno 1656. 

THEODORUS JONAS, ISL. 

Verbi M. 

Viro Virtute et Doctrina prasstantissimo, Humaniss: 

D. Thomae Brounio, Artis Machaonica: perkissimo, 

in Norvick ad Caurrum in Anglia D.no et Amico 

meo, dentur L. 
To Novuic in England. 

Indorsed. — Read at a meeting of the Royal Society, 
Feb. 7th, 1711-12— the second letter, lGf>6— -the 
third and last miscarytd, the shippe being taken. 



LETTEKS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 265 

Theodore Jonas to Dr. Browne. 

[ms. sloan. 3418, fail. 205.] 

Salve plurimum, Vir Reverende et Doctissime Domino 

Thoma Broune qva Christo Norvici 

in Anglia . et Moderator 1 

Domine et Amice cum primis observande, 
Et ipsae tuae literae, Vir honorande, mihi gratissimae, et gratior 
causa qvaa te impulit ad scribendum, amor enim humanitas- 
que [erat], qvemque nisi amem mutuum, [haurientem] a tarn pu- 
ro fonte, durus sim et inhumanus. Atque ego te, mi Broune 
(vere et [sine] blanditiis dicam) jam ante inter junctos habebam 
et inter charos, ita multa de virtute tua audiebam, et ex alto 
adorabam studium sapientiae et doctrinae tuae, qvod rarum in 
hoc ancipiti statu rerum et tumultuum. Nunc autem merito 
te colloco inter familiarissimos, postqvam non semel legi et ma- 
nibus versavi nuncium affectus tui in nos benevoli et constantis : 
intermisimus sane ad tempus officiumillud invicem compellan- 
di alterum, et fortasse culpa in me reciderit, verum haud obli- 
vione tui, sed mera dulcedine cessationis, qva facillime scri- 
bendi occasio nobis abscinditur tarn procul disjunctis. Tu 
autem redintegras amicitiae vices, et defectum gratis resarcis, 
non modo blanda et docta tua epistola, per virum probum nos- 
tratem Sigvardum Jugemundi (vobis forte Ingramum) missa, 
sed simul etiam trigemina prole recentium motuum in Mag- 
na Britannia, quorum Historiam admodum desideravimvs et 
nunc tandem tuo dono nacti sumus, qvo nos habeo tibi ob- 
strictiores. Quamvis autem haec opuscula Doctissimi Viri, 
Georgii Batei Med : luculente nos edoceant, tristia fata, va- 
riamque fortunam duorum M. Britanniae Regum; optarem 
tamen adhuc potiri, superis faventibus, uno opusculo ejusdem 
farinae, qvod in lucem jam prodijsse nullus dubito, nempe de 
introductione et plenaria ab exilio exaltatione Augustissimi 
Regis Caroli II. Et qvae poenae manserint immanes regicidas 
ac persecutores hujus jam regnantis. Qvae et qvantae rerum ac 
1 Qua Christo, &c] These words are struck out in MS. 



266 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

statuum mutationes sint subsecutae. Turn imprimis aveo vi- 
dere formulam vestraa reformataa religionis, qvae in Regno 
Angliae nunc obtinet. Suramam puta fidei et cercmoniarum, 
qvam Ecclesiae Anglicanae, cum cathedrales, et universitates, 
turn oppidani et suburbani ccetus profitentur et sectantur : Qvot 
et qvse sectae apud vos tolerentur ? Qvid Praesbyteriani ab 
aliis differant ? Hasc ante libuit Domino Amico vota sig- 
nificare, qvam ad ejus gsgrjj#ara devenirem, qvorum brevem et 
simplicem avahxsiv subjungam. 1. Qvas Historia vel traditio 
extet de Frislandia, Insula non longe a nobis remota? Uno 
verbo absolvam ; nulla qvag vel aures vel oculos nostros per- 
strinxerit. Habemus qvidem Frislandiam, insulam in tabulis 
hydrographicis delineatam, sed qvod sciam, nee nostra nee 
patrum memoria ulli visam, nedum calcatam. Navarchas eti- 
am, qvi qvotannis haec maria sulcant (ut verbo utar poetico) 
dictam insulam vel ex industria ne qvierunt invenire; qvam 
ob rem hanc, aut nunquam exstitisse, aut, qvod verisimilius, 
jamdudum insanis obrutam aqvis, et oceano absorptam arbi- 
trantur. Et frustra sunt, qvi hanc Frislandiam, eandem ac 
Winlandiam bonam seu felicem, qvo nonnulli ex primoribus 
nostrae terras incolis olim migraverint et coloniam deduxerint, 
rati sint. Autumarem potius Winlandiam illam, sive insulam 
sive continentem, partem fuisse Gronlandia? lybonotum ver- 
sus, feliciore gleba et mitiore tempestate qvam Meditullium 
tunc temporis habitatae Gronlandiae, ac propterea dictam vete- 
ribus illis, felicem. Sunt et qvi hanc Gronlandias partem ipsi 
Americae boreali cohaerentem, et qvasi continentem et con- 
tiguamt erram esse fluctuent, nee absimile vero. 

Gronlandiaa historia dudum est divulgata, qvamvis jam 
aliqvot retro seculis nil novi de ilia percrebuit. Dani vero 
nostri, non ita multis ante annis eo cursum instituentes, naves 
appulerunt : homines, lustrata terra, praedati, si modo id ho- 
mines licebit nuncupare, qvibus nee Deus, nee religio, nee 
discrimen honestorum et turpium, neque ratio aeqvi bonique 
ulla est; vescuntur crudis et sangvinolentis carnibus avium, 
animalium et piscium, qvorum copiam illud mare suppeditat, 
praasertim Balaenas et Phocas. Lingvam illorum aut orati- 
onem ncc audiverunt, nee murmur aut nutationes intellexerunt 
Dani, qvanqvam ultra bimatum apud se captos retinuerint, 



LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 267 

sperantes benevolentia et blanda conversatione tandem ho- 
mulos illos mansvefieri, sed frustra fuerunt. 

2. Qvaestio. Ligna fluctuantia qvae ad terrae nostras cre- 
pidines feruntur, Gronlandia avulsa plurimi censent. Cum 
qvod ventorum vi, qvi exinde spirant, Septentrionis, Aqvilonis 
et Cori plurimum agitentur, et Islandiam appellant turn qvia 
mare illud glaciale navigantes, inter Islandiam et Gronl. mul- 
titudinem lignorum fluitantium, imo et glaciei inhasrentium et 
concomitantinm saspiuscule reperierunt. Potius tamen ad- 
ducor ut credam, istiusmodi ligna a Norvegia seu Finnmar- 
chia nostro bono affluere, utpote terra sylvarum feracissima, 
insignis denique magnitudinis, et ad arctum longissime expor- 
recta, ultra scilicet 70 gr. ut Aqvilo vel Corus exinde nullo 
negotio ligna ferat Islandiae ; divina sic dispensante provi- 
dentia, cum sylvis ad extruendas domus destituamur. Gron- 
landiam autem prasdivitem esse sylvarum non videtur vero 
simile. Porro an inundatione et sestu maris subinde terris 
aliqvid abscindatur, an vero fluvialium vel pluvialium aqvarum 
immoderata violentia et eluvie, qvibus qvaevis obvia in declivi 
potissimum rapi solent, hujusmodi ligna eradicentur, et nostro 
bono in mare proijciantur, in dubio relinquo. Species ligno- 
rum qvod attinet, duum vel plurium suut : unum Abietis, 
Alni alterum, denique et Piceae seu potius Piceastri. 

3. Qv. An veneficis abundet Islandia et qva dignosci com- 
periantur ? Dolet nobis serio, patriam eo nomine male audi- 
visse. Et qvanqvam non negamus adhuc temporis tales ali- 
qvando deprsehendi (nunqvam enim desistit Diabolus, hostis 
divini cultus et hominum salutis, omnibus vijs suas extendere 
plagas et agro Christiano sua inserere si potest zizania) mul- 
tum tamen malum illud remisit et elanguit: cum ex mera Dei 
bonitate, puram doctrinae vocem apud nos conservante et 
adjuvante, turn ex severiore Magistratus sententia et inquisi- 
tione, atrocissima poena talibus Diaboli mancipiis irrogata. 

4. 5, 6. Quaestio. Sciuros, Lutras et talia animalcula non 
alit Islandia. Neque Asinos, qvamobrem an ferre possint 
brumam Isl. nee ne, incertum est. An boves omnes excornes, 
uti refert Ortelius ? Sensus est, an viderit Islandia vel habue- 
rit boves cornutos ? quasi vero omnes hie carerent cornibus ! 
Id autem, in gratiam Doctiss : Ortelii, affirmamns, duplo vel 



268 LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 

triplo majus esse sine cornibus hie armentum, qvam bicorne : 

7. Qvaestio. Qvid sentias per animalia aliqva endemica et 
propria non satis asseqvor. Huic antea regioni animalia ali- 
qva esse peculiaria, qvasi connata, nee ullus hominum [dene- 
gare est] ausus, de Ursis, lupis, vulpibus et id genus anima- 
libus, nocuis qvam utilibus, qvae majores nostri hie antea se 
reperierunt, non est, ut videtur quasstio. 

8. Q. An pisces in lacubus congelatis supervivant ? an ma- 
jori ex parte depereant. Rotunda est solutio, mori pisces 
constrictis omnino, et in glaciem conversis funditis aquis. Sin 
autem pro cortice aut crustulo glacies saltern innatet et obte- 
gat aqvas, nihil detrimenti, forsan et non nihil recrementi 
piscibus affert, unde etiam, qvi tunc per fenestras ab hamiotis 
venantur, dulciores et pingviores aestimantur. 

9. Q. Febribus raro vexantur Islandi, adeo ut nee species, 
nee paroxysmum febris qvisqvam hie observet. 

10. Q. Elevationem Poli qvod spectat, et situm Islandiae 
cosmographicum. Qvanqvam variant, inter nos qvi Astrono- 
mical rei operam aliqvam navarunt, a naucleris seu ruv %v- 
(3igv7)nxwv, qvi Islandiam freqventer et summa cum attentione 
circum quaque naves adpellunt, tamen ut de horum autoritate 
et sententia aliqvid scribam ; ponunt isti Insulas Westmanno- 
rum, qvae ad austrum, vel verius evronotum ab hac terra dis- 
tant circiter 10 mill. Latitudinis ab iEqvatore, 63 grad. 
25 m. Reitenes, qvod est Promontorium Islandiae australe 
latit. 64 gr. m. atq. fere ejusdem latit. statuimus Skalhol- 
tiam sedem Episcopalem Isl. australis, ut et Heklam montem 
satis famosum a sulphurea flamma, qvi hinc non longe versus 
orientem, 2 fortasse mill, distat. Aliud Isl. promontorium ab 
altissimis Alpibus et continua nive omnibus hue navigantibus 
pcrnotum, Snaefelsnef dictum lybonotum respiciens, scribitur 
latit. 65 g. m. Latitudo Ejafiord, qvi est sinus Islandiae 
Septentrionalis, ab astronomicis depraehensa, gr. 66 m. 8. ar- 
guit. Holas, sedem alteram Episcopalem, Islaridias Borealis 
ab iEqvatoris circulo, non distare plus 66 gr. atque adeo gr. 
67 Islandia non excedit, Arctum versus. 

11. Q. Fristas aut grana scgetis spontaneae transmittere 
((piod est postreinum Epistola: [)ostulatum) in praesentiarum 
duxi supervacaneum. 



LETTERS FROM THEODORE JONAS. 269 

Reliqvum est ut Doctissimum Dn. Amicum obnixe rogem, 
[ut] levem hanc animi mei significationem, et proletariam qvaes- 
tionum ejus solutionem in dextram accipiat partem. Certum 
jubeo ac spondeo me ad omnia illi obseqvia fore paratissi- 
mum. Cujus rei testimonium erint Biblia SS. vernaculo 
idiomate translata, et a nostrate bibliopego qvalitercunque 
adornata, qvae rogo Dns. Amicus, a me missa, serena fronte 
dignetur accipere et boni consulere. Valeat in Christo Jesu, 
rever. et literatissimus D. Amicus meus (cum uxore lec- 
tissima, liberis dulcissimis, et tota sua familia) Deo Triuni 
aeternum commendatus. 

Dabam Hitterdalae in Islandia, Idibus Julijs, Anni a nato 
Xo. 1664. Rev. tuam dign. amans et colens. 

THEODORUS JONAS, 
Hitterdalae Parcecus et Ecclesias Christi mystes indignus. 

Viro Eximio, qva virtute, qva doctrina, Domino 

Thomas Brounio. Norvici in Anglia, dimissio Verbi 

dei fidelissimo, D.no Amico et ! fratri in Christo 

conjunctis". Dentur [L.] 
Of Norwitz in England. 

1 Norvici, <^e.] These words are blotted out in MS. 



®npuWfel)eti papers* 



®ttpuMt0t)eti papers* 



FRAGMENT ON MUMMIES. 

[FROM A COPY IN THE HAND WRITING OF J. CROSSLEY, ESQ. 1 ] 

Wise Egypt, prodigal of her embalmments, wrapped up her 
princes and great commanders in aromatical folds, and, studi- 
ously extracting from corruptible bodies their corruption, am- 
bitiously looked forward to immortality; from which vain- 
glory we have become acquainted with many remnants of the 
old world, who could discourse unto us of the great things 
of yore, and tell us strange tales of the sons of Misraim, and 
ancient braveries of Egypt. Wonderful indeed are the 
preserves of time, which openeth unto us mummies from 
crypts and pyramids, and mammoth bones from caverns and 
excavations ; whereof man hath found the best preservation, 
appearing unto us in some sort fleshly, while beasts must be 
fain of an osseous continuance. 

In what original this practice of the Egyptians had root, 
divers authors dispute ; while some place the origin hereof in 
the desire to prevent the separation of the soul, by keeping 
the body untabified, and alluring the spiritual part to remain 
by sweet and precious odours. But all this was but fond in- 
consideration. The soul, having broken its * * * *, is 
not stayed by bands and cerecloths, nor to be recalled by 
Sabaean odours, but fleeth to the place of invisibles, the ubi 
of spirits, and needeth a surer than Hermes's seal to imprison 

1 J. Crossley, Esq.~\ I have given contained it, nor could he inform me; 

this fragment on the authority of Mr. having transcribed it himself in the Mu- 

Crossley ; but have not been able to find seum, but omittted to note the volume 

the vol. in the British Museum which in which he met with it. 

VOL. IV. T 



274 FRAGMENT ON MUMMIES. 

it to its medicated trunk, which yet subsists anomalously in 
its indestructible case, and, like a widow looking for her hus- 
band, anxiously awaits its return. 

* * * * * 

Of Joseph it is said, that they embalmed him ; and he was 
put in a coffin in Egypt. When the Scripture saith that the 
Egyptians mourned for him three score and ten days, some 
doubt may be made, from the practices as delivered by Hero- 
dotus, who saith that the time allowed for preserving the body 
and mourning was seventy days. Amongst the Rabbins, there 
is an old tradition, that Joseph's body was dried by smoke, 
and preserved in the river Nile, till the final departure of the 
children of Israel from Egypt, according to the Targum of 
Uzziel. Sckichardus delivereth it as the opinion of R. Abra- 
ham Seba, that this was done in contempt of Egypt, as un- 
worthy of the depositure of that great patriarch ; also as a 
type of the infants who were drowned in that river, whereto 
Sckichardus subjoineth that it was physically proper to pre- 
vent corruption. The Rabbins likewise idly dream that these 
bones were carried away by Moses about a century after, 
when they departed into Egypt, though how a coffin could 
be preserved in that large river, so as to be found again, they 
are not agreed ; and some fly after their manner to Schem-ham- 
phorasch, which most will regard as vain babblings. 

That mummy is medicinal, the Arabian Doctor Haly de- 
livereth and divers confirm ; but of the particular uses there- 
of, there is much discrepancy of opinion. While Hofmannus 
prescribes the same to epileptics, Johan de Muralto com- 
mends the use thereof to gouty persons ; Bacon likewise 
extols it as a stiptic : and Junkenius considers it of efficacy 
to resolve coagulated blood. Meanwhile, we hardly applaud 
Francis the First, of France, who always carried mummies 
with him as a panacea against all disorders ; and were the 
efficacy thereof more clearly made out, scarce conceive the 
use thereof allowable in physic, exceeding the barbarities of 
Cambyses, and turning old heroes unto unworthy potions. 
Shall Egypt lend out her ancients unto chirurgeons and apo- 
thecaries, and Cheops and Psammitticus be weighed unto us 
for drugs ? Shall we eat of Chamnes and Amosis in electua- 



FRAGMENT ON MUMMIES. 275 

ries and pills, and be cured by cannibal mixtures ? Surely 
such diet is dismal vampirism; and exceeds in horror the 
black banquet of Domitian, not to be paralleled except in 
those Arabian feasts, wherein Ghoules feed horribly. 

But the common opinion of the virtues of mummy bred 
great consumption thereof, and princes and great men con- 
tended for this strange panacea, wherein Jews dealt largely, 
manufacturing mummies from dead carcasses, and giving 
them the names of kings, while specifics were compounded 
from crosses and gibbet leavings. There wanted not a set of 
Arabians who counterfeited mummies so accurately, that it 
needed great skill to distinguish the false from the true. 
Queasy stomachs would hardly fancy the doubtful potion, 
wherein one might so easily swallow a cloud for his Juno, and 
defraud the fowls of the air while in conceit enjoying the 
conserves of Canopus. 

%! "«* ^F" TP Tfc 

Radzivil hath a strange story of some mummies which he had 
stowed in seven chests, and was carrying on ship board from 
Egypt, when a priest on the mission, while at his prayers, 
was tormented by two ethnic spectres or devils, a man and a 
woman, both black and horrible ; and at the same time a 
great storm at sea, which threatened shipwreck, till at last 
they were enforced to pacify the enraged sea, and put those 
demons to flight by throwing their mummy freight overboard, 
and so with difficulty escaped. What credit the relation of 
i the worthy person deserves, we leave unto others. Surely 
if true, these demons were Satan's emissaries, appearing in 
I forms answerable unto Horus and Mompta, the old deities of 
f Egypt, to delude unhappy men. For those dark caves and 
t mummy repositories are Satan's abodes, wherein he specu- 
1 lates and rejoices on human vain-glory, and keeps those 
I kings and conquerors, whom alive he bewitched, whole for 
j that great day, when he will claim his own, and marshal the 
| kings of Nilus and Thebes in sad procession unto the pit. 
Death, that fatal necessity which so many would overlook, 
or blinkingly survey, the old Egyptians held continually be- 
fore their eyes. Their embalmed ancestors they carried 
about at their banquets, as holding them still a part of their 

t 2 



276 FRAGMENT ON MUMMIES. 

families, and not thrusting them from their places at feasts. 
They wanted not likewise a sad preacher at their tables to 
admonish them daily of death, surely an unnecessary dis- 
course while they banqueted in sepulchres. Whether this 
were not making too much of death, as tending to assuefac- 
tion, some reason there is to doubt, but certain it is that such 
practices would hardly be embraced by our modern gour- 
mands who like not to look on faces of morta, or be elbowed 
by mummies. 

Yet in those huge structures and pyramidal immensities, 
of the builders whereof so little is known, they seemed not 
so much to raise sepulchres or temples to death, as to con- 
temn and disdain it, astonishing heaven with their audacities, 
and looking forward with delight to their interment in those 
eternal piles. Of their living habitations they made little ac- 
count, conceiving of them but as hospitia, or inns, while they 
adorned the sepulchres of the dead, and planting thereon 
lasting bases, defied the crumbling touches of time and the 
misty vaporousness of oblivion. Yet all were but Babel vani- 
ties. Time sadly overcometh all things, and is now domi- 
nant, and sitteth upon a sphinx, and looketh unto Memphis and 
old Thebes, while his sister Oblivion reclineth semisomnous on 
a pyramid, gloriously triumphing, making puzzles of Titanian 
erections, and turning old glories into dreams. History sink- 
eth beneath her cloud. The traveller as he paceth amazedly 
through those deserts asketh of her, who builded them ? and 
she mumbleth something, but what it is he heareth not. 

Egypt itself is now become the land of obliviousness and 
doteth. Her ancient civility is gone, and her glory hath 
vanished as a phantasma. Her youthful days are over, and 
her face hath become wrinkled and tetrick. She poreth not 
upon the heavens, astronomy is dead unto her, and knowledge 
maketh other cycles. Canopus is afar off, Memnon resound- 
eth not to the sun, and Nilus heareth strange voices. Her 
monuments are but hieroglyphically sempiternal. Osiris and 
Anubis, her averruncous deities, have departed, while Orus 
yet remains dimly shadowing the principle of vicissitude and 
the effluxion of things, but receiveth little oblation. 
* -*• * * •* 



DE PESTE. 277 



DE PESTE. 

[MS. SLOAN. 1827.] 

The learned Kircherus in his book, De Peste, cap. 7, par- 
ticularly delivers what medicines Hippocrates made use of in 
the great plague of Athens, and particularly mentions sul- 
phur, assafoetida, and vipers, as may be seen in that tract ; 
which being not to be found in the works of Hippocrates, the 
question is, " What is to be said herein ?" 

When I had read the seventh chapter of Kircherus above- 
mentioned, I found it very singular ; nor could I confirm it 
by any ancient author. And since, upon inquiry, I find his 
own expression true, that they are parum cognita ; for I meet 
not therewith in any author which might most probably men- 
tion the same ; not in Hippocrates, Galen, .^Etius, iEgineta, 
Massarias, Jordanus, and others, who have particularly writ- 
ten De Peste ; not in Paulinus, who hath largely commented 
upon the narration of Thucydides, concerning the plague of 
Athens. Not in Nardius, or any comment upon Lucretius, 
where he makes a large description of this plague, conceived 
to be the same wherein Hippocrates exercised this cure. 

Franciscus Rota, a learned Italian, having read in Marini, 
an eminent poet of Italy, that Averrhoes was put to death by 
the cruel death of the wheel, consulted many learned men in 
Europe where such a passage might be found in any other 
writer ; and none could satisfy his question. But this learned 
author, 1 yet living, is able to afford a resolution, and may pro- 
;l bably do it in following editions of this or some other work, 
which he shall hereafter publish, though he hath not per- 
il formed it in his Mundus Subterraneus, wherein he largely 
5 discourses upon sulphur. 

! Meanwhile referring unto further inquiry, this account may 

j be taken from some unusual manuscript, from some ancient 

comment on Hippocrates or some work ascribed unto him or 

1 author.] Kircherus. 



278 DE PESTE. 

his successors, known only to some libraries, or else from 
some Arabic writer ; the Arabians being very careful to pre- 
serve the works of ancient Greeks, which they often trans- 
lated, and sometimes fathered other works upon the best of 
them, which are now very rare or quite lost among us. 

Now, although the whole relation be allowed, and the re- 
medies to be approved, yet, whether these were the secrets 
of Hippocrates in the plague of Athens, or whether they 
were so successful in that pestilence, some doubt may be al- 
lowed; for Thucydides, who passed the same disease, 2 af- 
firmeth that there was no remedy (probably meaning inward) 
that did any good ; but that which did profit one did hurt 
another: "necullum prorsus remedium repertum est 3 quod 
adhibitum prodesset; nullumque corpus, sive firmas sive in- 
firmae valetudinis esset, tanti mali violentiae resistere potuit ; 
sed omnia absumpsit." From which description some doubt 
may arise whether Hippocrates came not to Athens rather in 
the declination than in the raging time of the disease. 

Galen, " De Theriaca ad Pisonem" 41 ascribeth this cure 
of Hippocrates only unto his fires. " Vehementer laudo ad- 
mirandum Hippocratem, quod pestem illam quae ex .^Ethiopia 
Graecos invasit non alia ratione curavit quam aerem immutan- 
do. Jussit igitur per totam civitatem accendi ignem, qui non 
simplicem incendii materiam habeat, sed coronas et flores 
odore fragrantissimos. Haec consuluit ad ignem alendum, et 
ipsi etiam inspergere unguenta delibata et suavissimi odoris." 
And the same course they put in practice at Venice, in the 
great plague which happened under Duke Foscaro, about 
two hundred years ago. 

Again, if this account of the cure of Hippocrates, set down 
by Kircherus, be ancient, and in times when it might have 
best been known, some wonder it is how it escaped the pen 
of Galen, a superlative admirer of him, and who had good 
opportunity to know what elder times had delivered on this 
subject; for Thessalus, the son of Hippocrates, left exposi- 
tions upon his epidemics. Lycus, Sabinus, Satyrus, and Quin- 
tus, the preceptors of Galen, had also left tracts upon the 

2 who passed, #c] Avrog re voCr r 3 nec,#c] ovdev /tar'MjTri'tu/M.-lb. vu. 
<ra?. — Thuc. B. |U,?j. * De Theriaca, $c."\ Cap. 16. 



DE PESTE. 279 

narration of Thucydides ; and Galen himself had written a dis- 
course upon the same, as he testifies in his work, 5 «regi 5iWi>o/a;. 

Actuarius, an author of good esteem, who wrote many hun- 
dred years ago, undertakes to set down the antidote of Hip- 
pocrates, which he used against the plague ; which he believed 
to be this : — R. Calami aromatici, junci odorati, sabinae, ana 
3iii; cardamomi, cyperi, crocomagmatis, ana 3v; nardi Cel- 
tici, lib. 5; aspalathi, §vii; cupressi ros. an. §iii. Ladani, 
myrrhse, thuris, an. lib. 1 ; bac. junip. 40; mastic. §iiii; nardi 
spicse lib. 5 ; costi, |iiii; fol. 6 §viii ; cassia?, lib. 5; amomi, |iii; 
styracis §x ; terebinthinas, lib. 3 ; mellis Attici, lib. 5 ; vini ve- 
teris, q. s. This he affirmeth to be the same which he used at 
the plague of Athens ; et cujus causa coronatus fuit. This, 
however learned by him, is admitted by Massarias and others ; 
and is a very different medicine from those so highly com- 
mended by Kircherus, who in all equity is obliged to make 
use of some author of equal credit and authority with him. 

Now, while I discourse of this obscurity, some others arise 
which I cannot omit to propound unto you ; particularly, why 
Hippocrates left no distinct description of this plague, to- 
gether with his remedies? Why Thucydides, in his large 
description of the plague of Athens, makes no mention of 
Hippocrates ; and may 7 also consider that this cure of the 
plague by fires, and even in Athens itself, was elder than 
Hippocrates, and practised by Acron Agrigentinus, (as testi- 
fied by Pliny, iEtius, Paulus,) and also made use of by Ja- 
chen the Egyptian physician, who lived in the days of Senies, 
King of Egypt, as is delivered by Suidas, and may be ga- 
thered from the practice afterwards of the Egyptian priests, 
to kindle their fire at the tomb of Jachen, and so to diffuse it 
through the city; and from what is delivered by Plutarch, 8 
concerning the Egyptian priests ; — de nocte soliti consurgere 
et inquinatum aerem odoratis incendiis purgare ; to emit their 
purifying fumes of the great and lesser cyphi, or odorate com- 
position, containing twenty-eight and thirty-six ingredients, 
which they used in their daily sacrifices unto the sun and moon. 



5 ivork.] Hist. lib. 5, cap. 6. 7 andmay.~] Sic. in MS. you is doubtless 

6 fol.'] Folium indicum or malabathri. the word left out by a Latinism. — Gr. 
— Gr. 8 Plutarch'.'] De hide et Osir. 



280 DE PESTE. 

But before I dismiss you I shall not omit to entertain you 
with a few other queries, whereof perhaps you have not taken 
much notice. 

An pestis sit ex lege naturae, ut dubitat Cardanus ; id est, 
ne terra hominum numero non sufficeret ? 

An detur pestis artificialis, " uti fertur de pulvere et un- 
guento pestifero in peste Mediolanensi ?" 

An pisces sint a peste immunes ? 

An ignis sit maxima pesti pestis ? 

An pestis fuerit ante diluvium ? 

An a mundo condito plures occiderit pestis an gladius ? 

An atomi pestiferi sint animalia, ut vult Kircherus ? 

An dentur temperamenta aloimodea pesti parum aut nihil 
subdita ? 

Cur inter maximas Europae urbes pestis Lutetias minus 
grassetur ? 

Cum pestis sudoribus optime discutiatur, cur detur pestis 
sudatoria, ut sudor Anglicus ? 

An pestis sit perpetuo ambulatoria, nunquam ubique ex 
tincta? 

An ubicunque grassetur pestis, quatuor tempora, id est 
principii incrementi status et declinationis, manifeste absolvet ? 

An non aeque mirum sit, quomodo desinat quam quomodo 
inciperit pestis? 

Cur in peste Hebraica nulla fiat mentio de separatione sano- 
rum ab infectis, quag tamen specialiter notatur in lepra ? 

Unde verbum plague, emphatice pestem significans apud 
Anglos ? 

An musica conferat in sananda peste? Questio oritur a 
praxi Thaletis Cretensis, qui pestem Spartanam musica cu- 
rasse dicitur ? Plutarch. 

An qui carbunculis et bubonibus liberantur a peste, sanan- 
tur simul a lue venerea ? 

An quis variolis et peste simu laboret? 

An aeri infecto purgando sulphurata non praestent aroma- 
ticis; quibus tamen maxime secundum Galenum usus est 
Hippocrates? 

An balsamum sulphuris non sit addendum Theriacis ? 

An alexipharmacis jibsq. opiocompositis sit nimis fidendum? 



REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 281 



A BRIEF REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 

[MS. SLOAN. 1827.] 

"An Irish soldier who died phrenitical, in the hospital of 
Paris, made great vociferations, always having in his mouth 
words of this sound, bebeithe, bebaithe, bekelle ; scarce af- 
fording any other words to any question or proposal; and 
therefore some, conceiving it had been his native language, 
brought one of his country unto him, who could make nothing 
of it." 

This account of yours seemed not at first very strange unto 

i me, as I conceived them to be some fantastical words, pro- 
ceeding from his phrenzy : nor could I afford any sense or so- 
lution thereof, till I fell upon the Epistle of Johannes Milesius 
unto Georgius Sabinus, De Funeribus Borussorum ; whereof 

1 1 found this description. " Cum ad sepulchrum effertur ca- 
daver, plerique in equis funus prosequuntur, et currum ob- 
equitant quo cadaver vehitur, eductisque gladiis verberant 

i auras, vociferantes, geygeithe, begaithe, pekelle ; id est, aufu- 

; gite, vos daemones, in infernum ! " 

Now, therefore, this person, having been a soldier about 
Russia, and under the Poles in Prussia, might probably have 

i heard of this custom ; and so, in the delirium and suggestion 

ifrom his inflamed spirits, might fall into like apprehension of 

1 evil spirits, which produced this iterated conjuration from him. 

Upon an old picture of a man riding upon a bear, and a 
dead torn horse lying by. 

He that would amuse himself about odd pictures, especially 
of bears, may have enough to do to interpret the prophetical 
figures of Anselmus, and Abbot Joachim, which have some- 



282 REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 

times passed under the name of the magical figures of Para- 
celsus, and after set forth by Paulus de la Scala ; wherein 
you may meet with no less than three bears in one figure, one 
upon the pope's shoulders, and two by his sides. 

But, as for this picture, I am not of your opinion, that it is 
some emblematical piece, but rather historical, and made out 
of the legend of St. Corbinian, bishop of Freisingen, in Bava- 
ria, who, travelling towards Rome, and coming late to a 
town in the Alps, when the gates were shut, was fain to lodge 
abroad, and his horse, straying, was killed and torn by a 
bear; which news being brought unto him by his servant 
Ansericus, he bade him go boldly on, and put the saddle of 
the horse upon the bear : which being done, St. Corbinian 
rode upon the bear to Rome, and then dismissed him. 

As to your other question, how the common expression, 
* to tell noses,' implying the number of persons, came up, I 
can return you no distinct original, either for the time or oc- 
casion ; and perhaps there needed no other than to account 
by the most visible and extant part of the face, except it had 
some such original as is to be met with in the history of Cus- 
pinianus, concerning the great slaughter which Bajazet the 
second made of the Christian Hungarians and Croatians. 
"Maxima clades illata est, et septem millia hominum uno 
prelio interfecta. Victor hostis ut caesorum numerus commo- 
dius iniretur, nares jacentium exsectas baltheolisque insertas 
secum extulit ; " and so in a short way, by telling the number 
of the noses which were brought to him, he knew how many 
he had slain in that battle. 

But, before I conclude, give me leave to propose these few 
queries concerning epitaphs unto you. 

Whether the epitaph of * in Herodotus be not the 

most ancient in good history or record ? 

Though Joshua be said by Rabbins to have had the sun 
upon his tomb, and we find, in the annals of Saliom, 2 an epi- 
taph of Abel, yet whether, from any good account, the an- 
cient Hebrews used epitaphs ? 

1 . . . .] Left blank in original. ? Saliom.'] "Salian." — Crossleij. 



REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 283 

Whither siste viator be not improperly used in church 
epithets ; that form being proper unto sepulchres placed of 
old by highways, and where travellers daily passed ? 
Whether jocular and enigmatical epitaphs be allowable ? 
What to think of epitaphs upon brutes, as that upon Bo- 
risthenes, the horse of Adrian ? and that upon Roldano, 
I Prince Doria's dog, still to be seen and read in his garden at 
I Genoa? 

When that form of hdade xsTrat, or hie jacet, came up, or 
i where the most ancient to be met with in that form ? 

What to think, that in the great number of old epitaphs 
j and inscriptions collected by Gruterus, there are so few per- 
, sons above fifty or sixty years old ? 

What to think of that inscription set down by Procopius, 3 
upon a pillar not far from Tingis, " Nos Maurisi sumus qui 

fugimus a facie Jehoschuae filii Nunis predatoris ? " 

i 

As for the other queries concerning John Port, Lammas, 
and O sapientia ! upon the 16th of December, I must crave 

your patience till another opportunity. 

| 

Upon the picture of a learned physician, Mr. S. of Bury, not 
J drawn at large, but to the waist, was this obscure inscrip- 
) tion, 

Hie meus Nausiphanes 

ut abortivus fuit olim 
Sisyphus. 
The first part I remember to have read either in the Frag- 
iments of Lucillius, or some ancient poet, in this order: 

hie meus esto 
Nausiphanes. 
The second is in the third Satire of Horace, 

strabonem 

Adpellat Psetum pater ; et Pullum, male parvus 
Si cui filius est, ut abortivus fuit olim 
Sisyphus. 
Nausiphanes I find mentioned as a philosopher in Cicero, 
De Natura Deorum. It is a name not easily to be met with, 

3 Procopius.'] This epitaph is also mentioned by Bochart. — Gr. 



284 REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 

either historically for any person, or grammatically for any 
signification ; but literally expresseth " appearing in ships." 
Sisyphus was a person of short and low stature, and a famous 
dwarf of Marc Antony, Staturce vix bipedalis, as Torrentius 
upon that place. 

And therefore this inscription seems to refer unto the pic- 
ture, name, stature, or all ; that is, " this my Nausiphanes, this 
curtailed and small piece which you behold drawn scarce to 
the waist, and as a man appearing, or as far as a man appear- 
eth, above the deck of a ship, is such another as was Sisyphus, 
the dwarf of Antonius, of short and abortive stature, or much 
about the same measure." 

A thick piece of lead, about the compass of half a crown, 
found near North Walsham, in Norfolk. 

This piece upon one side containeth the heads of St. Peter 
and St. Paul, with their names. On the other side this in- 
scription : Bonifacius VIII. 

This seems to have been the seal of a papal bull. Boni- 
face VIII was the first pope who introduced the solemn ce- 
lebration of jubilees at Rome ; and, to attract the greater con- 
course, sent bulls abroad into most part of Christendom, with 
indulgences and pardons unto such as should resort unto 
Rome. Of some of these bulls this might be the seal. 

Upon a copper medal sent me, of the compass of a shilling, 
but the figures much embossed. Upon the obverse side it 
representeth the head of Malatesta, with this inscription: 
Sigismundus Pandulphus Malatesta. Upon the reverse an 
arm extended out of the sky, with a rod in the hand. The 
inscription : Pontificii exercitus Imp. MCCCCXLVII. 

This piece seems to have been made in honour of Pandul- 
phus Malatesta, the Venetian general against the Bohemians, 
Istrians, and Furlans ; 4 more particularly for a great over- 
throw given them at Udine, where he took about seven hun- 
dred prisoners; for which the Venetians highly honoured 
him, and purchased for him the house of Luigi Taneri, in 

4 Furlans.'] Malatesta defeated the These are probably the Furlans here 
Lord of l'orli, in Italy, along with Sforza. meant. 



REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 285 

Venice, at the price of twelve thousand ducats. He was 
brother to Carlo Malatesta. I have seen a noble medal of 
gold in this country, of the value of fifty pounds, with the fi- 
gure of a soldier completely armed, and kneeling before a 
crucifix, with this inscription: Malatesta dux equitum 
pr^stans. Whether pertaining to this Pandulfo, or Carlo, 
when I behold the piece again, I may be able to determine. 

Many noble large ponderous medals of gold are to be 
seen in the custody of princes and great ones, but I doubt 
whether any to be compared with the noble medallion of gold 
in the treasury of the emperor at Vienna, with the figures of 
the emperor and Imperial arms upon it. It exceedeth a 
round trencher plate in compass, and esteemed in value 2200 
ducats, or a thousand pounds English, as I am informed by 
an ocular witness, who had a sight thereof, at Vienna, in 1669. 

Of ancient medals, the largest I have, or have seen, is that 
of the Emperor Heraclius, of about two inches diameter, and 
containing his triumph for the reduction of the holy cross, 
with many Greek and Latin inscriptions, which you may see 
and read in Lipsius, Casalius, and others. 

Upon a medal of gold, of the value of six pounds, in the 
hands of a most worthy person, and my honoured friend, of 
this country. This piece upon the obverse or face side, hath 
the head of King Henry VIII with this inscription : Henri- 
cus Octavus Anglle Francle et Hib. Rex Fidei Defensor, 

i ET IN TERRA ECCLESLE AnGLI^E ET HlBERNLE SUB ChRISTO 

caput supremum. On the reverse an inscription of the 
same sense in Greek and Hebrew : ' Evg/xej oyhoog rpefSaeiksvg 
■ wiarzug irgodrarris sv rr\ exxXrjffia, r^g Ayy'kiag -/.at I(3zgviag uro Xgiffru 
ax|>] 7j xitpahv]. Londini, 1545. About the same an Hebrew 
inscription to the same effect. 

This is a memorial piece, coined by King Henry, when, hav- 
ing disclaimed the power of the pope, he assumed the style 
of supreme head of the church in his dominions. This piece 
is now become rare ; not easily to be met with, and omitted by 
Luckius in his description of medals of the last century. 5 

5 Luckius, SfC.~] Luckii Syllogc nummorum clariorum ab anno 1500 ad 1C00. 



28G REPLY TO SEVERAL QUERIES. 

Sir, 
Whereas you find yourself obliged by the articles of your 
tenures, to pay a mark yearly unto the crane's-pot of the ab- 
bey of Ramsey, and you have not obtained satisfaction con- 
cerning that crane's-pot, till you meet with better information, 
I shall offer this unto you. 6 In former times there were many 
gold and silver utensils belonging unto rich and well-endowed 
abbeys and churches, chiefly employed about the high altar. 
Hereof some were made in the figure and form of cranes, 
with long and extended necks, serving especially for fumiga- 
tion or perfuming with sweet perfumes conveyed into their 
bellies, which being fired, or heated, exhaled out of their 
mouths, and afforded a pleasant odour. 

Of these we find clear mention in the enumeration of the 
list of the precious treasure of the church of Mentz, in a 
description thereof about four hundred years ago, observed 
by Rhenanus, in his notes upon Tertullian, in these words : — 
*' Calyces aurei, grues argentece impositorum in cavo ventre 
thymiamatum per rostra ac collum mira arte exhalentes, jux- 
1a aram maximam. Now these being vessels consuming 
costly odours, and often used, required some revenue to main- 
tain them. And therefore this, whether by fee, donation, or 
charge, whether from the bounty of the first donor, or other- 
wise, was probably the first occasion of your rent. 

6 unto you.'] Probably to Sir Nicholas L'Estrange, lord of the manor of Ringstead. 



NAVAL FIGHTS. 287 



NAVAL FIGHTS. 1 

[MS. SLOAN. 1827.] 

In most naval fights, some notable advantage, error, or un- 
expected occurrence, hath determined the victory. The great 
fleet of Xerxes was overthrown by the disadvantage of a nar- 
row place for battle. In the encounter of Duillius, the Ro- 
man, with the Carthaginian fleet, a new invention of the iron 
corvi made a decision of the battle on the Roman side. The 
unexpected falling off of the galleys of Cleopatra, lost the 
battle of Actium. In the fight between King Philip and 
t Attalus, the great excursion which Attalus made from his 
squadron, unto the loss of his galley, made the victory dis- 
putable ; though Philip suffered so great a loss and destruc- 
tion of his men, that he had but two arguments left to pre- 
tend unto the victory : — that he had kept his station, and 
itaken the galley of Attalus. 

Even in the battle of Lepanto, which you particularly en- 
quire of, if Caracoza had given unto the Turks orders not to 
narrow on account of the number of the Christian galleys, 
they had, in all probability, declined the adventure of a bat- 
itle: and, even when they came to fight the unknown force, 
fan advantage of the eight Venetian galleasses gave the main 
stroke unto the victory ; otherwise the whole rencounter was 
stoutly performed, and in no passage with derogation unto 
i;he Turkish valour. An account hereof you may read in 
Sabellicue, in Peruzzi " of Famous Islands," and in the Turk- 
ish History of Knollis in English, which, since you take most 
notice of, I shall propose unto you these queries and obser- 
vations, grounded upon his account. 2 

1 Naval Fights.] I suspect this to son Thomas, who was in the naval service. 
ie a passage from a letter to his younger 2 account.] Khollys, Vol. I. p. 589-599. 



288 NAVAL FIGHTS. 

How the patience of Don John is to be justified, who, 
having hidden four hundred valiant men under the hatches, 
for a reserve in extremity, would be thrice repulsed after he 
had boarded the Turkish admiral, before he called up that 
reserve. 

And, though it succeeded well upon a tired enemy, yet, 
whether it was handsomely done to cut off Ali Bassa, the ad- 
miral's head, and fastening it on the top of a pole, to erect it 
in his own galley ? 

How to justify the noble Andreas Doria, in being so far off 
in the fight, till a great part of his confederates suffered? 
Why our Turkish historian, speaking so often of the eight 
galleasses which did such signal service, should not so much 
as mention their commander, and whom Peruzzi nameth 
Dodo? 

Whether it were not here verified that bad news flieth 
apace, since, in eight days' space, Selimus, being at Adri- 
anople, understood of this defeat ? 

Whether it be commendable in great generals to carry their 
sons or noble young relations with them, in adventurous and 
hazardous actions, whose miscarriages may blot their victories 
or add unto their overthrows ; since, in this fight, both Ali 
Bassa's sons were taken, and one of them but thirteen years 
of age, who was presented to the Pope ? 

What different effects bad news hath on the spirits of men, 
dejecting some, and fairly inflaming others ; for, upon going 
unto the fight, the Christian fleet received news that the 
Turks had taken Cyprus, which, nevertheless, was so far from 
discouraging them, that it the more enraged them to revenge? 

How you like that argument of Mahomet Bassa, whereby 
he somewhat pacified the enraged Selimus, and saved a ge- 
neral massacre of the Christians, when he told him the bat- 
tle was not lost by the valour of the Christians, but by some 
fatal and unknown cause unto them ? Or whether Selimus 
would have thought there had been any force in such words, 
if the Venetians had so flattered themselves upon the loss of 
Cyprus unto him ? 

Though Selimus threatened a general massacre of the 
Christians in his dominions, yet, whether he himself or any 



NAVAL FIGHTS. 289 

of his successors, and seriously perform the same, especially 
in their European dominions, since thereby he would so much 
weaken his power, leave scarce people to cultivate his grounds, 
pay his rents, and continue his revenues, may very well be 
doubted ? 

Whether the Christians committed not a great error in not 
pursuing so signal a victory without any considerable advan- 
tage but that of honour? Or what considerable benefit may 
hereafter be expected from the auxiliary forces of Christian 
princes united against the Turk in any expedition; since they 
are commonly long in drawing together, and after the attempt 
or exploit, are ready to return into their respective countries ? 



vol. iv. 



£90 AMICO OPUS ARDUUM MEDITANTI. 



AMICO OPUS ARDUUM MEDITANTI. 



[ms. sloan. 1827, fol. 61—64.] 

De Opusculo quod meditaris, iterum atque iterum cogita: sci- 
as quid valeant humeri ; ut sis natator bonus, immo Delius, in 
hoc tamen procelloso pelago, noli sine cortice natare ; enucle- 
andi sunt tibi libelli non proletarii, immo "ifi^r/pi. 

Nosti quam petulca sit tribus literaria, quam ad commissi- 
ones prona, ut non temere profecto xvvopvias hinc inde expa- 
vescas. Quod candidiores animse utroque pollice collaudant, 
tp'iXavroi tristiores obducta fronte aspicient. Nasuti 1 sunt, im- 
mo nasi, literionum plurimi, non tantum tuberibus, 2 sed ne 
verrucis parcituri. Si rem minus attigeris, abunde cachinno- 
rum est ; sin ad amussim, invidiam plus quam satis. 

Nonnulli vocibus inhiantes rem ipsam laxa cervice inspici- 
ent; alii (quod caput rei est) ad sensum potius intenti vocabu- 
la et voces sicco pede praetereunt. Quod Prasini ad ccelum 
evehunt, Veneti 3 sannis accipient. Geniorum varietas, stu- 
diorum discordia, partes, aigeeug, lucubrationum clarissimarum 
fata dividunt : quibus omnibus ut facias satis, frustra sis, ni 
ultra Jovem sapias. 

Dum itaque huic opellae insudas, nolim te credas 4 Aspara- 
gos coquere. Dele, reple, incudi redde, Annalibus Volusii 5 
Cinnaa Smyrnam antepone. Viro tamen erudito, cui ingeni- 
um in numerato, cui otii et secessus impendio satis, seram co- 
ronidem et cunctationem manuum vix indulsero. 

1 Nasuti.] Vid. Mar Halts Epigram. " Si Veneto Prasinove faves, &C."— 

Lib. xiii, 2, I. — " Nasutus sis usque li- Vide etiam Suet. Cms. Aug. 87 ; — Calig. 

cet, sis denique nasus." 55. 

a tuberibus.'] " ne tuberibus pro- 4 credas.] Vid. Suet, in Fit. Cas. 

prii 3 ignoscet verrucis illius." — Hor. Jug. 87. 

s> ; 3 73_ 5 Volusii.] " Annales Volusi cacata 

a ' Veneti'.] Mart. Epigr xiv, 131,1. charta." Calull. 37—20. 



AMICO OPUS ARDUUM MEDITANTI. 291 

Nudffi veritati oleum atque operam spondens, videris tamen 
ne dum veritati officium praetexas, propria- gloriolaa inservias. 
Authores neotericos, perquosprofeceris, nequaquam perstrin- 
gas. Si quid erraverint, omisso nomine rem corripias, nee 
prasclaros viros honorifice hinc inde compelles, ut alibi incul- 
patam vellices. Et, quamvis 6 nulli gravis est percussus Achil- 
les, antiquis tamen nominibus, et aavi veteris scriptoribus, ter- 
rain optes faciasque levem. 7 Dandum est aetati ad tarn lon- 

ginqua caecutienti, clarissimus eorum quisque nostrum 

dilatus in aevum 8 detereret sibi multa. 

Quod undiquaque sartum tectum est animitus amplectere, de 

j dubiis cunctare, immo rebus reapse aut specie falsis indicto die 

, noli illico renunciare, ne dum ob primsevam rerum imperitiam 

<t<pd}fLarcc nonnulla, aut aniru, paginis interjecta, veneranda no* 

mina in solidum damnare, aut integris operibus iniquissimum 

Theta prasfigere. 

Ut sis acerrimus veritatis hyperaspistes et jaculator opti- 
mus, rem tamen, non hostem jugules. Scommata, cavillas, 9 dic- 
teria, longe amoveas, immo salibus urbanis, et intra pomceria 
natis, 1 parce et invitus indulgeas, nedum genuinum etiam, vel 
lassus, infigas. 

De summa cavea sollicitus non sis, orchestra? et podio stu- 
deas. Itaque ut sis parcus in paralogis desi 2 oculis tamen et 
Jlippis nota ne congeras ; et ut rationum momenta pro numero 
.itransigant, quod Achilleum est duntaxat efferas ; levicula et 
jjnotse minoris reculas summis digitis attingas. 
, : In suspensa rerum veritate, ubi Sibyllae folia literatores po- 
(tius quam literati quaaritant, videris ne *o/jSa£e/p prae te feras. 
^Quicquid libuerit effutire, a fonte relatum Ammonis reputare, 
|leviculi est animi, et in naturae strophis parum exercitati, scio- 
jlisque potius solenne, qui, ut nihil non sapiant, haud aliquid 
^n dubio relinquunt. 

Leviculaa fidei historiolas, et quas in re aliena insuper ha- 
beas, cave ne in rem tuam tranferas, ne propria- sententiaa an- 
.billantior tittivillitia asserere quam causa cadere malis. 

6 Quamvis.'] Vid. Juvenal. Sat. 1, 9 cavillas.] Cavilla, MS. 

7; n tv j *, . r, , T . * natis.] " Et salibus vehemens intra 

levem] Vid. Mart. Eplgr. Lib. ix, pomceria natis." Juven. Sat. 9, 11. 

i<0 10, sit tibi terra levis " 2 desi.] Sic MS. qu. desis si ? 

8 tsmim.] Horat. S. i, 10, 69. " 

U 2 



292 AMICO OPUS ARDUUM MEDITANTI. 

Argumenta domi nata mutuatis adjicias, nee analectis, syl- 
labis, collectaneis multum debeas, ne sumrao improperio py- 
rata Cilicum audias. 

Nee gyris brevioribus rem amplam coerceas ; nee ut mille- 
sima pagina 3 crescat, prolixo syrmate in re tenui excurras. 
Quod ut felicius praestes, unilinguis fere sit quam pingis ta- 
bella. 'AKkopvXcc et e dialectis alienis notanda in oram pagellae 
transferas, cum ut eruditis orexim expleas, turn ne sciolis fa- 
stidio fueris. 

Itaque nee verbis humidis et lapsantibus diffluas, nee aciem 
sentential curto sermone stringas. Et ne te Allobroga 4 di- 
cant, qui ad numeros Tullianos tantum saltant, purissimae ser- 
monis astatulae cum primis studeas. Si quae tamen occurrant 
vocabula extra classem petita, sensui tamen magis accommoda, 
ne te stigmaticis annumerent animi liberiores. Ludo critico 
non ita demisse inservias, ut vel Plautina, Apuleiana, vel do- 
mi nata respuas. 

Phraseologia modo materiae non impar, compta an libera 
perinde erit ; sed cum sis Isaso torrentior, ne verborum ca- 
taclysmo rem obruas, etiam atque etiam cures ; et ne quid li- 
berius excidat, Stradano periculo caveas. 

Quod si in hoc opere texendo, (uti vix aliter operandum,) 
obscura aliquot et spinosa te fatigent, libere et subinde studia 
nostra exerceas. Is sane non sum qui benefacta imputem, 
aut ea in rationibus et meriti loco numerem, tvlXvav qualem- 
qualem sub manum remissurus. Opusculo denique ad um- 
bilicum ducto, illimatum, nee virgula censoria notatum, me 
authore, 

Nulla taberna tuum videat neque pila libellum.5 

Nec hoc officium privatis tantum et continuis in rebus ami- 
corum omissioribus, 6 sed et egregiis et publicae famaa viris sub- 
misse deputandum, qui minus accurate dictis, xgup/a, xg/ffi/ua, 
etiam ceraunia affigant, maculasque " quas aut incuria fudit, 

3 pagina.] Vid, Juv. 7, 100. " Namq. " Nulla taberna meos habeat neque pila 
oblita modi millesima pagina surgit." libellos." 

4 AllobrogaJ] " Ciceronem Allobroga 6 omissioribus.] Sic MS. qu. remissi- 
dixit." Juv. Sat. 7, 214. oribus? 

5 libellumJ] Hor. Sat. Lib. i. 1, 71. ^ maculasque.] Homtii Ars Poet. 352. 



AMICO OPUS ARDUUM MEDITANTI. 

aut humana parum cavit natura, omni cura et curatura emen- 
dent. Quando denique ingenium, igne literario tentatum, 
venale destinaveris, summo viro et Maecenati tuo inscribas. 
Quo vindice nee Probum timebis ; 8 quicquid scripseris, coe- 
lum 9 sit precor. Vale, et quae nos limpidissimo viro, 1 ingenio 
pomeridiano, et spirante Austro scripsimus, aequi precor con- 
sules ac boni. 

THOMAS BROWNE. 

8 timebis. ,] Mart. L. iii, 2, 12 9 caelum.] Sic MS. qu. coelatum? 

" Illo vindice nee Probum timeto." — 5 viro.] Sic MS. qu. vino ? 
Vid. Sueton. De Illust. Gramma!. 24. 



294 NAUMACHIA. 



NAUMACHIA. 

[Description of a Sea-Fight. 1 ] 

[ms. sloan. 1827, fol. 65—68.] 

Labilis rerum memoria, aetas, tempus, averticula, 3 plurima ob- 
livioni tradunt; parandi itaque mature commentarii, qui tanto 
malo subveniant. Non qui sententias authorum in loca com- 
munia disponant, (quod erit actum agere,) sed a recenti libro- 
rum lectione, libero filo schedam exarare, qua? difficilia quaeque 
et notatu digna contineat. Qualia vel author ipse, similium 
memoria, vel propria Minerva suppeditat. Exemplo sit inter 
alia, Naumachia ista, a lectione Bayfii, 3 Revii, 4 Schefferi, 5 illico 
a me depicta. 

Peracta lustratione, votis nuncupatis, facto deinde Ne- 
ptuno, Zephyris, et Tempestatibus, sacrificio, fausta ominante 
multitudine in littoribus adstante, solvit e portu sub praefec- 
tura Cornelii procinctissima Romanorum classis. Sed chelis 
vix superatis, dum ventos aucuparet et brevia exploraret pro- 
reta navarchalis, classem Graecorum, constructissimam sub 
stolarcho Mentore conspexit. 

Aderant e partibus Graecorum inhabilis fere magnitudinis 
hepteres duae, hexeres quatuor, triremes, gauli, pistres, he- 
miolia 6 pentecontori plures, dromonum, myoparonum, hip- 



1 Description, fyc] "Appears to be a Franciscum Stephanum, 1537, 12mo. ; or 
fictitious one, and to have been written to Lazari Bayfii Annotationes in L. II. 
for the purpose of exercising himself de Captivis el Postliminis reversis, in 
with the Latin naval terms, from these quibus tractatur de Re Navali, Lutetia, 
words: pugnatum est juxta manum, &c." ex Officina Iioberti Stephani, 1549, 4to. 
— Cr. 4 Revii."] This seems the reading of 

2 averticula."] Sic MS. qu. diverticula ? the MS. but I have not been able to find 

3 Bayfii.] Referring probably to a any writer, on naval affairs, of that name, 
little work entitled, " De Re Navali Li- 5 Schefferi] Joannis Schefferi, Ar- 
bellus, in Adolcscentulorum bonarum Li- gentoratensis, de militia Navali Veterum, 
terarum Sludiosornm Favorem, ex Bayfii libri quatuor, 4to. Upsal. 1654. 
Vigilih excerpta, fyc." 8vo. Paris, apud C hcmiolia.] Sic MS. qu. hemiolae ? 



NAUMACHIA. 295 

paginum 7 praster acatia, dicrota, et catascopia, ingens nu- 
merus. 

Classem Romanam magna mole et numero constituerunt 
quinqueremes, quadriremes, triremes, actuarias longae, e sylvis 
publicis caesae lignisque tempestivis fabricatae, praeter onera- 
rias, speculatorias, et liburnas, relicta in naustathmo, navalibus, 
et textrinis, non levi navium vi. 

Classes in propinquo positae armamenta componunt, vela 
contrahunt, malos dimittunt, tubicines classicum insonant 
polemicum, et paeanem multitudo utrinque tollit. 

Initio praetoria Romana in Navarchidem Graecam irruit, et 
Imperator aciem praecedens strenue cum hoste conflixit. 
Primo missilibus telis, rutris demum, drepanis, et gladiis res 
acta est. Romani magnum bello diem imponere satagentes 
casdibus insistunt, ictus densant, ora mucronibus quaerunt. 
Sed cum virtutem propugnatorum in turribus et catastromatis 
minus feliciter lacesserent, rostris et chalcembolis impetus 
in hostem faciendos imperator publico signo indicavit. 

Acriter exinde pugnatum est ; inter triremes acerrima con- 
certatio. Tarentina in Rhodiam a latere impetum faciens, 
remos detersit, hypozomata et spondas concussit, encopum 
quassavit, peritonaeum confregit, et thalamitarum versus pes- 
sundedit. 

Huic extemplo succurrens Gragcorum altera, cui parasemon 
equus, tutela Neptunus erat, magno conatu in prumnam ho- 

stilem irruit, pedalium dextrum inter clavum dimi- 

diavit, parexiresiam concussit, parodum, fores, et hedolia 
contrivit, omniaque puppis ornamenta cestro aut vinculo facta 
comminuit, stylum cum taenia, anserculi medium cum aplustre 
sustulit. Fractisque remis zygitas et thranitas posteriores 
per columbaria clibanarii confoderunt. 

Sed dum ilia Romanos male mulctat, occurrit ocyus sub- 
praefectoria Romanorum magnoque impetu, Rostro tridente, 
et chalcomatis proram hostilem feriens illam inter embolidem 
et stiram terebravit, parasemon, epotides, tutelam comminuit, 
stolum cum acrostolio et oculo laxavit, adeo ut epibatae et 
classiarii in encopum confugerint, classiarii et milites in pup- 
pim se receperint. Sed ictu exitiali aqua per vulnus succe- 

1 hippaginum.] Sic MS. qu. hippagogarum ? 



296 NAUMACHIA. 

dens, frustra nitentibus antliariis et naupegis triremem 
praecipitio demersat. 

Sed dum utrinque secus dubio Marte certaretur tollenoni- 
bus, manibus ferreis, corvis, harpagonibus, etiam maricibus 
frustra tentatis, Romani missilia ignita, faces ardentes, ollas 
pice et carbone refertas conjiciunt, quae in corbitam strategidis 
impingentes carchesia, trachelum, orloremque omnem usque 
ad carcheriam concremaverunt. Faciliori incendio tumices 
omnes, calones, protones, hyperae, ceruchi, funes chalatorii, 
et propedes absumpti. 

Exinde omnia in confuso esse, quodlibet officii munus a 
quovis obvio obiri. Harmeneus, 8 celeustes per interscalmia 
decurrere, classiarii in encelia confugere. Sed irrito conatu. 
Solis cubistis saluls. Ignis enim non tantum statumina cor- 
ripuit, sed et dryochum combamque ipsam occupavit, virosque 
omnes tanquam in rogo combussit. 

Reliquae navium incendio perculsae et de fuga sollicitae 
sublatis dolonibus effuse confugerunt. Samiorum tres lacerae, 
dehiscentes, succinctae, et fluctibus impares, tumultuoso re- 
migio nee monitis pausarii morigero, venilibus 9 adjutae ad littus 
vicinum contendunt. . / 

Nonnullae Qsyyo^a^ousai, crebris ictibus et vento non suo tan- 
dem Piraeum dilabuntur; ubi natantibus oculis et vultuose 
accepti aceibas re rum vices et funesta Neptunalia enunciant. 

Romanus, parta victoria, miiitibus strenue se gerentibus 
praemia, ignavis paenas statuit, sequebatur inde cum funibus 
castigatio, per thalamum trajectio, in aquam immersio, cum 
saliva et sputis incessatio, manuum praecisio, exilium, in insu- 
Jam deportatio, mors, ut cuj usque aiaiiayim demeritum po- 
stulavit. 

Ducibus perclare se gerentibus collatae coronas navales 
rostratae, miiitibus donativum, subsidiales et exteri jure civitatis 
donati, honesta missione, exemptione a tributis, aut singular! 
sepulturas loco accepti. 

Decretus Imperatori titulus et triumphus navalis, quern 
obvium in curru accipiebat senatus. Praecedebant tubicines, 
fidicines, navium devictarum imagines, spolia navalia, rostra, 

8 fiarme7icus .] Sic M^.qu.hartnenJstes? venilibus."] Sic MS. qu. ventis? 



NAUMACHIA. 297 

acrostolia plaustris vecta, et captiva pecunia. Rostra navium 
integra in Campo Martio servata. Erecti denique arcus tri- 
umphales et columnae rostratae, nee minora honoramenta Cor- 
nelio quam olim Duillio a senatu collata. 

Captae Graecorum triremes undecem, flammis absumptae 
quatuor, septem fundo datae. Capta et remulco ducta tha- 
lamegus unica deliciis jocisque triumphalibus sub propitio 
Marte destinata. Spolia ampla et praeda non levis praeter 
commeatum nauticum. Denique littus omne exuviis, arma- 
mentis, et cadaveribus crepidatis oppletum. Romanorum in- 
terierunt triremes quatuor, mutilatse plures, caesa volonum pars 
non exigua ; classiariorum manus (praeter mediastinos, caculas, 
et metellos,) passa non ultra cladem Fabianam. 

Inchoata acies luna maxima, sole minimo, vento afflatili et 
Graeco, circa horam Graecorum fortissimo funestam, et die 
quasi ad umbilicum ducto eversa. 

Pugnatum est juxta manum Gigantis non longe a Rupe 
Fasminea et fabuloso mari, ubi Syrius 1 ostentat admirabilem 
morgan am. 

Causa hujus belli eadem quae omnium, nimia felicitas. 
Gliscentibus opibus crevere animi, unde libido et ardor do- 
minandi: exinde nihil modicum sentire, alienam felicitatem 
asgris oculis introspicere, irrequieta animo volvere, composita 
turbare ; ne firmiter constent aliena, propria in lubrico sta- 
tuere ; tandemque, (ut in humanis fieri amat,) ne pariant, ser- 
vire, et quam reverenter fortunam habere, ima experiri. 

1 Syrius.~\ Sic MS. qu. Sirius ? 



298 DE ASTRAGALO AUT TALO. 






DE ASTRAGALO AUT TALO. 

[ms. sloan, 1827, 69.] 

ARISTOT. DE HISTORIA ANIMALIUM LIB. 2, CAP. 1. VERSION IS 
SCALIGERIANjE. 

Quod est pronum, foris; quod est supinum, introrsum spec- 
tat : ita ut quae Coa et felicia dicuntur, intus inter se obversa ; 
quae Chia et infelicia, foris ; quae Antennas sive cornua dicun- 
tur, superne. 

Quod est pronum, id est pars gibba seu Ternio in Ludo 
dicta foris versus caudam spectat. 

Quod est supinum seu pars cava suppa Quaternio in Ludo 
Talorum dicta introrsum versus crus anterius spectat. 

Ita ut Coa et felicia latera quorum unum auriculam referens 
et Venus in Ludo dictum et crus compar aspiciens, aliud item 
Quaternio dictum introrsum inter se obversa sunt. 

Item "xja Chia et in ludo infausta latera quorum unum canis 
dicitur pars Veneri contraria exterius laterorsum spectans, 
alterum Ternio seu pars prona versus caudam aspiciens foris, 
sibimet obversa sunt, sive ut Aristoteles, tic, ciXkrjXa eerga(ifdvu t 
non enim situ contraria, sed fausta infaustis opposita, felicia 
felicibus, infelicia infelicibus obversa. 

plautus in curcul. (ii, 3, 79.) 

" Facit Vulturios quatuor, 

Talos abripio, invoco almam meam nutricem Heram, 

Jacto basilicum." 

Dictum hoc Plautinum de Ludo Talorum composito, sicut 

de simplici Astragalismo dictum illud Aristotelicum. Lusere 

primum veteres talo simplici, postea multiplici, numero plerum- 

que quaternario : ubi facierum concordia jactus infaustissimus, 



DE ASTRAGALO AUT TALO. 299 

et Vulturius dictus, ubi omnium discordia felicissimus et Ba- 
silicus. Facit Vulturios quatuor jactus infelix. Ego Talos 
abripio, jacto basilicum, id est omnes dispari facie, itaque om- 
nia vinco, totum depositum tollo. 

MARTIALIS, (EPIGR. xiv, 14.) 

" Cum 1 steterit nullus vultu tibi talus eodem, 
Munera me dices magna dedisse tibi." 
Id est, Munusculum hoc est quod tibi e Talis offero, quod 
si felicissimus tibi jactus contigerit et omnes tali diverso 
vultu tibi in ludo steterint, poterit tibi in lucrum non par- 
vum cedere et magni muneris vices explere. 

Sed ut omnia de Talo simplici physice aut ludicre dicta me- 
lius capias, attente consulas hosce versiculos in tui gratiam a 
me compositos ; ubi Lusor felicem Astragalismum et faustam 
manum precatur ; — 

Astragalisme fave, non Chi, sed da mihi Kappa, 
Non uncum, gibbum, sed suppum, sed sinuosum, 
Externas remove facies, monstra interiores. 
Da jactu haud facilem dubio fulcimine nixam, 
Da quod in horrendo torte protuberat urso, 
Quodque refert mutila et facies monstrosa Caballi, 
Aspiciam Conchas, Helicem, pterygomata Lobum, 

Auritam et Venerem quae nectitur ossi, 

Da Cotylam, latum atque ubi tibia sistitur antrum, 
Quodque situs primum ludus statuitque secundum, 
Cornua nee videam nisi majus cerno supermini, 
Non Dorsuosum calcis sub ventre locatum, 
Non quod multifidis facie stat dimidiata, 
Quodque stat in talo nutans recubansque suillo, 
Quodque Canis dictum canibus male competit uncum, 
Nee latus ossiculo quod vix annectitur uni. 

1 Cum.] " Si " in MS. 



iH)0 ATHEN.EUS. 



NONNULLA A LECTIONE ATHENiEI SCRTPTA. 

[ms. sloan. 1827, f. 71—77.] 

Utinam extaret pars multo minima scriptorum, e quibus 
egregia, paradoxa, et jucundissime dicta sparsim hinc illinc 
interserit, et lectori inhianti quasi salivam commovet Athe- 
naeus. Quis Parodum matronis legens prosopolepsiam tem- 
poris non incusat ? Quis in Antiphanis, Antigoni, Alexidis, 
aliorumque libris deperditis mitiorem non desideret %g6vou -/.ara- 
rgi-tyiv? cum ut acutissimam nancisceremur Grascorum indolem, 
turn ut nudatam spectaremus Latinam corniculam, quae nunc 
assumentis Grascis ornata, nullo aevo denudabitur. Quid di- 
cae super hac re inter Graecos Latinosque apud inferos sit, 
optime diceret Lucianus, sed cum sic fata volunt, et operum 
egregiorum non paucaoblivioni debentur,plures optamus Athe- 
naeos, plures Grascorum Plinios. Condonamus Homero Man- 
tuano luxuriantem transferendi geniimi, cui unice debemus 
oraculum Sibyllinum ; cuperem et plura transtulisset, cum ple- 
raque meliora reddiderit. Utinam vel sub quovis nomine su- 
peresset pars aliquotula librorum Aristotelis, quos expes lego 
relegoque in Catalogo Laertiano ; fertur et vir summus nonni- 
hil in poesin retulisse, quam ego certe poesi Ciceroniana non 
gravate redimerem. 

Omnifariae lectionis vir Ulpianus cum de singulis vocibus 
xirrai n oii y.iirai, extarentne an non apud quempiam scriptorum, 
disquirerer, Ksito-jxutos a Dipnosophistis dictus est ; bberrimo 
improperio et Graecis, quibus nihil est negatum, impune con- 
cesso. Idem fere priscae Latinorum schola? indultum. Anti- 
quiorcs enim in componendis fingendisque vocabulis libere 
Graecissant, quibus voces sensui accommodatissimas proferre 



ATHEN^EUS. 301 

non erat barbare et cum Evandro loqui. Facetissimus Plau- 
tus 1 plagipatidas et 2 ferritribaces plaudente Roma dixit ; nunc 
carceribus Nizolianis inclusum, pecus Latinum, nisi per Mae- 
andros, nihil audet novi, et allophyliam metuens, frigide 
VI £"P&&'- Interim decompositissimos Hegesandri Delphici 
versiculos, Lucillianis verbis reddidit criticorum princeps Sca- 
liger ; et elegantiorum plerosque etiamnum videas hyXurrlZttv. 
Nolim sane ego quempiam in verborum copia, antiqua ve- 
nari, nova aut novata decerpere ; justo satis discrimine Latinas 
linguae aetates partimur ; sed dum a rebus vocabula superan- 
tur, et nemo authorum omnia complectitur, brevissima classi- 
cae Latinitatis epocha frustra claudimur, uniusqne vel scripto- 
ris, vel aetatulae Augustilis, iniqua lege mancipamur. Plu- 
rima occurrunt vocabula apud authores extra classem positos, 
quae avidissimos captus explent animique recessus intrant, quo- 
rum ego nonnulla amplector in Sidonio, Apuleio, &c. quae in 
maximo oratorum desidero. 

Graecae Latinaeque linguae peritum Laurentium Asteropae- 
um sive ambidextrum dixit Athenaeus. AiyXurrog sane apud 
Galenum mirus homo, immo miraculum avdgooiros azgificov d/aXs- 
-/.ro-jg duu. Barbarorum tamen reperiuntur polyglotti plurimi. 
Quotilinguis enim Ponti rex, qui viginti dialectis loquacem ma- 
sculum exercuit ; aut yEgypti regina Celebris iluvii sui ostiis 
koyXusgog. Inter Judaeos legas non tantum 'Arr/x/^oira Philonem 
et Josephum, sed et septuaginta seniores Graecae callentissi- 
mos necnon ante Imperium Graecorum sacerdotes Hebraeos 
vaticinium Danielis Alexandro Magno exponentes. Et certe 
Graecanicae linguae apud Judaeum notitiae imputandum, si quae, 
uti fertur, philosophiae arcana a Clearcho Judaeo perceperit 
Stagirites. 

Ipsi tamen Graeci etiam Romae Atticissant, quod in Galeno 
mirumet Plutarcho, qui, cum res Romanas fuse traderet Lati- 
ne non magis quam forte philo-Hebraice potuit, cum nisi Pu- 
nice etiam Philo Biblius, oblivioni deberetur clarissimum San- 
choniathonis monumentum. 

Interim Romani mire Graecam coluerunt, cum etiam Graeciae 
concumberent. Laudandus poetarum facetissimus, quod et 

1 Plautus.] Capt. iii, 1, 12. 2 et.] PJaul. Most, ii, 1, !). 



302 athenjEus. 

Punice aliqua dixerit. Unde de lingua Cananaea Hebrseae 
consentanea judicium utinam etiam Herodotus, rerum Egy- 
ptiarum callentissimus, inscriptiones et monumenta non tanturn 
Graece, sed et /Egyptiace protulisset ; eo enim adminiculo tria 
tantum linguae iEgyptiacae vocabula in sacro Codice relicta non 
adeo anxie exercuerint polyglottos. 

Vereor tamen ne ab authoribus Latinis in transferendis vo- 
cabulis non corrumpantur plurima, et instar Anchiali apud 
Martialem Orientalium verborum non pauca efFerantur. Quod 
etiam Graecis commune; Delio 3 natatore interdum indigent 
Celticae etPunicae apud Dioscoridem nomenclaturae. Antiquis- 
simus Chasrilus Judaeos ita vugutpguget, ut Syros an Arabes velit, 
in medio relinquat. Hellanicus et Graeci antiquiores, qui vel 
lectura vel tralatione aliqua Ptolemaicam praeeunte Hebraica- 
rum rerum notitiam habuerunt, ita plerumque verba et voces 
transformant, ut notariaco et temula 4 indigeant, ut non mirum 
sane falli potuisse Spartanos in Machabaica ad Judaeos 
Epistola, ab Abrahamo originem ducentes. 

Sit suus polyglossiae honos ; multilinguae tamen par est, qui 
unicam Graecam axgifii?. In simplicitate sermonis ne deficiat 
critice non est quod vereantur Grammatici. Consule in unica 
dialecto criticorum principem Galenum, nee non minutientem 
in Cratylo Platonem. 

Duo supra septuaginta glossemata a awyyaii Babelis statuunt 
eruditi. Utinam non excurreret iste numerus vel unico in 
orbe novo. Millesima minor astas gentibus Babelem reddit, 
unde majores nobis barbari, futuri etiam nosmetipsi posteris 
nostris Scythae. 

Amcenissimus est ille Charmi Syracusani convivandi mos, 
ut versiculi et adagia singulis coenarum ferculis lepide accom- 
modata apponantur. Lepidiora tamem apponi posse non 
dubito quam quae notantur apud Atbenaeum. Mimi, moriones, 
Gnathones, psaltriae, tolerabilia sunt, nee axgoffdwuga sym- 
posiorum ludicra. Sed prodigiorum convivalium Coryphaeum 
est illud apud veteres jocosi homicidii genus 'Ay^uvriv walZttv 
dum atrocissima bri^aigexavSag specie homines ante mensas 

3 Delio.~\ Vid. Epist. Amico Opus Rev. J. Mitford happily conjectures, 
Arduum meditanti ; — antea, page 290. " notario coetaneo." 
* notariaco et temula.] Sic MS. 



athenjEUs. 303 

ludicre illaqueatos risu et cachinno accipiunt. 5 Mos iste 
Thracibus conviviis proprius, Scythicum omne superat. His 
ego flammulam et apium risus in postccenio apponerem ut et 
ipsi ridicule plecterentur. Quo etiam sannae genere dignus 
Thracici nominis imperator Nero, cum lugubre Homericum 
canens ardentem Romam, quod vultu non audebat, animo 
subrisit. His ego sane barbarorum epulis, Plutonias ccenas 
aut nocturnas Domitiani dapes antefero. 

Lepidissima est ilia apud Athenaeum de adolescentibus in 
pandocheo Agrigentino fabula. Temulenti adeo dementantur, 
ut horrenda tempestate jactari et in triremi navigare se cre- 
dant. Exonerandae itaque navis causa, stragula, vasa omnia 
foras ejiciunt, magistratus Tritones appellant, objurgantibus 
soteria vovent, nee a populo spectante et bona deripiente, ad 
sanam mentem redeunt. 

Mirum unde totuplici capiti unica delirii facies, ut eandam 
puram putam insaniam omnes insanirent. Sed ita stultitias 
luunt, qui liberum invitum quatiunt, et a doloso luctatore pa- 
rum cavent, qui Baccho recto non faciunt, et a/tveri potantes, 
inclusos utribus Euros non cogitant. 

Triremis ista Agrigentina mundus est. In quo quotus quis- 
que non desipit. Cui ita cerebrum affabre ab Jove concinna- 
tum est, ut vrKgdxgovgiv aliqualem non prodat. Vanas rerum 
species imbibimus, imagunculis enutrimus, serio deliramus ; 
et, (quod Heraclito dignum,) dementati juvenes helleborum 
non ferunt senes. Frustra temulentiam aut vini venenum 
causamur, siccos circumagit aomc, (JjUy\ et citra vinum ebrietas. 
Somnia hominum sunt et somnambulones plurimi, 8 vigilantes 
stertunt, apertis oculis peragunt, quae clausis palpebris sobrii 
delirant. Per tempestates, turbellas, et procellosa errorum 
sufflamina sic mimus vitae transagitur, sic in circo rerum de- 
curritur, ubi debacchantium instar non sine famae, fortunae, 
vitae, dispendio, magno molimine nugas canoras agimus, et 
(quod infortunii caput,) ambiguo aevi curriculo, vitae prius 
quam virtutis metam attingimus. 

Agonistice dicam : vita nostra curriculum est, ad quod e 
carceribus fati sortibus evocati, sive in summa sive in ima 
quadriga statuti, funalibus equis male imperamus. Saepe 

5 accipiunt.'] Vid. llorat. 



304 ATHENiEUS. 

ante delphinos impingimus, raro obeliscum a tergo relinqui- 
mus, plerumque ante ova sistitur, vix unquam missus peragitur. 
Magna colluvione in theatrum vitas efFundimur, nee inani- 
bus spectaculis sufficiunt vomitoria, viae, bia^uifiaTa, cunei. A 
summa cavea ad imam pauci subselliis acquiescunt. Equestria 
orchestras, equestribus popularia se immiscent. Nemo lec- 
tium curat, vix quispiam oceanum cogitat. A foraminibus 
ad podium omnes eadem fronte ludicra juxta ac saeva aspi- 
ciunt, pauci digitum tollunt, plures premunt. Ipsi denique 
in arena mortis serias amentiae vices rependentes, morbis lani- 
ati multis telis saucii, nulla missionis spe in spoliarium Ditis 
subtrahimur. 



DE RE CULINARIA. 305 



NONNULLA, 

A LECTIONE ATHENE, PLATING, APICII, 

DE RE CULINARIA, CONSCRIPTA. 

[ms. sloan. 1S27, fol. 77—81.] 

Quibus prater famem condimentis usa sit aetas ilia herbivora 
et diluvium praegressa, utinam dicerent Columnse Sethianae. 
Condimentorum Coryphaeum negant, qui acetum tollunt. Id- 
que faciunt severiores, qui vinum inventum Nose tribuunt. 
Interim a pomis, palmarum fructibus, uvis, succisque acescen- 
tibus fieri vix potuit, quin vel casu acetum innotesceret. 
Quin et sicarorum genera aliquot et fructibus, baccis, aut fru- 
gibus, quibus incalesceret prima-va severitas, olim confecta 
fuisse, cui non ignota multifaria Americanorum temeta, quis 
neget ? ut non sit purum putum a diluvio vitium, sed ex pec- 
catis cataclysmum provocantibus etiamsi citra vinum vineale, 
ebrietas. Zythi insuper sive vini ex cerealibus confecti extat 
apucl /Egyptios usus antiquissimus, Osiridiauthoriadscriptus. 
Quod si Osiris non alius quam Mizraim, uti doctissimi conji- 
cmnt, quid ni hoc a Chamo patre traditum nee orbi demerso 
incognitum? 

Utinam clarius innotescerent antiquorum columina, gara, 

>oxygara, laserata, oxypora, gusta, succidia, apotherma, et 

i muriarum genera omnia. Nescio tamen an dia rag/^a sturionum, 
encrasicholi liquamen, aut murias regales nostras, post se 

irelinquerent. 

Sylvestre quiddam et virus sapiunt pleraque priscorum 
condimenta, quaa ligusticum, rutam, fcenugrsecum, viride cori- 

landrum, immo cuminum, capiunt, ut mihi sane, qui culices 
pati rotundos inter equuleos habeo, et cimices redolentia 
grana cumini a mensa longe amoveo, stomachum conquassent 
lucanica, volvuli, ofFellae et olus smaragdinum Apicii, aeque 

VOL. IV. x 



306 DE RE CULINARIA. 

mihi ferenda regis Zeilani mensa, qui patinas assa foetida con- 
fricat, aut simuli moretum cum vel allium spiret. 

Famelicas nomen sortitur apud veteres Zoroastri in deserto 
mensa, quag non nisi melle et caseo constabat. Cum tamen 
mel et caseus farcimina Parthica, Numidica, Eleogara, Hypo- 
trimmata impleant Apicii ; nee non Cyceonem Homericum, et 
celebrem Victoris Attici calicem, pentaploon dictam. 

Empedocles equis in Olympico certamine victor, Pythagori- 
cus et animalis abstemius,bovem e myrrh a, thure, et aromatibus 
compactum occurrentibus in conventu distribuit. Huic certe 
curricaenarum pauci manum porrigerent, qui ventrem, non 
nares pascere in delitiis habent. 

Isiciis de sepia et loligine quis non praetulerit Bononiensia, 
aut minutalibus Apicianis Hispanorum ollas putres ! Lentes 
et cicerum omne genus Stoicorum dapes, coloni nostri prae- 
sepibus damnant. Ab Asphodelo nescio quid magnum spon- 
det Hesiodus ; nos inferorum fercula posthabentes, sisaris 
batatis vescimur. Struthiones, grues, ciconias, hirundines, 
longo apparatu inferunt Platina et Apicius, quas tamen deli- 
catuli nostrates ne summis quidem labiis attingerent. Anseris 
exta, (quibus olim nepotatum est,) hodie inter plebeia fercula. 
Et cum callos aprugnos nullus non ministret December, im- 
brices, sumina, et contusa scrofarum ubera canibus aman- 
dantur. 

Torta de anguillis, ova in veru quis ferret ? ad primam 
pontificis Metelli mensam hodiernae gulas contremiscerent. 
Cristas gallorum, capita psittacorum, ungulas muloi'um, quas 
nequissimus helluonum apposuit nemo vel famelicus gustaret. 
Quid gula insanius ? a centum aviculis unica patella congestis 
esurit iEsopus, oleribus et caseo satiatur Epicurus. Adsit 
quod orexim leniat, et naturae satisfaciat ; stulte ultro expec- 
tamus quid parturiat porcus Trojanus.* 

Pipiones exossatos Apicio laudatos tanquam edentulorum 
cibos hodi& non moramur. Nobis tergus bovillum coenae 
caput ; quod et Heroibus Homericis solenne. Hoc post con- 
gressum cum Hectore, Ajaci dono misit Agamemnon ; quod 
et Menelao Telemachus apposuit. Alcinous etiam delicatis- 

* A hog roasted with great variety of other flesh in the belly ; so called from 
the Trojan horse, which concealed so many men in its cavity. 



DE RE CULINARIA. 307 

simae vitas vir bubula vescitur ; proci itidem et Antinous pede 
bovino e mensa rapto Ulyssem adstantem iratus petit. Car- 
nem fere assutam eamque bubulam, pisces vero aut fructus 
mensis Heroum inferri nusquam prodidit Homerus; quan- 
tumvis mare piscosum dicat, et hortos Alcinoi ampliter cele- 
braverit. Nee proci Penelopes petulantes et voluptate disso- 
luti, piscibus, avibus, aut mellitis vescuntur. 

Cerebrum suillum mensis veterum interdictum eoque pari 
flagitio vescebantur ae si fabam roderent, omnibusque capiti- 
bus, in quibus sensus vigent, abstinebant, cum tamen quidquid 
delicatulum est cerebrum Jovis dicerent : interim porcelli 
cerebrum cum sale et salvia nostratibus mirum sapit, nee pe- 
riodum Hippocratis religiose expectamus, qui ante, senioris 
victimae aetatem porcellos mensis non apponit. Cerebra vola- 
tilium oXiyuuva et sicca a struthiocamelo ad passerculum Tur- 
conum mensis illata saepius legimus ; piscium vero paucissima, 
cum a coctione vix oculos adaequent. Cerebra cuniculorum 
nobis in deliciis, medicorum nonnullis minus commendata. 
Quod animal tvxvrifilBa et pelle ocreatum ne pro fele imponant, 
cauponae Gallici inferunt, cum tamen dentes et spina impo- 
sturam satis prodant. Caput polypi veteres a mensis amovent, 
cautela abundante; cum id nemo nostratium attingeret. 
Caput jecinoris ej usque pars familiaris et hostilis Aruspeini 
non culinarii discriminis est. Illud enim in cuxwrw seu jecore 
ficato non distinguunt ganeones. 

Inepta sunt omnia et animo luxurianti et opsoniorum avido 
magis quam sensuum delectamento commoda, quae dicuntur 
de Philoxeno, Melanthio, de collo gruino, linguis item et di- 
gitis, thecis et elytris coopertis, ut calidissima opsonia praevo- 
rent. Frivola item dubio procul, necnon perditissiraa erat 
Apicii cupedia quae locustas vaegrandes et toto orbe quaesitas 
maximo pretio comparavit. Edulius siquidem mediocrium 
genus et coctu facilius ; sed omnium fatuissima Nicomedis 
Bithyniae regis gula, cui procul a mari dissito, rapam incisam 
et culinariter confectam cum oleo, sale, et papaveris nigri 
semine, coquus pro pisciculo apposuit. 

Bacchum noviter natum nymphae lavantes vinum aqua tem- 
perandum pulchre innuunt. Heroes certe apud Homerum 
magna mensura diluunt, et Hector egressurus ad pugnam et 

X 2 



308 DE RE CULINARIA. 

rediens omnino vinum respuit. Agamemnon gravi improperio 
ohofiafa ab Achille dictus est. An vina veterum nostra longe 
antecellant in medio relinquimus. In aetate certe aut potandi 
termino non leviter discrepant. Vinum Falernum apud vete- 
res ab anno decimo quinto usque ad vigesimum potui tempe- 
stivum : Albano ab anno decimo vigor, Surrentinum post viges- 
simum quintum incipit esse voti^ov. Horatii pia testa consule 
Manlio sibimet connata longe annosior. Jam vini veteris apud 
nos nomen sortitur triennale. Oleum etiam Ulyssei canis 
aetatem dimidians antiquum audit. Interim pharmaca quas- 
dam medicorum oleum vetus centum annorum postulant. 
Quod an alibi quam in sepulcris antiquorum reperiatur, vide- 
rint pharmacopoei. 

Nectar et ambrosia laudatissimae deorum dapes quid sint, e 
coelo delapsus nondum edidit Vulcanus. Nectar divinum 
Homerus pater potulentum quid describit, esculentum diserte 
asserit Alcman cum Alexandride, sed cum ambrosiam melle 
novies dulciorem dicat Ibycus apud Athenaeum, habeant suam 
sibi Glyceram caelestes gulae, Chiam malo flcum. 



AMICO CLARISSIMO ETC. 309 



AMICO CLARISSIMO, DE ENECANTE GARRULO 

SUO. 

[ms. sloan. 1827, fol. 83-86.] 

Quinto me foramine* distendit, et acerbissimo equuleo tor- 
quet glossogastor ille tuus, Ligurinusf et viae sacra? Ardelio,^ 
qui me secessus quaeritantem, fabellis, nugaculis, et importunis 
verborum tricis enecat, nee dormiturienti parcens, semiso- 
mnem Cadmo tradit.§ 

Cruento verborum taedio diem ad umbilicum duco, lunas 
insomnes ago, naso vigilanti frustra sterto. Citius silebit Luna 
quam lunaticus iste ; quern nisi Caduceo demulserit aut pi- 
scem fecerit Mercurius, exspes somnum cogito. 

Frustra a te struuntur mensse, temere advocantur convivae ; 
ubi ciceris iste ac nucis emptor ccenitat, Transtiberinus am- 
bulator aut aliquis de ponte negabit. Emortualem umbram 
quam tuam minus fugiunt, etiam qui umbram decempedam 
colunt. Domiccenium 1 famelici quam hujus ineptias malunt; 
et nisi huic in ccena obstrepenti, modimperator insiliat, incce- 
nati aufugient, etiam qui domi salem lingunt. 

In scena re rum novitius trita pro novis venditat. Quibus 
effutiendis terram caelo miscet, Araxi Tiberim, Ligeri Tagum 
maritat. Ut ganniendi ansam arripiat de cometis, diluviis, 
terras motibus gaudet, ostenta, prodigia, rggar/d^ara 2 quae de- 
precantur alii, ipse gratulanter aspicit. Quae si defecerint^ 
fabulonum avias, menalogorum liras effundit. Aut quid sibi 

* The utmost stretch or rack, in the old equuleus, or tormenting engine, was 
at the fifth hole. Vide Magium de Equuleo. 

■f The great prater in Martial, of whom the Epigram. 
| See Horace, Sat ix, " Ibam forte via sacra." 
§ Cadmus, the hangman in Juvenal, " dejicere e saxo cives et tradere Cadmo." 

1 Domiccenium.'] Vide Martial 12, 2 rsgar/ff/ic.Ta.] Sic MS. qu. rs- 
,xxvu > 6- garzu/Mira ? ' 



310 AMICO CLARISSIMO DE 

vagienti olim accident, quid heri in somniis viderit importune 
obtrudens, figuligerulus et famigerator efFutilis astantibus 
febrem facit. 

Quod numero dicendum est, amplo fasce complectitur, nun- 
quam nisi fodiam latus de tribus capellis dicturus : dum ho- 
ram diei sciscito, si ad clepsydram dimidiam sileat, pro La- 
conismo reputo ; si forte de aetate quaerito, vitas annales 
exaudio ; ubi ut trivialia acciderint, longo syrmate diducens, 
languente tandem sole, tasdio me confossum et ranam Seri- 
phiam 3 dimittit. 

'E^swoS/av, et taciturnitatem Pythagoricam, rabiosa silentia 
et aegroti somnia reputat. Harpocrati laqueum mandat, ante 
aras gannit, et sibimet ipsi Siren, etiam surdis canit. Fusti- 
bus ogganiendum est, si voles obmutescat, quo solo argumen- 
to habet. 

Phonasco indiget Xaguyy/£wi> iste et Gradivus Homericus, qui 
mihi assidue intonat : Cui ego vocem nigram, fuscam, Nero- 
nianam imprecor, ut vel Ulysseo commento evadam, aut mol- 
liori fato cedam. 

Nescit nugivendulus linguulaca xa^kd^uv et littore loqua- 
cior quantos loquatur lapides, 4 dum me multiloquio captat, 
nee quas comica facie tragcedias agat, dum renidente ore ju- 
gulat. 

Vappas verborum splendidam suspendens complacendi he- 
deram amici specie jugi sermone diffluit. Interim ruris ple- 
nus et inficetiarum, insulso verborum stromate, salibus pa- 
ganis et extra pomagria natis, bilem mihi ac stomachum com- 
movet homunculus iste palmo et sago dignus, necnon sudore 
quasi Anglico me perfundit. 

Nee mihi tantum crux. Solitudinem in circo facit pu^ri dxug 
iste, et Alpha blateratorum, quo cornicante prassto elabitur 
quicquid uspiam est bucconum : Tibicines, Ascaules, naenia- 
trices, et quas laboranti lunae acclamant, fuga sibi consilium. 

Nee lingua tantum, sed et calamo furit Ardelio iste, loquax 
scribaxque eadem vi. Cujus mihi nugas legere, nedum exi- 
gere libet, quare dum eas oscitanter percurro, semper kyaro- 



3 Scriphiam.'] Vid. I'lin. IJistcr. Natu- 4 lapides.] Vid. Plant. Auhd. 2, J, 
rul. 8, 68. 30, " lapides Ioqueris." 



ENECANTE GARRULO &UO. 311 

xwX/xoc specto, sagpius interjungo. Quantumlibet enim chartae 
speciem exaret, me opisthographis, et in aversa scriptis male 
mulctat. Nee chartae sinu satiatus oram plagulae replet, cam- 
pum hinc inde et inane spatium sulcat. Nee semper integro 
vocum ductu, sed et notulis minutis scriptitat. A quorum 
omnium fastidio flamma et ferro unice me expedio : atque ita 
codicillorum tyrannidem et Cassiani martyrium* effugio. 

Nee tantum missilibus nugis, tricisque epistolicis, sed et 
schedarum cumulis sera, coronide metuendis, (quod a locute- 
leis fieri amat,) amicorum optimos lacessit. Hujus autem ego 
ossa potius quam scripta legerem, quae veratro 5 ebria, nulloque 
Apolline concinnata, Attalicis conditionibus non evolverem ; 
ilia itaque aut cloacinas devoveo aut circum, tonstrinas, tur- 
bamque si quam habet Pompeius, vel Agenoris puella otiosio- 
rem, 6 ablego. 

Sero miselli illicet exaudiunt, qui huic bombylio aures 
mancipant, dictum enim dicere potius quam sermoni colopho- 
nem statuere satagens nunquam ita verborum decoctor est ut 
conturbet, nonunquam ita prodigus ut proterviam faciat nihil- 
que dicendum relinquat. Invisentibus itaque de plebe ami- 
culis, 7 utramque aui'iculam nequiter flagellat ; obvios quosque 
devorato pudore fabulamentis atterit, nee nisi elumbes et va- 
ricosos dubio sole dimittit. Nee tantum vitrea fracta, sed et 
venena loquitur Niger iste et rimosissimus Ardelio, dum 
(quod linguacibus solenne est,) susurro nequissimus, et in au- 
rem garrulus, convitia hinc inde serit, lites nectit, arcana eli- 
minat, quibus mutiendis amicos una ac diem lacerat. Luscis 
invideat, qui reculas amicorum tam acute inspicit, ut suas 
inepte pervideat ; nee semet ipsum concutiens aliena resu- 
pinet. 

Si quis commento Pythagorico locus, hunc ego cuculum ex- 
i uentem hominem subiisse, nee tamen humano indumento vo- 
i calem posuisse characterem autumo. In cicadam denuo diis 
i iratis migraturus ; ut in deviis fritinniens arbusta potius quam 

1 * Sanctus Cassianus, qui codicillis et stylis discipulorum confossus et contusus interiit. 

5 veratro.] Vid. Persii, 1,51. — "non Martialis Epigr. lib. ii, 1. 10. 
hie est Ilias A.ctl Ebria veratro. " Turbam non hahet otiosiorem 

" turbamque si quam habet, ^-c] Vid. Pompeius, vel Agenoris puella. 



312 AMICO CLARISS1MO ETC. 

auriculas humanas rumpat. Ex eo forte numero, qui in 
utero materno ante ortum vagiunt, qui in somniis ganniunt, 
Anginosi strepunt, nullo Gorgone obmutescunt. In custodi- 
endis Capitoliis omnibus certe anseribus potior. Quo presente 
nemo in excubiis, nedum in contuberniis dormitat. Spartam, 
non Anticyram me authore religandus, ut vel polymythiam 
Laconismo commutet, aut flagris ante aras caesus fortem taci- 
turnitatem ediscat. 

Dimissis manibus et grandi gradu frustra hunc effugio, quern 
ludis vix evaserit. Hue aliquis incitatum Achilles sane aut 
sub Delphino natus sit oportet, cui spem fuga fecerit. Sed 
chiragra ferocius manum mihi corripiens, vinculis quasi Vulca- 
niis fugam mihi sistit, quam dum anhelanter tento, dum chla- 
myde excussa mercari satago, deridiculo sum et astantibus 
scenam prsesto. 

Totus itaque in fermento Scythicam solitudinem expeto, 
beatos ad Catadupas Nili natos prasdico, et surdos in ccelis 
statuo. Latibula misellus quserito, ad tenebras confugio ; so- 
lem tamen citius quam Aturopum huncce lateo. Nisi me 
nube involutum subduxerit dea quaepiam Homerica, illico ad 
plures proper o. 

Desperabundus itaque, fractus, ilia ducens, et ut ipsa me 
salvet salus, nullo thure litaturus, temere 'A\s%ka.xov invoco, 
frustra ccelum peto, qua? me liberabit Innocentia aut Mica 
Aurea?* Ursis, tigribus, elephantis, ultro nee auctoratus 
adsto, arenas insuper habeo, qiri in unico Ardelione tot peril- 
los reperio. 

Sed glandium satis. Importunum hunc abige, aut postico 
falle. Ocyus Norvicum advola, ubi te opperiuntur animae 
candidal juxta ac literata?. Quare si sapias, viam vorabis. 
Vale ! 

THOMAS BROWNE. 



* Alluding unto the two bears, which Constantius, the Emperor, kept; the one 
named Innocentia, the other Mica Aurea; which he purposely kept, to set upon 
such as displeased him, as Ammianus Marcellinus rccordeth ; whereby I might be 
delivered from the tediousness of this prater. 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 313 



[AN ACCOUNT OF BIRDS FOUND IN NORFOLK.] 

[MS. SLOAN. 1830, fol. 5—22; & 31.] 

I willingly obey your command ; in setting down such birds, 
fishes, and other animals, which for many years I have ob- 
served in Norfolk. 

Besides the ordinary birds, which keep constantly in the 
country, many are discoverable, both in winter and summer, 
which are of a migrant nature, and exchange their seats ac- 
cording to the season. Those which come in the spring, com- 
ing for the most part from the southward ; those which 
come in the autumn or winter, from the northward; so that 
they are observed to come in great flocks, with a north-east 
wind, and to depart with a south-west : nor to come only in flocks 
of one kind, but teal, woodcocks, fieldfares, thrushes, and small 
birds, to come and light together ; for the most part some 
hawks and birds of prey attending them. 

The great and noble kind of eagle, called aquila Gesneri, 1 
I have not seen in this country ; but one I met with in this 
country, brought from Ireland, which I kept two years, feed- 
ing with whelps, cats, rats, and the like ; in all that while 
not giving it any water ; which I afterward presented unto 
my worthy friend Dr. Scarburgh. 

Of other sorts of eagles, there are several kinds, especi- 
ally of the halycetus or fen eagles ; some of three yards 
and a quarter from the extremity of the wings ; 2 whereof one 
being taken alive, grew so tame, that it went about the yard 
feeding on fish, red herrings, flesh, and any offals, without 
the least trouble. 



1 aquila Gesneri."] Falcochrysatos, the specimens, however, measure more than 
golden eagle ; the largest of the genus, seven or eight feet from the extremities 
known to breed in the mountainous parts of the wings. 

of Ireland. A specimen of F. fulvus, the ring- 

2 some, 8$c.~\ Halicetus nisus, — falco tailed eagle, has been caught at Cromer. 
ossifragus, Lin. The sea eagle. Few — G. 



314 ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 

There is also a lesser sort of eagle, called an osprey, 3 which 
hovers about the fens and broads, and will dip his claw, and 
take up a fish, ofttimes; for which his foot is made of an 
extraordinary roughness, for the better fastening and hold- 
ing of it ; and the like they will do unto coots. 

Aldrovandus takes particular notice of the great number of 
kites 4 about London and about the Thames. We are not 
without them here, though not in such numbers. Here are 
also the grey 5 and bald 6 buzzard; of all which the great 
number of broad-waters and warrens make no small number, 
and more than in woodland counties. 

Cranes are often seen here in hard winters, especially about 
the champian and fleldy part. It seems they have been 
more plentiful ; for, in a bill of fare, when the mayor enter- 
tained the Duke of Norfolk, I met with cranes in a dish. 7 

In hard winters, elks, 8 a kind of wild swan, are seen in no 
small number ; in whom, and not in common swans, is re- 
markable that strange recurvation of the wind pipe through 
the sternon — and the same is also observable in cranes. 9 It 
is probable they come very far ; for all the northern discover- 
ers have observed them in the remotest parts ; and like divers 
and other northern birds, if the winter be mild, they com- 
monly come no farther southward than Scotland ; if very 
hard, they go lower, and seek more southern places ; which 
is the cause that, sometimes, we see them not before Christ- 
mas or the hardest time of winter. 

A white large and strong-billed fowl, called a ganet, 1 which 
seems to be the greater sort of larus ; whereof I met with one 
killed by a greyhound, near Swaff ham ; another in Marsh- 
land, while it fought, and would not be forced to take wing: 
another entangled in a herring-net, which, taken alive, 
was fed with herrings for a while. It may be named larus 



3 osprey.'] Falco halite his, Lin. The the osprey, must here refer to some 
osprey. Sometimes met with near Cro- other species — perhaps F. teruginosus. 
mer. — G. 7 dish.'] Cranes are no longer met 

4 kites.] F. milvus. L. with in this country. 

5 g re lh] Probably F. huteo. e elks.] Elk ; one of the popular 
u bald.] The bald buzzard is a names given to the wild swan, A. eygnus. 

name usually given to the osprey. Dr. 9 cranes.'] Willoughby. 

Browne, however, having just spoken of ' ganet.] Pelecanus bassanus, L. 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 315 

major, leucophcsopterus ; as being white and the top of the 
wings brown. 

In hard winters I have also met with that large and strong- 
billed fowl, which Clusius describeth by the name of skua 
Ho?jeri, 2 sent him from the Faro Islands, by Hoierus, a physi- 
cian ; one whereof was shot at Hickling, while two thereof 
were feeding upon a dead horse. 

As also that large and strong-billed fowl, spotted like a 
i starling, which Clusius nameth mergus major Farrensis, 3 as 
frequenting the Faro Islands, seated above Shetland; one 
whereof I sent unto my worthy friend Dr. Scarburgh. 
Here is also the pica marina,* or sea-pie. 
Many sorts of lari, sea-mews, and cobs. The larus major, 5 
in great abundance, in herring time, about Yarmouth. 

Larus alba 6 or pewits, in such plenty, about Horsey, that 
they sometimes bring them in carts to Norwich, and sell them 
at small rates ; and the country people make use of their eggs 
in puddings, and otherwise, great plenty thereof have bred 
about Scoulton Meers, and from thence sent to London. 

Larus cinereus, 1 greater and smaller, but a coarse meat, 
commonly called sterns. 

Hirundo marina* or sea-swallow, a neat white and forked- 
tail bird ; but much longer than a swallow. 

The ciconia or stork, I have seen in the fens ; and some 
bave been shot in the marshes between this and Yarmouth. 

The platea or shovelard, 9 which build upon the tops of high 
trees. They have formerly built in the Hernery, at Claxton 

2 skua Hoyeri.] Larus catarractes, L. 6 larus alba.] Larus ridibundus L 

Lestris catarractes, Temm. Skua gull, The pewit gull. 

.Latham, Pennant, and Bewick. 1 larus cinereus.] It seems not very 

mergus major Farrensis.] Doctor easy to determine the species here re- 
Browne's description leaves little doubt ferred to :— certainly not the " o- re ater 
hat he refers to colymbus glacialis, L. and lesser " terns, sterna hirundo and 
lie great northern diver; though his minuta, the former of which is certainly 
;ynonym is not correctly given. It is the bird next mentioned ; and neither of 
called by Clusius, colymbus maximus fer- which is called the stern, which is sterna 
■oensis, seu arcticus ;— by Willoughby, fissipes. He may refer to S. minuta and 
nergus maximus far oensis. fissipes; or possibly, but not so probably 

pica marina. ] Heenatopus ostrale- to L. cinerarius and canus, L. the red- 

F«*, L. The oyster-catcher. legged and common gulls, L. cinereus 

larus major.] This name was given major and minor of Aldrovandus 

ong after, by Catesby, to L. alricilla, L. 8 hirundo marina.] Sterna hirundo 

Jr. hrowne, quoting from memory, may L. ' 

■robably refer to L.fuscus, L. L. cine- 9 shovelard.] Plalalca leucorodia L 

eus maximus, Will. The wagel gull. Spoonbill. 



316 ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 

and Reedham ; now at Trimley, in Suffolk. They come in 
March, and are shot by fowlers, not for their meat, but the 
handsomeness of the same ; remarkable in their white colour, 
copped crown, and spoon or spatule-like bill. 

Corvus marinus, 1 Cormorants; building at Reedham, upon 
trees, from whence King Charles the First was wont to be 
supplied. Beside the rock cormorant, 2 which breedeth in the 
rocks, in northern countries, and cometh to us in the winter, 
somewhat differing from the other in largeness and whiteness, 
under the wings. 

A sea-fowl called a sherewater, 3 somewhat billed like a cor- 
morant, but much lesser ; a strong and fierce fowl, hovering 
about ships when they cleanse their fish. Two were kept six 
weeks, cramming them with fish which they would not feed on 
of themselves. The seamen told me they had kept them three 
weeks without meat ; and I, giving over to feed them, found 
they lived sixteen days without taking anything. 

Bernacles, brants, (branta) * are common. 

Sheldrakes. Sheledracus Jonstoni. 

Barganders, a noble-coloured fowl ( vulpanser ) h which herd 
in coney-burrows about Norrold and other places. 

Wild geese. Anserferus. 6 

Scotch goose. Anser scoticus. 

Goosander. Merganser. 1 

Mergus acutirostris speciosus or loon, a handsome and spe- 
cious fowl, cristated, 8 and with divided fin feet placed very 
backward, and after the manner of all such which the Dutch 
call arsvoote. They have a peculiar formation in the leg bone, 
which hath a long and sharp process extending above the 
thigh bone. They come about April, and breed in the broad- 
waters ; so making their nest on the water, that their eggs 
are seldom dry while they are set on. 

1 corvus marinus.] Pelecanus carlo, Vulpanser, Gesner and Aldrov. Shel- 
L. The cormorant. drake or burrow duck. "Barganders," 

2 rock cormorant.] Probably the crest- the name given this species by Dr. 
ed cormorant, thought to be but a variety Browne, may possibly be a corruption ol 
of the preceding. burrow-ganders. 

3 sherewater.] Procellaria puffums, 6 anserferus."] Anas anser ferus, L. 
L. The shearwater. the grey lag or grey leg. 

4 branta.] Anas erylhropus and her- 1 merganser.] Mergus merganser, L. 
nicla, L. The bernacle and brent goose. 8 cristated.] Podiceps cristatus, Lath. 

5 vulpanser.] Anas tadorna, L. Colymbus, L. 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 3J7 

Mergus acutirostris cinereus? which seemeth to be a dif- 
ference of the former. 

Mergus minor, 1 the smaller divers or dab-chicks, in rivers 
and broad waters. 

Mergus serratus- the saw-billed diver, bigger and longer 
than a duck, distinguished from other divers by a notabie 
saw-bill, to retain its slippery prey, as living much upon eels, 
whereof we have seldom failed to find some in their bellies. ' 
Divers other sorts of dive-fowl ; more remarkable the mus- 
tela fusca, 3 and mustela variegata? the grey dun, and the 
variegated or party-coloured weasel, so called from the re- 
semblance it beareth unto a weasel in the head. 

Many sorts of wild ducks which pass under names well- 
known unto fowlers, though of no great signification, as smee, 
5 widgeon, arts, ankers, noblets: — 

The most remarkable are, anas platyrhincJws 5 a remark, 
ably broad-billed duck. 

And the sea-pheasant, 6 holding some resemblance unto 
Ithat bird in some feathers in the tail. 

j ^ Teals, querquedula, 7 wherein scarce any place more abound- 
ing. The condition of the country, and the very many de- 
coys, especially between Norwich and the sea, making this 
place very much to abound in wild fowl. 

FulictB cottcE, 8 coots, in very great flocks upon the broad 
waters. Upon the appearance of a kite or buzzard, I have 
seen them unite from all parts of the shore, in strange num- 
bers ; when, if the kite stoops near them, they will fling up, 
iand spread such a flash of water with their wings, that they 
will endanger the kite, and so keep him off again and again 
.in open opposition; and a handsome provision they make 
E labout their nest against the same bird of prey, by bending and 

9 mergus acutirostris cinereus.] Podi- • platyrkinchosJ A. clupeata, L. The 

■eps urmator, Lath. Shoveller. 

1 mergus minor.-] Podiceps minor, lb. « sea-pheasant.] A. acuta, L. The 

mergus serratus.] Probably mergus pintail duck. Sometimes taken in the 

•terrator, L. Hempstead decoy.— G. 

ThJT a" fH f " ] Me, ' gUS CaStor ' L " 7 qwrquedula.] A. crecca, L. Quer- 

* ,Zl/ 1Ve ■ , 1 d i. M qUedala ° f GeSnen Aldrovandus and 

m albeit T%1 ] ° ^ V , V~ Ray SCarC6ly disti "g^hed the teal from 

•Zrtu Tf 7 ; he . smew ; W hich Ges- the gargany, A. querquedula, L. 

«r calls M. musicians. . f ulical cott ^ F , ' L Th 



318 ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 

twining the rushes and reeds so about them, that they cannot 
stoop at their young ones, or the dam while she sitteth. 

Gallinula aquatica, 9 moor hen, and a kind of ralla aqua- 
tica, 1 or water rail. 

An onocrotalus, or pelican, shot upon Horsey Fen, May 
22, 1663, which, stuffed and cleansed, I yet retain. It was 
three yards and a half between the extremities of the wings ; 
the chowle and beak answering the usual description ; the 
extremities of the wings for a span deep brown; the rest of 
the body white ; a fowl which none could remember upon this 
coast. About the same time I heard one of the king's pelicans 
was lost at St. James's ; 2 perhaps this might be the same. 

Anas arctica Clusiif which though he placeth about the 
Faro islands, is the same we call a puffin, common about An- 
glesea, in Wales, and sometimes taken upon our seas, not suf- 
ficiently described by the name of pujfinus ; the bill being so 
remarkably differing from other ducks, and not horizontally, 
but meridionally, formed, to feed in the clefts of the rocks, of 
insects, shell-fish, and others. 

The great number of rivers, rivulets, and plashes of water 
makes herns and herneries to abound in these parts ; young 
herns being esteemed a festival dish, and much desired by 
some palates. 

The ardea stellaris, botaurus, or bitour, is also common, 
and esteemed the better dish. In the belly of one I found a 
frog in a hard frost at Christmas. Another, kept in a gar- 
den two years, feeding it with fish, mice, and frogs ; in de- 
fect whereof, making a scrape 4 for sparrows, and small birds, 
the bitour made shift to maintain herself upon them. 

Bistardcc, or bustards, are not unfrequent in the champian 
and fieldy part of this country. A large bird, accounted a 
dainty dish, observable in the strength of the breast-bone and 
short heel. Lays an egg much larger than a turkey. 



9 gallinula aquatica.] The moor hen Dr. Browne. — See Bray's Evelyn, i, 373. 
is gallinula chloropus, Lath, (fulica, L.) 3 anas arctica Clusii, J Alca arctica, L. 

1 ralla aquatica.] Rallus aquaticus, 1 scrape.] A scrape, or scrap, is 
L. G. aquatica, of some authors. term used in Norfolk, for a quantity of 

2 St. James's.] But for this informa- chaff, mixed with grain, frequently laid 
tion, the pelican might probably have been as a decoy to attract small birds, for the 
added to our Fauna on the authority of purpose of shooting or netting them. 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 319 

Morinellus, 5 or dotterell, about Thetford, and the cham- 
pian, which comes unto us in September and March, staying 
not long, and is an excellent dish. 

There is also a sea dotterell somewhat less but better co- 
loured than the former. 

Godwyts ; taken chiefly in marshland ; though other parts 
are not without them ; accounted the daintiest dish in Eng- 
land ; and, I think, for the bigness, of the biggest price. 

Gnats, or knots, 6 a small bird, which, taken with nets, grow 
excessively fat, being mewed and fed with corn. A candle 
lighted in the room, they feed day and night; and when they 
are at their height of fatness, they begin to grow lame, and 
are then killed, as at their prime, and apt to decline. 

Erythropus, or red-shank ; 7 a bird common in the marshes, 
and of common food, but no dainty dish. 

A may chit, 8 a small dark grey bird, little bigger than a 
stint, of fatness beyond any. It comes in May into Marsh- 
land and other parts, and abides not above a month or six 
weeks. 

Stints 9 in great number about the sea shore and marshes, 
about StifFkey, Burnham, and other parts. 

Another small bird, somewhat larger than a stint, called a 
churr, 1 and is commonly taken among them. 

Pluvialis, or plover, 2 green and grey, in great plenty about 
Thetford, and many other heaths. They breed not with us, 
1 but in some parts of Scotland, and plentifully in Iceland. 

The lapwing or vanettus, 5 common over all the heaths. 

Cuckoos of two sorts ; the one far exceeding the other in 
I bigness. 4 Some have attempted to keep them in warm rooms 
' all the winter, but it hath not succeeded. In their migration 
| they range very far northward ; for in the summer they are 
t to be found as high as Iceland. 

Avis pugnans ; 5 ruffe ; a marsh bird of the greatest variety 
) of colours, every one therein somewhat varying from other. 



s ?norinettus.]Charadriusmorinettus,L. ' churr.'] Or purre? 

6 knots.] Tringa canutus, L. 2 plover.] Char adrius pluvialis, L. 

7 redshank.] Scolopax calidris, L. 3 vanettus.] Tringa vanettus, L. 
; 8 a may chit.] Probably one of the 4 bigness.] Differing only in age or 

genus tringa. sex. 

stints.] Tringa cinch s. 3 avis pugnans.] Tringa pugnax. L. 



320 ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 

The female is called a reeve, without any ruff about the neck, 
lesser than the other, and hardly to be got. They are al- 
most all cocks, and, put together, fight and destroy each 
other ; and prepare themselves to fight like cocks, though 
they seem to have no other offensive part but the bill. They 
lose their ruffs about the autumn, or beginning of winter, as 
we have observed, keeping them in a garden from May till 
the next spring. They most abound in Marshland, but are 
also in good number in the marshes between Norwich and 
Yarmouth. 

Ofpicus martins, 6 or wookspeck, many kinds. The green, 
the red, 7 the leucomelanus* or neatly marked black and white, 
and the cinereus 9 or dun-coloured little bird, called a nut- 
hack. Remarkable, in the larger, are the hardness of the 
bill and skull, and the long nerves which tend unto the 
tongue, whereby it shooteth out the tongue above an inch 
out of the mouth, and so licks up insects. They make the 
holes in trees without any consideration of the winds or quar- 
ters of heaven ; but as the rottenness thereof best affordeth 
convenience. 

Black heron. 1 Black on the sides, the bottom of the neck, 
with white grey on the outside, spotted all along with black 
on the inside. A black coppe of small feathers some a span 
long; bill pointed and yellow, three inches long; back, heron- 
coloured, intermixed with long white feathers; the strong 
feathers black ; the breast black and white, most black ; the 
legs and feet not green, but an ordinary dark cock colour. 

The number of rivulets, becks, and streams, whose banks 
are beset with willows and alders, which give occasion of 
easier fishing and stooping to the water, makes that hand- 
some-coloured bird abound, which is called alcedo ispida, or 
the king-fisher. They build in holes about gravel-pits, 
wherein is to be found a great quantity of small fish-bones ; 
and lay very handsome round and, as it were, polished eggs. 



6 picus martins.] The black wood- 9 cinereus.'] Sltta Europea, Lin. Nut- 
pecker, extremely rare in this country, hatch. 

" Habitat vix inAnglia, " says Linnaus. 1 Mack heron.] No British species 

7 red.] Probably P. major, L. appears to correspond so nearly with Dr. 

8 Irucomelanus.] P. minor, L. Browne's description as Ardca Purpurea. 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 821 

An hobby-bird ; " so called because it comes either with, 
or a little before, the hobbies, in the spring. Of the bigness 
of a thrush, coloured and paned like a hawk ; marvellously 
subject to the vertigo, and are sometimes taken in those 
fits. 

Upupa, or hoopebird, so named from its note ; a gallant 
marked bird, which I have often seen, and it is not hard to 
shoot them. 

Ringlestones, 3 a small white and black bird, like a wagtail, 
and seems to be some kind of motacilla marina, common 
about Yarmouth sands. They lay their eggs in the sand and 
shingle, about June, and, as the Eringo diggers tell me, not 
set them flat, but upright, like eggs in salt. 

The arcuata 1, or curlew, frequent about the sea-coast. 

There is also a handsome tall bird, remarkably eyed, and 
with a bill not above two inches long, commonly called a stone 
curlew ; 5 but the note thereof more resembleth that of a green 
plover, and breeds about Thetford, about the stone and shin- 
gle of the rivers, 

Avoseta called [a] shoeing-horn, a tall black and white bird, 
with a bill semicircularly reclining or bowed upward ; so that 
it is not easy to conceive how it can feed ; answerable unto 
the avoseta Ibalorum, in Aldrovandus, a summer marshbird, 
and not unfrequent in Marshland. 

A yarwhelp, 6 so thought to be named from its note, a grey 
bird intermingled with some whitish yellowish feathers, some- 
what long-legged, and the bill about an inch and a half; es- 
teemed a dainty dish. 

Loxias r or curvirostra, a bird a little bigger than a thrush, 
of fine colours and pretty note, differently from other birds, 
the upper and lower bill crossing each other ; of a very tame 
nature ; comes about the beginning of summer. I have known 
them kept in cages ; but not to outlive the winter. 

2 hobby-oird.~] Surely this may be 5 curlew.~\ Charadrius cedicnemus, L. 
yunx torquilla, L. the wryneck ; the The great or Norfolk plover, or thick- 
singular motion of its head and neck was kneed bustard. 

probably attributed to vertigo. 6 yarwhelp."] Scolopax JEgocephala, L. 

3 ringlestones. ~\ Charadrius hiaticula, is called the yarwhelp : — but the bill is 
L. The ring dotterel. Plentiful near four inches long. 

Blakeney. — G. 7 hxias.~\ The crossbill. Loxia cur- 

arcuata.~\ Scolopax arquata, L. virostra, L. 

VOL. IV. Y 



322 ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 

A kind of coccothraustes* called a coble-bird, bigger than 
a thrush, finely coloured and shaped like a bunting. It is 
chiefly seen in summer, about cherry-time. 

A small bird of prey, called a birdcatcher, about the big- 
ness of a thrush, and linnet-coloured, with a longish white 
bill, and sharp ; of a very fierce and wild nature, though 
kept in a cage, and fed with flesh ; — a kind of lanius. 

A dorhawk 9 or kind of accipiter muscarius, conceived to 
have its name from feeding upon flies and beetles ; of a wood- 
cock colour, but paned like a hawk ; a very little pointed bill; 
large throat ; breedeth with us ; and lays a marvellous hand- 
some spotted egg. Though I have opened many, I could 
never find any thing considerable in their maws. Caprimulgus. 

Avis trogloditica 1 or chock, a small bird, mixed of black 
and white, and breeding in coney-burrows ; whereof the war- 
rens are full from April to September ; at which time they 
leave the country. They are taken with an hobby and a net ; 
and are a very good dish. 

Spermalegous rooks, which, by reason of the great quantity 
of corn-fields and rook groves, are in great plenty. The 
young ones are commonly eaten ; sometimes sold in Norwich 
market, and many are killed for their livers, in order to the 
cure of the rickets. 

Crows, as every where ; and also the corvus variegatus," 
or pied crow, with dun aud black interchangeable. They 
come in the winter, and depart in the summer ; and seem to 
be the same which Clusius describeth in the Faro Islands, 
from whence perhaps these come. I have seen them very 
common in Ireland ; but not known in many parts of England. 

Corvus major ; ravens ; in good plenty about the city ; 
which makes so few kites to be seen hereabout. They build 
in woods very early, and lay eggs in February. 

Among the many monedulas or jackdaws, I could never in 
these parts observe the pyrrhocorax or Cornish chough, with 

8 coccolhrausles.] Loxia coccothraus- tended a kind of wren. He refers very 
tes, L. The grossbeak. possibly to the wheatear, Motacilla 

9 dorhawk.] Caprimulgus Europerus, oenanthe, L. 

L. The goat-sucker. 2 corvus variegatus.~\ Corvus comix, 

1 avis trogloditica.] By the term avis L. The hooded crow. 
trnglodilica, Dr. Browne probably in- 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 323 

red legs and bill, to be commonly seen in Cornwall; and, 
though there be here very great store of partridges, yet the 
French red-legged partridge is not to be met with. 3 The 
ralla or rail, we have counted a dainty dish ; as also no small 
number of quails. The heathpoult, 4 common in the north, 
is unknown here, as also the grouse ; though I have heard 
some have been seen about Lynn. The calandrier or great- 
crested lark, (galerita) I have not met with here, 5 though 
with three other sorts of larks ; — the ground-lark, wood-lark, 
and tit-lark. 

Stares or starlings, in great numbers. Most remarkable in 
their numerous flocks, which I have observed about the au- 
tumn, when they roost at night in the marshes, in safe places, 
upon reeds and alders ; which to observe, I went to the 
marshes about sunset ; where standing by their usual place 
of resort, I observed very many flocks flying from all quar- 
ters, which, in less than an hour's space, came all in, and 
settled in innumerable numbers in a small compass. 

Great variety of finches and other small birds, whereof 
one very small, called a whin-bird, marked with fine yellow 
spots, and lesser than a wren. There is also a small bird, 
called a chipper, somewhat resembling the former, which 
comes in the spring, and feeds upon the first buddings of 
birches and other early trees. 

A kind of anthus, goldfinch, or fool's coat, commonly called 
a draw-water, finely marked with red and yellow, and a white 
bill, which they take with trap-cages, in Norwich gardens, 
and, fastening a chain about them, tied to a box of water, it 
makes a shift, with bill and leg, to draw up the water in to it 
I from the little pot, hanging by the chain about a foot below. 

On the 14th of May, 1664, a very rare bird was sent me, 
1 killed about Crostwick, which seemed to be some kind of jay. 
i The bill was black, strong, and bigger than a jay's ; some- 
i what yellow claws, tipped black ; three before and one claw 
i behind. The whole bird not so big as a jay. 



3 French, <^e.] Our Norfolk sports- 4 heathpoult.'] Or black grouse. 

• men can bear witness tbat this species is 5 here.] Nor any one else, in England, 

now to be found in various parts of the if he refers to alauda cristata, which 

county. is the A. sylvestris galerita of Frisch. 

Y 2 



324 



ON NORFOLK BIRDS. 



The head, neck, and throat, of a violet colour ; the back 
and upper parts of the wing, of a russet yellow ; the fore part 
of the wing, azure ; succeeded downward by a greenish blue ; 
then on the flying feathers, bright blue ; the lower parts of 
the wing outwardly, of a brown ; inwardly, of a merry blue ; 
the belly, a light faint blue ; the back, toward the tail, of a 
purple blue ; the tail, eleven feathers of a greenish colour ; 
the extremities of the outward feathers thereof, white with an 
eye of green. — Garrulus argentoratetisis. 6 

6 garrulus argentoratensis.~\ Coracias garrula, L. The roller. 



OF FISHER. 325 



[AN ACCOUNT OF FISHES, etc. FOUND IN 
NORFOLK AND ON THE COAST.] 

[ms. sloan. 1830, fol. 23—30, & 32—38; & 1882, 1 fol. 145, 6.] 

It may well seem no easy matter to give any considerable ac- 
count of fishes and animals of the sea ; wherein, 't is said, 
that there are things creeping innumerable, both small and 
great beasts, because they live in an element wherein they are 
not so easily discoverable. Notwithstanding, probable it is 
that after this long navigation, search of the ocean, bays, creaks, 
estuaries, and rivers, that there is scarce any fish but hath 
been seen by some man ; for the large and breathing sort 
thereof do sometimes discover themselves above water, and 
the other are in such numbers that at one time or other they 
are discovered and taken, even the most barbarous nations 
being much addicted to fishing ; and in America and the new 
discovered world the people were well acquainted with fishes 
of sea and rivers, and the fishes thereof have been since de- 
scribed by industrious writers. Pliny seems too short in the 
estimate of their number in the ocean, who reckons up but 
one hundred and seventy-six species ; but the seas being now 
farther known and searched, Bellonius much enlargeth ; and 
in his book of birds thus delivereth himself: — " Although I 
think it impossible to reduce the same unto a certain number, 
yet I may freely say, that 't is beyond the power of man to 
find out more than five hundred species of fishes, three 



1 18S2.] The first paragraph of this tended the account of fishes, &c, to be 

paper I met with in 1882 ms. sloan. distinct from that of birds, and wrote 

preceded by the words " I willingly obey this as an introductory paragraph. I 

your co " which were left unfi- have therefore so preserved it ; though 

nished, and struck through with the pen. both subjects are mentioned in the first 

The author probably at one time in- paragraph of the tract on birds. 



326 - OF FISHES. 

hundred sorts of birds, more than three hundred sorts of 
four-footed animals, and forty diversities of serpents." 2 

Of fishes sometimes the larger sort are taken or come 
ashore. A spermaceti whale, of sixty-two feet long, near 
Wells ; another of the same kind, twenty years before, at 
Hunstanton ; and, not far off, eight or nine came ashore, and 
two had young ones after they were forsaken by the water. 3 

A grampus, above sixteen feet long, taken at Yarmouth, 
four years ago. 4 

The Tursio, or porpoise, 5 is common. The dolphin 6 more 
rare, though sometimes taken, which many confound with the 
porpoise ; but it hath a more waved line along the skin ; 
sharper toward the tail ; the head longer, and nose more ex- 
tended ; which maketh good the figure of Rondeletius ; the 
flesh more red, and, well cooked, of very good taste to most 
palates, and exceedeth that of porpoise. 

The vitulus marinus? sea-calf, or seal, which is often taken 
sleeping on the shore. Five years ago, one was shot in the 
river of Norwich, about Surlingham Ferry, having continued in 
the river for divers months before. Being an amphibious ani- 
mal, it may be carried about alive, and kept long if it can be 
brought to feed. Some have been kept for many months in 
ponds. The pizzell, the bladder, the cariilago ensiformis, 
the figure of the throttle, the clustered and racemose form 
of the kidneys, the flat and compressed heart, are remark- 



2 serpents.] Naturalists now enume- low in folds. There were two spout- 
rate 800 species of beasts ; and at least holes close together, in the middle of 
50,000 of insects Gray. the head. Almost an inch and half 

3 sometimes, eye] A whale, 58 feet thickness of blubber ; and the oil which 
long, was cast ashore at Overstrand, in has been made from it is remarkably 
the spring of 1822 (I think); and ano- fine. The whale-bone fringe in its mouth 
ther went spouting past Cromer, in the was nearly white : the length of the jaw- 
autumn of the same year. bones, 3 feet 7 inches. It did not look 

Towards the end of 1829, a whale, tempting enough to make me bring any of 
only 24 feet long, was cast ashore and the meat away; but at Northrepps hall, 
killed at Runton. He was of the Balcena a steak was cooked, and tasted like ten- 
division, with a whale-bone mouth, and der beef. — G. 

no teeth; and, as far as I could make 4 grampus, §c] Oct. 1S27, the fish- 
out, I think it was one of the boops baUe- ermen saw a fish which they called a 
na species — as the man who made the grampus. — G. 

capture told me, the nose was very sharp 5 tursio or porpoise] Delphhms pho- 

pointed — but it was much hacked before ewna, L. 

I saw it. I found the extreme width of 6 dolphin.] D- Delphis, L. 

the tail was 3 feet 1 1 inches. It was dark, 7 vitulus marinas.] Phoca vitulina, L. 
nearly black on the back, and white be- 



OF FISHES. 327 

able in it. In stomachs of all that I have opened, I have 
found many worms. 

I have also observed a scolopendra cetacea of about ten 
[inches] long, answering the figure in Rondeletius, which the 
mariners told me was taken in these seas. 

A pristis serra, s or saw-fish, taken about Lynn, commonly 
mistaken for a sword-fish, and answers the figure in Ronde- 
letius. 

A sword-fish, {iphias, or gladius, 9 ) entangled in the her- 
ring-nets at Yarmouth, agreeable unto the icon in Johnsto- 
nus, with a smooth sword, not unlike the gladius of Ronde- 
letius, about a yard and a half long ; no teeth ; eyes very 
remarkable ; enclosed in a hard cartilaginous covercle, about 
the bigness of a good apple ; the vitreous humour plentiful ; 
the chrystalline larger than a nutmeg, remaining clear, sweet, 
and untainted, when the rest of the eye was under a deep cor- 
ruption, which we kept clear and limpid many months, until 
an hard frost split it, and manifested the foliations thereof. 

It is not unusual to take several sorts of canis, or dog-fish, 
great and small, which pursue the shoal of herrings and other 
fish ; but this year [1662] one was taken entangled in the 
herring-nets, about nine feet in length, answering the last 
figure of Johnstonus, lib. 7, under the name of canis carcha- 
rias alter ; and was, by the teeth and five gills, one kind of 
shark, particularly remarkable in the vastness of the optic 
nerves and three conical hard pillars, which supported the 
extraordinary elevated nose, which we have reserved with the 
skull. The seamen called this kind, a scrape. 

Sturio, or sturgeon, so common on the other side of the 
sea, about the mouth of the Elbe, come seldom into our 
creeks, though some have been taken at Yarmouth, and more 
in the great Ouse, by Lynn ; but their heads not so sharp 
as represented in the icons of Rondeletius and Johnstonus. 

Sometimes we meet with a mola, or moon-fish, 1 so called 
from some resemblance it hath of a crescent in the extreme 
part of the body from one fin unto another. One being ta- 

8 pristis serra.] Squalics pristis, L. ' mola, ormoon-fishj] Telraodonmola, 

9 iphias or gladius.] Xiphias gladi- L. Sun-fish. 
us, L. 



328 of fishes. 

ken near the shore at Yarmouth, before break of day, seemed 
to shiver, and grunt like a hog, as authors deliver of it. 
The flesh being hard and nervous, it is not like to afford a 
good dish ; but from the liver, which is large, white, and ten- 
der, somewhat may be expected. The gills of these fish 
we found thick beset with a kind of sea-louse. In the year 
1667, a mola was taken at Monsley, which weighed 200 pounds. 

The rana piscatrix, or frog-fish, 2 is sometimes found in a 
very large magnitude, and we have taken the care to have them 
cleaned and stuffed, wherein we observed all the appendices 
whereby they catch fishes, but much larger than are described 
in the icons of Johnstonus, lib. xi, fig. 8. 

The sea-wolf, 3 or lupus nostras, of Schoneveldus, remark- 
able for its spotted skin and notable teeth, — incisores, dog- 
teeth and grinders. The dog-teeth, both in the jaws and 
palates, scarce answerable by any fish of that bulk, for the 
like disposure, strength, and solidity. 

Mustela Marina ;* called by some a weazel ling, which, 
salted and dried, becomes a good Lenten dish. 

A lump, or lumpus anglorum ; 5 so named by Aldrovandus, 
by some esteemed a festival-dish, though it affordeth but a 
glutinous jelly, and the skin is beset with stony knobs, after 
no certain order. Ours most answereth the first figure in 
the 13th table of Johnstonus, but seems more round and ar- 
cuated than that figure makes it. 

Before the herrings, there commonly cometh a fish, about 
a foot long, by fishermen called a horse, resembling, in all 
points the trachurus 6 of Rondeletius, of a mixed shape, be- 
tween a mackerel and a herring ; observable from its green 
eyes, rarely sky-coloured back, after it is kept a day, and an 
oblique bony line running on the outside from the gills unto 
the tail : a dry and hard dish, but makes a handsome picture. 

The rubelliones, or rochets, but thinly met with on this 
coast. The gornart cuculus, or lycce species, 1 more often ; 



2 frog-fish.] Lophius piscatorius, L. pus, L. The lump-fish, or lump-sucker. 

3 sen-wolf.] Anarhichas lupus, L. b trachurus.] Scomber Trachurus, L. 

4 mustela marina.] Perhaps gadus The scad or horse mackerel : caught with 
mustela, L. or petromyzon mariuus, L. the mackerel. — G. 

The lamprey. 7 lyca: species.] Trigla cuculus, L. 

5 lumpus anglorum.] CycloptertiS lum- The red gurnard. 



of fishes. 329 

which they seldom eat, but bending the back and spreading 
the fins into a large posture, do hang them up in their 
houses. 

Beside the common mullus, or mullet, 8 there is another not 
unfrequent, which some call a cunny-fish, but rather a red 
mullet, 9 of a flosculous red, and somewhat rough on the 
scales, answering the description and icon of Rondeletius, un- 
der the name of mullus ruber asper ; but not the taste of the 
usually-known mullet, as affording but a dry and lean bit. 

Several sorts of fishes there are which do or may bear the 
names of sea-woodcocks ; as the acus major, scolopax, and 
saurus. 1 The saurus we sometimes meet with young. Ron- 
deletius confesseth it a very rare fish, somewhat resembling 
the acus or needle-fish before, and mackerel behind. We 
have kept one dried many years ago. 

The acus major, 2 called by some a garfish, and greenback, 
answering the figure of Rondeletius, under the name of acus 
prima species, remarkable for its quadrangular figure, and 
verdigrease-green backbone. 

A scolopax 3 or sea woodcock, of Rondeletius, was given 
me by a seaman of these seas. About three inches long, and 
seems to be one kind of acus or needle-fish, answering the 
description of Rondeletius. 

The acus of Aristotle, 4 lesser, thinner, corticated, and sex- 
angular ; by divers called an addercock, and somewhat re- 
sembling a snake ; ours more plainly finned than Rondeletius 
describeth it. 

A little corticated fish, about three or four inches long, 
answering that which is named piscis octangularis, by Wor- 
mius ; cataphr actus, by Schoneveldeus. Octagonius versus 
caput; versus caudam hexagonius. 5 

Tlxejaber marinus, 6 sometimes found very large, answering 
the figure of Rondeletius, which though he mentioneth as a 



8 mullet.'] Mugil cephalus, L. 3 scolopax.'] Centriscus scolopax, L. 

9 red mullet.'] Mullus barbatus, L. 4 acus of Aristotle.] Syngathus ty- 
Sur-mullet. Sometimes caught at Cro- phle, L. ? 

mer. — G. 5 hexagonius.] Possibly a gurnard, 

1 saurus.] Esox saurus, L. ? trigla cataphracta, L. 

2 acus major.] Syngnathus acus, L. D j'abcr marinus.] Zeus faber, L. 
Needle-fish. John Doree or Dory. 



330 OF FISHES. 

rare fish, and to be found in the Atlantic and Gaditane 
ocean, yet we often meet with it in these seas, commonly 
called a peter-fish, having one black spot on either side the 
body ; conceived the perpetual signature, from the impression 
of St. Peter's fingers, or to resemble the two pieces of money 
which St. Peter took out of this fish ; remarkable also from 
its disproportionable mouth, and many hard prickles about 
other parts. 

A kind of scorpius marinus ; 7 a rough, prickly, and mon- 
strous headed fish, six, eight, or twelve inches long, answer- 
able unto the figure of Schoneveldeus. 

A sting-fish, wiver, or kind of opthidion, 8 or araneus ; slen- 
der ; narrow-headed ; about four inches long, with a sharp, 
small, prickly fin along the back, which often venemously 
pricketh the hands of fishermen. 

Aphia cebites marina, or a sea-loche. 

Belennus; a sea miller's thumb. 

Funduli marini ; sea gudgeons. 

Alosce, or chads ; 9 to be met with about Lynn. 

Spirinches, or smelt, 1 in great plenty about Lynn; but 
where they have also a small fish, called a priame, answering 
in taste and shape a smelt, and perhaps are but the younger 
sort thereof. 

Aselli, or cod, of several sorts. — Asellus albus, or whitings, 2 
in great plenty. — Asellus niger, carbonarius, or coal-fish. 3 — 
Asellus minor Schoneveldei (callarias Plinii), or haddocks; 4 
with many more. Also a weed-fish, somewhat like a had- 
dock, but larger, and drier meat. A basse, 5 also much re- 
sembling a flatter kind of cod. 

Scombri are mackerel; in great plenty. A dish much 
desired ; but if, as Rondeletius affirmeth, they feed upon sea- 
stars and squalders, there may be some doubt whether their 
flesh be without some ill quality. Sometimes they are of a 
very large size; and one was taken this year, 1668, which 

7 scorpius marinus.] Coitus scorpio, L. ' smelt.] Salmo epcrianus, L. Smelt. 

Father Lasher ? 2 whitings.] Gadus merlangus, L. 

B nplhidion.] Probably trachinus dra- 3 coal-fish. \ G. carbonarius, L. 

co, L. The sting-bull or common wea- ' haddocks.] G. ceglcsinus, L. 

ver. 5 basse] 1'crca labra.v, L. 

9 chads.} Clupea alosa, L. Shad. 



OF FISHES. 331 

was by measure an ell long ; and of the length of a good sal- 
mon, at Lowestoft. 

Herrings departed, sprats, or sardce, not long after succeed 
in great plenty, which are taken with smaller nets, and smok- 
ed and dried like herrings, become a sapid bit, and vendible 
abroad. 

Among these are found bleak, or blicce, 6 a thin herring- 
like fish, which some will also take to be young herrings. 
And though this sea aboundeth not with pilchards, yet they 
are commonly taken among herrings ; but few esteem there- 
of, or eat them. 

Congers are not so common on these coasts as in many seas 
about England ; but are often found upon the north coast of 
Norfolk, and in frosty weather left in pulks and plashes upon 
the ebb of the sea. 

The sand eels (Anglones of Aldrovandus, or Tobianus of 
Schoneveldeus) commonly called smoulds, 7 taken out of the 
sea-sands with forks and rakes about Blakeney and Burnham : 
a small round slender fish, about three or four inches long, 
as big as a small tobacco-pipe; a very dainty dish. 

Pungilius marinus, or sea-bansticle, having a prickle on 
each side. The smallest fish of the sea, about an inch long, 
sometimes drawn ashore with nets, together with weeds and 
fragments of the sea. 

Many sorts of flat-fishes. The pastinaca oxyrinchus, with 
a long and strong aculeus in the tail, conceived of special 
venom and virtues. 

Several sorts of raias (skates), and thornbacks. The raia 
clavata oxyrinchus ; raia oculaia, aspera, spinosa,fattonica. 

The great rhombus, or turbot, 8 aculeatus et levis. 

The passer, or place. 

Butts, of various kinds. 

The passer squamosus ; bret, bretcock, and skulls; com- 
parable in taste and delicacy unto the sole. 

6 MiccE.] Cyprinus alburnus,\j. Bleak. Of wry-mouth'd fish! give me the left side 

7 smoulds."] Ammodytes tobianus, L. Except' the sole, + which hath the noblest 
Sand launce. smack. 

8 turbof] In MS. Sloa*. 1784, I find . ^ ^ ^.^ fW&< 

this distich, with the subsequent cxplan- + Which is black on the right side; as also 
atory notes attached:— 6 " tls > ™" rffl J"> and flounders. 



6o% OF FISHES. 

The buglossus solea, or sole, plana et oculata ; as also the 
lingula, or small sole ; all in very great plenty. 

Sometimes a fish about half a yard long, like a butt or 
sole, called asprage, which I have known taken about Cro- 
mer. 

Sepia, or cuttle-fish, and great plenty of the bone or shelly 
substance, which sustaineth the whole bulk of that soft fish 
found commonly on the shore. 

The loligo sieve, or calamar, 9 found often upon the shore, 
from head to tail sometimes about an ell long, remarkable for 
its parrot-like bill ; the gladiolus or celanus along the back, 
and the notable crystalline of the eye, which equalleth, if not 
exceedeth, the lustre of oriental pearl. 

A polypus, another kind of the mollia, sometimes we have 
met with. 

Lobsters in great number, about Sherringham and Cromer, 
from whence all the country is supplied. 

Astacus marinus pedicidi marini facie, found also in that 
place. With the advantage of the long fore claws about four 
inches long. 

Crabs, large and well-tasted ; found also on the same coast. 

Another kind of crab, taken for canis fluvialis ; little, slen- 
der, and of a very quick motion, found in the river running 
through Yarmouth, and in Bliburgh river. 

Oysters exceeding large about Burnham and Hunstanton, 
like those of Pool, St. Mallows, or Civita Vecchia, whereof 
many are eaten raw ; the shells being broken with cleavers ; 
the greater part pickled, and sent weekly to London and 
other parts. 

Mituli, or muscles, in great quantity, as also chams or 
cockles, about Stif kay and the north-west coast. 

Pectines pectunculi varii, or scallops of the lesser sort. 
Turbines, or smaller wilks, leves, striati, as also trochi, tro- 
chili, or sea tops, finely variegated and pearly. Likewise 
purpuras minores, nerites, cochlea?, tellince. 

9 loligo, fyc.~] In digging for soles and lieve of the species loligo), about twelve 

shrimps, I have taken numbers of little or eighteen inches long in the sleeve or 

sepicB, an inch or two in length, in July trunk, in the autumn ; Cromer. — G. 
and August, and have seen others (I be- 



OF FISHES. 333 

Lepades, patellce : limpets, of an univalve shell, wherein an 
animal like a snail cleaving fast unto the rocks. 

Solenes, " cappe lunge" Venetorum; commonly a razor- 
fish ; the shell thereof dentalia, by some called pin-patches, 
because the pin-meat thereof is taken out with a pin or 
needle. 

Cancellus turbinum et neritis. Bernard the hermit of Ron- 
deletius. A kind of crab, or astacus ; living in a forsaken 
wilk or nerites. 

Echinus Echinometrites, sea hedgehog, whose neat shells 
are common on the shore. The fish alive often taken by the 
drags among the oysters. 

Balani, a smaller sort of univalve growing commonly in 
clusters. The smaller kinds thereof to be found ofttimes 
upon oysters, wilks, and lobsters. 

Concha anatifera, or ansifera, or barnacle-shell, whereof 
about four years past were found upon the shore no small 
number by Yarmouth, hanging by slender strings of a kind 
of alga unto several splinters or cleavings of fir-boards, unto 
which they were severally fastened, and hanged like ropes of 
onions ; their shell flat, and of a peculiar form, differing from 
other shells ; this being of four divisions ; containing a small 
imperfect animal, at the lower part divided into many shoots 
or streams, which prepossessed spectators' fancy to be the 
rudiment of the tail of some goose or duck to be produced 
from it. Some whereof in the shell, and some taken out and 
spread upon paper, we still keep by us. 

Stellce marines, or sea-stars, in great plenty, especially 
about Yarmouth. Whether they be bred out of the urticus, 
squalders, or sea-jellies, as many report, we cannot confirm ; 
but the squalders in the middle seem to have some lines or 
first draughts not unlike. Our stars exceed not five points, 
though I have heard that some with more have been found 
about Hunstanton and Burnham ; where are also found stellce 
marines testacece, or handsome crusted and brittle sea-stars, 
much less. 

The pediculus and culex marinus, the sea louse and fly, 
are also no strangers. 

Physsalus Rondelefii, or eruca marina physsaloides, ac- 



334 OF FISHES. 

cording to the icon of Rondeletius, of very orient green and 
purple bristles. 

JJrtica marina of divers kinds ; some whereof called squal- 
ders. Of a burning and stinging quality, if rubbed in the 
hand. The water thereof may afford a good cosmetic. 

Another very elegant sort there is often found cast up by 
shore in great numbers, about the bigness of a button, clear 
and welted, and may be called fibula marina crystallina. 

Hirudines marini, or sea-leeches. 

Vermes marini, very large worms, digged a yard deep out 
of the sands at ebb, for bait. It is known where they are to 
be found by a little flat over them, on the surface of the 
sand. As also vermes in tubulis testacei. Also tethya, or 
sea-dogs; some whereof resemble fritters. The vesicaria 
marina also, and fanago, sometimes very large; conceived to 
proceed from some testaceous animals, and particularly from 
the purpura ; but ours more probably from other testaceous, 
we have not met with any large purpura upon this coast. 

Many river fishes also and animals. Salmon no common 
fish in our rivers, though many are taken in the Ouse ; in the 
Bure or North river ; in the Waveney or South river; in the 
Norwich river but seldom, and in the winter. But four years 
ago fifteen were taken at Trowse mill, at Christmas, whose 
mouths were stuck with small worms or horseleaches, no big- 
ger than fine threads. Some of these I kept in water three 
months. If a few drops of blood were put to the water, they 
would in a little time look red. They sensibly grew bigger 
than I first found them, and were killed by a hard frost freez- 
ing the water. Most of our salmon have a recurved piece of 
flesh in the end of the lower jaw, which, when they shut 
their mouths, deeply enters the upper, as Scaliger hath noted 
in some. 

The rivers, lakes, and broads, abound in the lucius or 
pikes of a very large size, where also is found the brama or 
bream, large and well tasted. The tinea or tench ; the au- 
lecida, roach ; as also rowds and dare or dace ; perca or perch, 
great and small ; whereof such as are taken in Breydon, on 
this side Yarmouth, in the mixed water, make a dish very 
dainty ; and, I think, scarce to be bettered in England. But 



OF FISHES. 335 

the blea, the chubbe, the barbie, to be found in divers other 
rivers in England I have not observed in these. As also fewer 
minows than in many other rivers. 

The trutta or trout ; the gammarus or crawfish ; but scarce 
in our rivers ; but frequently taken in the Bure or North river* 
and in the several branches thereof. And very remarkable 
large crawfishes to be found in the river which runs by Castle- 
acre and Nerford. 

The aspredo perca minor, and probably the certiua of Car- 
dan, commonly called a ruff; in great plenty in Norwich 
river, and even in the stream of the city ; which though Cam- 
den appropriates unto this city, yet they are also found in the 
rivers of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Lampetra, lampreys, great and small, found plentifully in 
Norwich river, and even in the city, about May ; whereof 
some are very large ; and, well cooked, are counted a dainty 
bit collared up, but especially in pies. 

Mustela fluviatilis or eel-poult, to be had in Norwich river, 
and between it and Yarmouth, as also in the rivers of Marsh- 
land ; resembling an eel and a cod ; a very good dish ; and the 
liver whereof well answers the commendations of the ancients. 
Gudgeons or funduli fiuviatiles ; many whereof may be 
taken within the river in the city. 

Capitones fiuviatiles or millers' thumb ; pungitias fluviatilis 
or stanticles. Aphia cohites fluviatilis or loches. In Nor- 
wich river, in the runs about Heveningham Heath, in the 
1 North river and streams thereof. 

Of eels, the common eel, and the glot, which hath some- 
what a different shape in the bigness of the head, and is af- 
i firmed to have young ones often found within it ; and we 
i have found an uterus in the same, somewhat answering the 
i icon thereof in Senesinus. 

Carpiones, carp ; plentiful in ponds, and sometimes large 
ones in broads. Two of the largest I ever beheld were taken 
in Norwich river. 

Though the woods and drylands abound with adders and 
vipers, yet are there few snakes about our rivers or meadows; 
more to be found in Marshland. But ponds and plashes 
abound in lizards or swifts. 



bob OF FISHES. 

The gryllotalpa or fen cricket, common in fenny places ; 
but we have met with them also in dry places, dunghills, and 
churchyards, of this city. 

Besides horseleach.es and periwinkles, in plashes and stand- 
ing waters, we have met with vermes setacel or hard worms; 
but could never convert horsehairs into them by laying them 
in water. As also the great hydrocantharus or black shining 
water-beetle, the forficula, squilla, corculum, and notonecton, 
that swimmeth on its back. 

Camden reports that in former time there have been beavers 
in the river of Cardigan in Wales. This we are too sure of, 
that the rivers, great broads, and carrs, afford great store of 
otters with us ; a great destroyer of fish, as feeding but from 
the vent downwards ; not free from being a prey itself; for 
their young ones have been found in buzzards' nests. They 
are accounted no bad dish by many ; are to be made very 
tame ; and in some houses have served for turnspits. 



ON THE OSTRICH. 337 



ON THE OSTRICH. 1 

[ms. sloan. 1830, fol. 10, 11; 1847.] 

The Ostrich hath a compounded name in Greek and Latin — 
Struthio-Camelus, borrowed from a bird and a beast, as being 
a feathered and biped animal, yet in some ways like a camel ; 
somewhat in the long neck; somewhat in the foot; and, as some 
imagine, from a camel-like position in the part of generation. 
It is accounted the largest and tallest of any winged and 
feathered fowl ; taller than the gruen or cassowary. This 
ostrich, though a female, was about seven feet high, and some 
of the males were higher, either exceeding or answerable unto 
the stature of the great porter unto King Charles the First. 
The weight was a 2 in grocer's scales. 

Whosoever shall compare or consider together the ostrich 
and the tomineio, or humbird, not weighing twelve grains, 
may easily discover under what compass or latitude the cre- 
ation of birds hath been ordained. 

The head is not large, but little in proportion to the whole 
body. And, therefore, Julius Scaliger, when he mentioned 
birds of large heads (comparatively unto their bodies), named 
the sparrow, the owl, and the woodpecker ; and, reckoning up 

i birds of small heads, instanceth in the hen, the peacock, and 

i the ostrich.* 

The head is looked upon by discerning spectators to re- 
semble that of a goose rather than any kind of cr^ov&og, or 

I passer : and so may be more properly called cheno-camelus, 
or ansero-camelus. 

There is a handsome figure of an ostrich in Mr. Will- 
i oughby's and Ray's Ornithologia : another in Aldrovandus 

* See Scaliger's Exercitations. 

1 On the Ostrich.] This was drawn evidently was inserted by mistake in the 

up for his son Edward, to be delivered in binding ; it is written on larger paper. 

the course of his lectures. It occurs in 2 a ] Utterly undecypherable 

the middle of the paper on Birds; but in the original. 

VOL. IV. Z 



338 ON THE OSTRICH. 

and Jonstonus, and Bellonius; but the heads not exactly agree- 
ing. " Rostrum habet exiguum, sed acutum," saith Jonstoun ; 
"un long bee et poinctu," saith Bellonius; men describing 
such as they have an opportunity to see, and perhaps some 
the ostriches of very distant countries, wherein, as in some 
other birds, there may be some variety. 

In Africa, where some eat elephants, it is no wonder that 
some also feed upon ostriches. They flay them with their 
feathers on, which they sell, and eat the flesh. But Galen 
and physicians have condemned that flesh, as hard and indi- 
gestible. 3 The Emperor Heliogabalus had a fancy for the 
brains, when he brought six hundred ostriches' heads to one 
supper, only for the brains' sake ; yet Leo Africanus saith that 
he ate of young ostriches among the Numidians with a good 
gust ; and, perhaps, boiled, and well cooked, after the art of 
Apicius, with peppermint, dates, and other good things, they 
might go down with some stomachs. 

I do not find that the strongest eagles, or best-spirited 
hawks, will offer at these birds ; yet, if there were such gyr- 
falcons as Julius Scaliger saith the Duke of Savoy and Henry, 
king of Navarre, had, it is like they would strike at them, and, 
making at the head, would spoil them, or so disable them, 
that they might be taken.* 

If these had been brought over in June, it is, perhaps, 
likely we might have met with eggs in some of their bellies, 
whereof they lay very many ; but they are the worst of eggs 
for food, yet serviceable unto many other uses in their coun 
try ; for, being cut transversely, they serve for drinking cups 
and skull-caps ; and, as I have seen, there are large circles o] 
them, and some painted and gilded, which hang up in Turkish 
mosques, and also in Greek churches. They are preserved 
with us for rarities ; and, as they come to be common, some 
use will be found of them in physic, even as of other egg- 
shells and other such substances. 

* See Scaliger's Exercitalions, and in his Comment, on Arist. De Historia Animal. 

3 as hard and indigestible.~\ " And, hard of digestion to their stomachs, bu 

therefore, when, according to Lampridius, also to their consciences, as being a for- 

the Emperor Heliogabalus forced the Jews bidden meat food." — Addition from MS 

to eat ostriches, it was a meat not only Sloan. 1847. 



ON THE OSTRICH. 339 

When it first came into my garden, it soon ate up all the 
gilliflowers, tulip-leaves, and fed greedily upon what was 
green, as lettuce, endive, sorrell; it would feed on oats, bar- 
ley, peas, beans ; swallow onions ; eat sheeps' lights and livers. 
Then you mention what you know more. 4 

When it took down a large onion, it stuck awhile in the 
gullet, and did not descend directly, but wound backward 
behind the neck ; whereby I might perceive that the gullet 
turned much ; but this is not peculiar unto the ostrich ; but 
the same hath been observed in the stork, when it swallows 
down frogs and pretty big bits. 

It made sometimes a strange noise ; had a very odd note, 
especially in the morning, and, perhaps, when hungry. 

According to Aldrovandus, some hold that there is an an- 
tipathy between it and a horse, which an ostrich will not en- 
dure to see or be near ; but, while I kept it, I could not 
confirm this opinion; which might, perhaps, be raised because 
a common way of hunting and taking them is by swift horses. 
It is much that Cardanus should be mistaken with a great 
part of men, that the coloured and dyed feathers of ostriches 
were natural ; as red, blue, yellow, and green ; whereas, the 
natural colours in this bird were white and greyish. Of 
[the] fashion of wearing feathers in battles or wars by men, and 
women, see Scaliger, Contra Cardan. Exercitat. 220. 

If wearing of feather-fans should come up again, it might 
much increase the trade of plumage from Barbary. Bellonius 
saith he saw two hundred skins with the feathers on in one 
shop of Alexandria. 

* Then you mention, #c] This must be considered as spoken « aside " to his son. 



Z 2 



340 BOULIMIA CENTENAR1A. 



BOULIMIA CENTENARIA. 1 

[MS. SLOAN. 1833, & MS. RAWL. LVIII.] 

There is a woman now living in Yarmouth, named Elizabeth 
Michell, an hundred and two years old ; a person of four 
feet and half high, very lean, very poor, and living in a mean 
room with pitiful accommodation. She had a son after she 
was past fifty. 2 Though she answers well enough unto ordi- 
nary questions, yet she apprehends her eldest daughter to be 
her mother ; but what is most remarkable concerning her is 
a kind of boulimia or dog-appetite ; she greedily eating day 
and night what her allowance, friends, or charitable persons 
afford her, drinking beer or water, and making little dis- 
tinction or refusal of any food, either of broths, flesh, fish, 
apples, pears, and any coarse food, which she eateth in no 
small quantity, in so much that the overseers for the poor 
have of late been fain to augment her weekly allowance. She 
sleeps indifferently well, till hunger awakes her; then she 
must have no ordinary supply, whether in the day or night. 
She vomits not, nor is very laxative. This is the oldest ex- 
ample of the sal esurinum chymicorum, which I have taken 
notice of; though I am ready to afford my charity unto her, 
yet I should be loth to spend a piece of ambergris I have 
upon her, and to allow six grains to every dose till I found 
some effect in moderating her appetite ; though that be es- 
teemed a great specific in her condition. 

1 Boulimia.] Brutus was attacked copy of this paper in the Bodleian (MS. 
with this disease on his march to Dur- Rawl. \\m,) reads "her youngest son 
rachium. — Plutarch. is forty-five years old." 

2 She had a son, fyc.~\ A duplicate 



UPON THE DARK THICK MIST. 341 



UPON THE DARK THICK MIST HAPPENING 
ON THE 27th OF NOVEMBER, 1674. 

[ms. sloan. 1833, fol. 136.] 

Though it be not strange to see frequent mists, clouds, and 
rains, in England, as many ancient describers of this country 
have noted, yet I could not [but] take notice of a very great mist 
which happened upon the 27th of the last November, and from 
thence have taken this occasion to propose something of mists, 
clouds, and rains, unto your candid considerations. 

Herein mists may well deserve the first place, as being, if 
not the first in nature, yet the first meteor mentioned in Scrip- 
ture and soon after the creation, for it is said, Genesis ii, that 
" God had not yet caused it to rain upon the earth, but a mist 
went up from the earth, and watered the whole face of the 
ground," for it might take a longer time for the elevation of 
vapours sufficient to make a congregation of clouds able to 
afford any store of showers and rain in so early days of the 
world. 

Thick vapours, not ascending high but hanging about the 
earth and covering the surface of it, are commonly called mists; 
if they ascend high they are termed clouds. They remain 
upon the earth till they either fall down or are attenuated, 
rarified, and scattered. 

The great mist was not only observable about London, but 
in remote parts of England, and as we hear, in Holland, so 
that it was of larger extent than mists are commonly appre- 
hended to be ; most men conceiving that they reach not much 
beyond the places where they behold them. Mists make an 
obscure air but they beget not darkness, for the atoms and 
particles thereof admit the light, but if the matter thereof be 
very thick, close, and condensed, the mist grows consider- 
ably obscure and like a cloud, so the miraculous and palpa- 
ble darkness of Egypt is conceived to have been effected by 



342 UPON THE DARK THICK MIST. 

an extraordinary dense and dark mist or a kind of cloud 
spread over the land of Egypt, and also miraculously re- 
strained from the neighbour land of Goshen. 

Mists and fogs, containing commonly vegetable spirits, when 
they dissolve and return upon the earth, may fecundate and 
add some fertility unto it, but they may be more unwhole- 
some in great cities then in country habitations ; for they con- 
sist of vapours not only elevated from simple watery and hu- 
mid places, but also the exhalations of draughts, common 
sewers, and foetid places, and decoctions used by unwholesome 
and sordid manufactures: and also hindering the sea-coal 
smoke from ascending and passing away, it is conjoined with 
the mist and drawn in by the breath, all which may produce 
bad effects, inquinate the blood, and produce catarrhs and 
coughs. Sereins, well known in hot countries, cause head- 
ache, toothache, and swelled faces, but they seem to have then- 
original from subtle, invisible, nitrous, and piercing exhala- 
tions, caused by a strong heat of the sun, which falling after 
sun-set produce the effects mentioned. 

There may be also subterraneous mists, when heat in the 
bowels of the earth, working upon humid parts, makes an 
attenuation thereof and consequently nebulous bodies in the 
cavities of it. 

There is a kind of a continued mist in the bodies of ani- 
mals, especially in the cavous parts, as may be observed in 
bodies opened presently after death, and some think that in 
sleep there is a kind of mist in the brain ; and upon exceed- 
ing motion some animals cast out a mist about them. 

When the cuttle fish, polypus, or loligo, make themselves 
invisible by obscuring the water about them ; they do it not 
by any vapourous emission, but by a black humour ejected, 
which makes the water black and dark near them : but upon 
excessive motion some animals are able to afford a mist about 
them, when the air is cool and fit to condense it, as horses 
after a race, so that they become scarce visible. 



ORATIO HARVEIANA. 343 



[ORATIO ANNIVERSARIA HARVEIANA. 1 ] 

[ms. sloan. 1833, fol. 146—150; collated with 1839, fol. 299—316.] 






Commentaturo mihi insignes benefactorum munificentias, 
nobilesque Patronorum iregyjjff/ag, liceat, colendissime Praeses, 
collegae ornatissimi, et auditores humanissimi, liceat inquam 
prudentissimo Cardani* consilio ejusque de civili prudentia 
verbis praefari. " Maximum est in humana vita beneficia bene 
collocasse, ideoque ingratos cavere oportet. Ingrati autem 
sunt pueri, mulieres, rustici, utpote parvi sensus ; invidi, avari, 
sibi quippe tantum prospiciunt ; perfidi, inconstantes aut stu- 
pidi, qui beneficia non sentiunt." 

Summa itaque prudentia beneficia collocasse beneficen- 
tissimos viros et Maecenates nostros memorandissimos, solen- 
nitas hodierna satis dictat, immo clamitat. Quorsum etenim 
conventus hie solennis Panegyris anniversaria, et oratio lau- 
datoria, quorsum inquam tot gratitudinis /ivrjfisibc et ^a^itsr^ia, 
quibus benefactores meritissimos et dignos laude viros recog- 
nitionum symbolis gratissimis celebramus ? Neque certe co- 
natu perfunctorio, aut aya^eriag infamiam tantum vitantes, diem 
hunc gratulatorium observamus, sed uti viros probos decet, 
debitam virtuti oflicium praestantes quicquid est hodiernae 
solennitatis, quicquid encomiastici honoris, illud tantorum 
virorum memorias gratissime dicamus, et ne quae hodie apud 
nos vigent, interjecto spatio apud alios absolescant, ea institu- 
tis et consuetudine clavo quasi trabali figimus. 

Laudes sane postulant,f non precibus petunt, egregia opera, 
praeclara facta ; etiamsi laudatores non inveniant, non esse mi- 
nus pulchra ultro profitemur. iEquissimum tamen censemus, 

* The works of Cardanusare printed in ten volumes : in the moral volumes there 
is a tract De civili prudentia, where these words here quoted are to be found, 
f Imperio posco, precibus peto, postulo jure. 

1 Oratio, &c] This is the oration mentioned in the first volume, page 291, note. 



344 ORATIO HARVEIANA. 

ut praeclare merentibus suus reddatur honos, et quos bona 
opera sequuntur eos etiam gratissima, memoria et laudibus 
prosequamur. Laudibus itaque digni et laudationibus effer- 
endi sunt hodie munificentissimi viri de Collegio medico Lon- 
dinensi et Societate praeclare meriti. Hi licet viritim cele- 
brandi, quia tamen celeberrimi Harvei institution! solennem 
hujus diei conventum primario debemus, clarissimi ejusdem 
viri memoriae encomiorum initia et laudum primitias deferimus. 

Quo de viro consummatissimo dicturus, in laudes ejus am- 
plissimas tanquam in oceanum descend o, ubi initium facilius 
est quam exitum reperire. Hie itaque, si unquam alibi plures 
sunt poscendae clepsydrae, hie implorandus charitum et mu- 
sarum omnium chorus, hue in auxilium advocandus disertis- 
simus Millingtonus, doctissimus Charltonus, aliique facundis- 
simi oratores, olim hoc in loco et themate perpolite versati : 
est enim sublimis vir nostra panegyri major, sive eximias 
animi dotes, sive indulta nobis beneficia, sive in literatorum 
orbem merita pensitemus. 

Sibi nasci, sibi tantum vivere, rebusque propriis inhiare in- 
dolis arctioris et ingenii angustioris indicium est. Animi 
erectiores et divino propiores, charius sibi nihil habent quam 
ut diffusa bonitate aliis insuper liberali manu prospiciant. 
Quibus sane virtutibus cumulatus incomparabilis Harveus, 
alienae felicitati munifice prospexit ; nee rebus tantum propriis 
sed et publicis generose consuluit : ne quid etenim benefac- 
torum memoriae et pulchre de nobis meritorum honori, ne 
quid mutuae inter nos amicitiae fovendae deesset, diem hunc 
nobis solennem et festivum fecit, favores favoribus, munera 
muneribus cumulavit, et post tot collata beneficia, ne patri- 
monio quidem proprio parcens, societatem banc haeredem ex 
asse reliquit, atque ita sapientissimus vir fortunae bona extra 
fortunam * statuit. 

Plurima in lucem eruunt et in apricum proferunt, multa in- 
veniunt, aut inventis superaddunt, Naturae curiosi et quasi 
Philosophi nati, qui sagaci scrutinio et industria perspicaci 
res ipsas, non rerum simulachra, penetrant ; qui non ex dog- 
matibus traditis, aut aliorum dictatis, sed ex iterata observa- 
tione et experimentis sensatis, de rebus optime dijudicant. 

* Extra fortunam est quicquid laigilur amicis. — Martialis, 



ORATIO HARVEIANA. 345 

Fecundam et vere philosophicam hanc animi crasin Harve- 
anam, ut alia praeteream, nobilitarunt duo nunquam satis 
collaudanda heuremata,* sanguinis scilicet irsgauxkuoig, atque 
ex ovo genesis. Ad primam circulationis tubam fremuerunt 
universee Europae scholae : quam statim lapillo nigro notarunt, 
nee non communibus suffrages damnarunt, paulatim vero 
dies diem docuit, et magni viri vicit sententia; eaque tandem 
a clarissimis medicis recepta et confirmata, adeo ubique cla- 
ruit admirandus inventor, ut maximi nominis anatomicus f in 
tam praeclaras inventionis consortium admitti, honorem partiri, 
particepsque aliquomodo fieri, ambiverit, novam circulationis 
regulam commentus, illamque argumentis et scriptis propa- 
gare, sed Diis iratis,J satagens. 

Improles denuo et in aetate effceta, prolem immortalem, ob- 
servationibus admirandis novis, incognitis, fecundam genuit ; 
sanguinisque circulo orbi prius demonstrato, miram ex ovo 
genesin superaddidit, duoque natural magnalia experiments 
inauditis et ratione irrefragabili explicuit : atque ita tandem 
praetermissam ab Angliae rege § primam Americas sive novi or- 
bis noticiam, inventis domi natis, et scientiae thesauris, Po- 
tosianis certe prseferendis, Anglus compensavit. Exile quid- 
dam famae est quod tanto viro conferre patria poterat, qui tot 
honoribus patriam cumulavit. Cumulata superaddunt sym- 
bola omni ex ora exteri. Scriptis oscula litant. Serta, co- 
ronas, tumulo inspergunt, terramque exoptant levem, Galli, 
Itali, Germani ; laudant quotquot sub Aquilone, et Jove fri- 
gido, musas severiores colunt ; * norunt et Tagus et Ganges ; 
forsan et Antipodes.' || 

Revera et in sese vir ille magnus, cui tot debentur magna- 
lia, immo rigidissimi stoici sententia magnus, si voles veram 
hominis asstimationem inire et scire qualis sit, nudum aspice ; 
ponat patrimonium, ponat honores et alio fortuna? mendacia, 
corpus ipsum exuat ; animum intuere, ut scias qualis quan- 
tusque sit, alieno an suo magnus. Harveus certe, si quispiam 

* Inventa. f Riolanus. 

% Diisiratis; unsuccessfully, unfortunately. 

§ Henry the Seventh, unto whom Columbus first applied, but was refused. 

|| " Johannes jacet hie Mirandula ; csetera norunt et Tagus et Ganges, forsan et 

Antipodes:" the epitaph of the learned Joh. Mirandula, in Paulus Jovius his 

Elogia virorum illustrium, capite dc Johannc Mirandula: 



346 ORATIO IIARVEIANA. 

alius se sibi debuit, sine Theseo Hercules, nullo fultus admi- 
niculo, et Minerva propria, tot tantaque praestitit, errorum 
tenebras dissipavit, veritatem Oreo latentem eruit. Naturas 
denique omnia explorare, nihil ignorare, Harveanum erat. 
Libet itaque tanto Heroi, quod olim vir eruditus celebri phi- 
losopho, occinere ; 

Naturae rerum si quid te forte latebat, 
Hoc legis in magno nunc Gulielme Deo.* 

Posthuma contenti fama mortalium multi aetatem transigunt 
et .... si post fata venit gloria non properant. Vixisti au- 
tem Harvee magna vitas parte annisque plurimis daxrvX68sixrog,f 
digitis et ore fere omnium honoratus ; vixisti, inquam, octo- 
genarius ideoque caeteris aliquanto beatius, ut scilicet immor- 
talitati tuae justa gloria plenus interesses. Quid enim majus 
dare poterant caelestia numina, quam ut diu in terris vivus et 
incolumis, inusitatae, nee nisi post fata obvenientis glorias, 
fructum perciperes ? J 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona et praeclari, § sane ante 
Harveum benefactores, quorum celeberrimae memoriae elogia 
et pergrata recognitio meritissime debentur. Rex enim 
Regalissimus et [nyaXov^ng, Henricus Octavus, ob tot Pala- 
tia, Xenodochia, 2 et Collegia fundata illustris, societatem 
etiam hanc medicam instituit nee non privileges exornavit, 
principem nempe dignitati metropolitanae a patre designatum,|| 
ideoque Uteris imbutum, latere non potuit regum sapientissimi 
dictatum, "in multitudine populi dignitas Regis et in pauci- 
tate plebis ignominia Principis." Prudenter itaque cavere 
voluit, ne vitae subditorum prorogandae debita deessent subsi- 
dia, nee prasceps Agyrtarum 3 inscitia stragem peste funesti- 

* These verses are in Paulus Jovius his Elogia doctorum, capite dc Lenonico 
Thomao, a noted Philosopher. 

\ dax.rjX6diiX.Tog, digitis monstratus. 
X This is borrowed from Paulus Jovius in his Elogia doctorum — capite de Alberto 
Magno. 

§ Vixere — this is in Horace and here used to another intention. 
|| H. 8. designed by H. 7. his father to be Archbishop of Canterbury ; Prince 
Arthur his elder brother then living. 

5 Xenodochia.] Xivodo^iik ; more pro- hospitals or other charitable institutions, 
pcrly, inns ; but used here in the sense of u Agyrtarum.'] Ayu^TTjg, a quack. 



ORATIO HARVEIANA. 347 

orem ederet; quo etiam nomine Serenissimae tanti Regis 
filiae, Maria et Elizabetha, cum clarissimis successoribus, pa- 
trociniis et favoribus collegium cohonorarunt. 

Inter Mecaenates insignes Harveo antiquiores, prastermit- 
tendus non est Thomas Linacrus, vir doctorum elogiis et 
Epitaphio olim in iEde Paulina celebratus. Principis nempe 
Arthuri, Henrici septimi filii primogeniti, praeceptor, Regis 
Henrici octavi medicus, qui collegium medicorum Londinense 
sua industria fieri curavit, ej usque Praeses primus electus est, 
qui etiam Medicinas studiosis Oxonii lectiones duas, Canta- 
brigiae * unam, in perpetuum stabilivit. Graece et Latine 
eruditissimus, multa Galeni opera singulari facundia vertit; 
vir fraudes dolosque mire perosus, amicis fidus, omnibus or- 
dinibus juxta charus, clarissimo Angelo Politiano et Her- 
molao Barbaro notissimus.f 

Sequenti serie commemorandi viri benefici Harveo c&y^goiw, 
aut aliquaa saltern aetatis parte contemporanei. Doctor Jo- 
hannes Atkinsius, Collegii Medicorum Praeses, olim meritissi- 
mus. Foxius, cujus Bibliotheca insignis, collegio medicorum 
a generossissimo viro forte designata, a belli civilis prasdonibus 
direpta atque dissipata est. Theodorus Gulstonus, vir Praxi 
medica et egregiis in Aristotelem commentariis J clarus. 
Readus peritia Anatomica et Chirurgica Celebris. Doctor 
Otwellus, Meverellus, et Nathan Pagetus, medici humanissi- 
mi et nulla non laude efferendi. 

Clarissimus denique Doctor Baldwinus Hamaeus, auditorum 
plerisque non ignotus, nobisque in perpetuum celebrandus. 
Collegium etenim Medicum, iniquis temporibus quasi sub 
hasta positum, pro mercale et pretio alienandum, benignissi- 
mus patronus, Xurgw voluntario et nummis numeratis redimens, 
quasi ex Iupinis faucibus eripuit. Quo itaque sostro * et 
salutis praemio, quibus gratiarum cumulis beneficentissimum 
virum, et quasi fundatori comparem, celebrabimus ? Corona 

* If exception be taken for naming Oxford before Cambridge, it is so in his 
epitaph, and he was an Oxford man. 

t Angelo Politiano, etc., as appears by Paulus Jovius in Elogia virorum docto- 
rum capite de Thoma Linacro. 

I Upon Aristotclis Rhetorica. 

I sostro.] ~2w6rgov } a fee. • 



348 ORATIO IIARVEIANA. 

certe querna ob cives servatos dignissimus : quique monumen- 
tis marmoreis et statuis aereis, non imaginibus depictis (uti 
nunc in senaculo nostro), honoretur. Neque tamen animus 
ad beneficia natus hie constitit ; Collegii aedificium magnis 
sumptibus ornando, reditus augendo, plurima legando, animos 
pergratos in perpetuum devinxit. Tantae certe virtutes soli- 
tariaa non ambulant ; non illo melior quisquam nee amantior 
aequi vir fuit. Mellita morum suavitate, et humanitate gra- 
tissima, omnium amorem et benevolentiam promeritus, nus- 
quam clariora bonitatis indicia, nemo virtutibus ornatior, nul- 
lus cumulatior, quern, certe medicorum ornamentum, in du- 
biis oraculum, in arduis asylum, in honestis exemplum, merito 
recognoscimus. 

Fautoribus nostris dignissimis annumerandus deinde est 
multis nominibus honorabilis, Dominus Henricus Dorchestriae 
Marchio, vir meritis propriis et literatura quam titulis ornatior, 
in hoc sane praeclaros aliquot veteris prosapiae viros sapienter 
imitatus. Julius Caesar Scaliger, medicus <pi\oao<p6raTog, familiae 
suae nobilitatem, capta frequenter occasione, summis laudibus 
attollit, atque urbe Cairina antiquiorem praedicat. Ille vero 
talis tantusque vir, nisi rerum omnium scientiam et incompa- 
rabilem doctrinam honorificis natalibus adjecisset, cum ma- 
joribus suis dominio et potestate claris in oblivionis tumu- 
lum una descendisset. Nunc autem Agenni Nitiobrigum in 
Gallia sepultus, non absconditus, ubique terrarum claret, 
similisque gemmae electro inclusae et latet et lucet. Pari fere 
modo Nobilissimus Henricus, avis licet proavis, abavis, illus- 
tris, solis tamen stemmatibus * decorari aut longo sanguine 
censeri, velut alienum quiddam nee satis fidum honoris sem- 
piterni fundamentum ducens, fortunae bonis animi thesauros 
addidit, titulos insignes propriis virtutibus ornavit, rerum om- 
nium scientiae et liberali cognitioni incubuit, Philosophiae 
adyta et medicina? arcana penetravit, authorcs eximios et 
classici nominis indefessa manu versans, honorem mori nesci- 
um, nee perituram virtutis famam bonorum omnium calculo ob- 
tinuit. Prudenter itaque insignissimus vir verborum insigni- 
bus propriis et scuto militari adscriptorum ( Pie repone te) f 

* Juvenal. Sat. 8. Stcmmata quid faciunt, etc. 
f Pie rrpanc le is the motto of his coat of arms, alluding to his name. 



ORATIO HARVEIANA. 349 

continuo memor, aetate ingravescente, a strepitu et colluvie 
mundana, a moribus vitiisque publicis, se subducens, studiis 
privatis, eleemosynis, pauperum sublevationibus, precibus et 
divini numinis cultui, se fere totum dicavit. 

Quid itaque ab animo benevolo et Principe dignissimo spe- 
rare nobis non licuit, qui pro singulari in medicinam ejusque 
mystas benevolentia, catalogo collegarum nomen suum hono- 
rificum, literisque aureis dignum adscribi voluit ? Qui libros 
selectissimos nee levi pretio comparatos Collegio jam flammis 
absumpto impertivit, plures etiam auroque contra aestimandos 
et bibliotheca nostra hodie inclusos donavit, damnumque illud 
funestum animo plane regio resarcivit. Qui meliori, uti spe- 
ramus, fato, tanti Maecenatis munificentiam praedicabunt, no- 
bisque ac posteris in emolumentum cedent. 

Bibliotheca Fessana * a celeberrimo rege Almanzore aliis- 
que compilata, erat, uti ferunt, manuscriptis Mauritanicis 
refertissima. Cum vero Fezzae monarcha victus, fugiens rebus- 
que suis male fidens, libros in tutiorem Regni sedem transfe- 
rendos navi commisisset, capta nave et librorum parte aliqua 
hinc inde dispersa, reliqua in Hispanorum manus pervenit, hi, 
uti ex auditu accepi, in Bibliotheca sancti Laurentii in Escu- 
riali hodie conservantur, ubi a paucis legibiles, a paucioribus 
lecti, a nullis bene intellecti, rarioris supellectilis vicem magis 
quam studiorum emolumentum praestant et ornamento potius 
quam utilitati inserviunt. In Bibliotheca Durnovariana et li- 
bris Petrapontanis dispar omnino ratio est ; sint enim licet et 
isti ornatu et specie decori, in recessu tamen habent, quod 
nullo ornatu pensatur, Linguis et dialectis constant orbi lite- 
rato non incognitis ; editionibus optimis : subjectis etiam lec- 
toribus pergratis, adeo ut animos scientias avidos et alliciant 
et expleant, nunquam certe blattarum et tinearum sed docto- 
rum epulae futurae. 

Generossimi Cutleri nomen hoc in loco silentio praeterire, 
absurdissima certe oblivionis species, et monstrum a-^aoieriag 
horrendum foret. Hie enim praeclari viri beneficentiam et 
famam, si homines tacerent, lapides loquerentur. Hujus si- 



* This in some accounts of Barbary ; and I have heard it long ago from old 
merchants; and that library is mentioned by divers writers. 



350 ORATIO HARVEIANA. 

quidem munificentiae speciosum hoc in quo convenimus thea- 
trum gratulanter agnoscimus, huic uni debemus. Noverat 
quippe vir cordatus medicorum hujusce societatis solertiam, 
et indefessum in corporibus dissecandis scrutinium. Senserat 
vir sensatus inventa nova et omnibus retro saeculis ignota, hac 
ex societate prodiisse. Ut itaque non deesset theatrum tantis 
ausibus, talibus inventionibus, et futuris sectionibus, apprime 
accommodatum, sumptibus propriis et (isyaXortgemfa singulari, 
hoc ipsum exstruendum curavit. Hoc, inquam, adeo affabre 
fabricatum, muniisque publicis concinnatum, ut omnium in 
Europa quae mihi videre contigit longe sit pulcherrimum ; 
quod ne gratis dixisse videar, favore vestro fretus, auditores 
humanissimi, instantias aliquot adjiciam. 

Theatrum Anatomicum Viennense forma est satis humili, 
nee fornice nee tholo superbum, neque ducentorum audito- 
rum capax. Altorphinum prope Norinbergum, quod primo et 
ante alia in Germania exstructum fuisse, praesenti mihi narra- 
vit clarissimus professor Doctor Mauritius Hoffmannus ; ejus- 
dem fere dignitatis cum Viennensi est, neque auditores multo 
plures capit. Leydense aedificio satis eleganti, lectoribus eru- 
ditis et auditoribus peregrinis clarum, Londinensi nequaquam 
asquiparandum. Theatrum Patavinum antiquitate et lectori- 
bus praeclaris nobile, a Theatro nostro licet Tramontano se 
superari, Palladio vel Scamozzio judice facile fatebitur. Mon- 
speliense ex lapide quadrato fabricatum, formae est arctioris, 
pro numero tamen auditorum satis amplum. Theatrum Pa- 
risiense, sectionum frequentia et praelectionibus egregiis cla- 
rum, maximas tamen Europae civitati minime congruum, nee 
cum Cutleriano conferendum. Ne vos taedio afficiam, Roma- 
num, Pisanum, Lovaniense, lubens prastereo, unum pro cunc- 
tis fama loquatur opus.'* Vivas itaque munificentissime Cut- 
lere, merito sane viventi tibi praesentes largimur honores, 
qui non solibus tantum sed et beneficiis annos metiris, qui 
anteactae vitae fruitione bis vivis,f etiam cum vivere desinis 
gloria immortalis etiamnum victurus, laudibus et encomiis a 



* Omnis Caesareo cedat labor Amphilhcatro, 

Unum pro cunctis fama loquatur opus — Martial. 
•| Ampliat . ■ ■ t a t i s spatium aibi vir bonus : hoc est, Vivere bis, vita posse priore 
frui, — Marital. 



ORATIO HARVEIANA. 351 

virtutis cultoribus non tantum quotannis seel quotidie cele- 
brari dignissimus. 

Veram certe virtutis et gloria? sempiternae semitam calca- 
runt qui virtutes beneficas coluerunt, virtutisque cultoribus, 
donariis et liberali manu prospexerunt. Nullum virtuti sepul- 
chrum est, nullibi sepelitur quag nunquam moritur, ubique 
decantatur qua? undiquaque colitur. Diuturnum certe hunc 
honorem non donant statuae, non marmora conferunt. Tunc 
enim, cum marmora Messalae flndet caprificus : * cum Curios 
jam dimidios, cum Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem, edax 
annorum reddiderit, tunc, inquam, perennabunt illustria no- 
mina, et immortalis Heroum memoria vitabit Libitinam.f 

Nos interim in vivis tantorum virorum muneribus beati, ad 
grati animi officia, pares laudes et encomia, nostro praeunte 
exemplo, posteros incitabimus. Ita enim futura ssecula non 
solum fautores nostros munificos, sed et nosmetipsos nostra- 
que haec instituta collaudabunt, neque nos tantorum bonorum 
immemores censebunt aut ingratitudinis infamia mulctabunt. 

Quandoquidem vero beatius est dare quam accipere, lau- 
dari itidem quam laudare, nunquam uti speramus deerunt 
animi generosi, qui beatorum hunc numerum expleant, etiam- 
que in hac societate ornatissima genii publici viri, qui laudan- 
dorum catalogum adaugeant. Hoc enim erit, colendissime 
Prasses et Collegas honoratissimi, non tantum luce aliena, sed, 
cum Apolline medicorum patre, propriis radiis fulgere. 

Det bonorum omnium Largitor, ut quibus benefaciendi 

animus non deest, iisdem et facultates suppetant, quibus vero 

facultates suppetunt, iisdem animus non deficiat. Ut vero 

beneficiis non indigni, aut ea minus promereri videamur, be- 

ii nefactorum non tantum memoriam, sed et virtutes colamus. 

. Justitia quae regnum firmat, collegium etiam Regia authori- 

t tate munitum, stabiliat. Praesidi Colendissimo reverentiam 

J et obsequium praestemus, mutuam inter nos amicitiam et con- 



* Marmore Messala? findet caprificus. Juvenal. When a wild fig tree shall 
cleave the monument of Messala the great family of Rome : as we see elders and 
wall flowers and shrubby plants with us in the clefts of old walls and spoil them. 

t Libitina the goddess of funerals, from whose temple they provided funeral 
necessaries, taken figuratively for death itself; as Horace, " Pars mei vitabit Libiti- 
nam." and Juvenal, " quando Libitinam evaserit aeger." 



352 ORATIO HAUVEIANA. 

cordiam amplectamur, praeclaris collegarum inventis nova ad- 
jicere conemur, humanitate, comitate, et morum suavitate, 
ornemur : nihil denique iEsculapio indignum, nihil a dignitate 
medica alienura perpetremus. Ita enim, Amplissime Praeses, 
et Collegae ornatissimi, in saeculo generoso et civitate munifi- 
centissima erit certe, erit inquam, cur prasclara additamenta, 
immo et montes speremus.* 

* Montes, great matters : " promittere montes." 



THUNDER STORM. 



[ACCOUNT OF A THUNDER STORM AT 
NORWICH, 1665.] 

[MS. SLOAN. 1866, fol. 96.] 

June 28, 1665. 
After seven o'clock in the evening there was almost a con- 
tinued thunder until eight, wherein the tonitru and fulgur, the 
noise and lightning were so terrible, that they put the whole 
city into an amazement, and most unto their prayers. The 
clouds went low, and the cracks seemed near over our heads 
during the most part of the thunder. About eight o'clock, 
an ignis fulmineus, pila ignea fulminans, telum igneumful- 
mineum, or fire-ball, hit against the little wooden pinnacle 
of the high leucome window of my house, toward the market- 
place, broke the flue boards, and carried pieces thereof a 
stone's cast off; whereupon many of the tiles fell into the 
street, and the windows in adjoining houses were broken. 
At the same time either a part of that close-bound fire, or 
another of the same nature fell into the court-yard, and where- 
of no notice was taken till we began to examine the house, 
and then we found a freestone on the outside of the wall of 
the entry leading to the kitchen, half a foot from the ground, 
fallen from the wall ; a hole as big as a foot-ball bored through 
the wall, which is about a foot thick, and a chest which stood 
against it, on the inside, split and carried about a foot from 
the wall. The wall also, behind the leaden cistern, at five 
yards distance from it, broken on the inside and outside ; the 
middle seeming entire. The lead on the edges of the cistern 
turned a little up ; and a great washing-bowl, that stood by 
it, to recover the rain, turned upside down, and split quite 
through. Some chimneys and tiles were struck down in other 
parts of the city. A fire-ball also struck down the walk in 
the market-place. And all this, God be thanked ! without 
mischief unto any person. The greatest terror was from the 

VOL. IV. 2 A 



354 THUNDER STORM. 

noise, answerable unto two or three cannon. The smell it 
left was strong, like that after the discharge of a cannon. 
The balls that flew were not like fire in the flame, but the 
coal ; and the people said it was like the sun. It was discu- 
tiens, terebrans, but not urens. It burnt nothing, nor any 
thing it touched smelt of fire ; nor melted any lead of window 
or cistern, as I found it do in the great storm, about nine 
years ago, at Melton hall, four miles off, at that time when 
the hail broke three thousand pounds worth of glass in Nor- 
wich, in half-a-quarter of an hour. About four clays after, 
the like fulminous fire killed a man in Erpingham church, by 
Aylsham, upon whom it broke, and beat down divers which 
were within the wind of it. One also went off in Sir John 
Hobart's gallery, at Blickling. He was so near, that his arm 
and thigh were numbed about an hour after. Two or three 
days after, a woman and horse were killed near Bungay ; her 
hat so shivered that no piece remained bigger than a groat, 
whereof I had some pieces sent unto me. Granades, crack- 
ers, and squibs, do much resemble the discharge, and aurum 
fulminans the fury thereof. Of other thunderbolts or lapi- 
des fulmineiy I have little opinion. Some I have by me under 
that name, but they are t genere fossilium. 

THOMAS BROWNE. 
Norwich, 1665. 



ON DREAMS. 



[ON DREAMS.] 

[MS. SLOAN. 1S74, fol. 112, 120.] 

Half our days we pass in the shadow of the earth ; and the 
brother of death exacteth a third part of our lives. A good 
part of our sleep is peered out with visions and fantastical 
objects, wherein we are confessedly deceived. The day sup- 
plieth us with truths ; the night with fictions and falsehoods, 
which uncomfortably divide the natural account of our beings. 
And, therefore, having passed the day in sober labours and 
rational enquiries of truth, we are fain to betake ourselves 
unto such a state of being, wherein the soberest heads have 
acted all the monstrosities of melancholy, and which unto 
open eyes are no better than folly and madness. 

Happy are they that go to bed with grand music, like Py- 
thagoras, or have ways to compose the fantastical spirit, 
whose unruly wanderings take off inward sleep, filling our 
heads with St. Anthony's visions, and the dreams of Lipara 
in the sober chambers of rest. 

Virtuous thoughts of the day lay up good treasures for the 
night ; whereby the impressions of imaginary forms arise into 
sober similitudes, acceptable unto our slumbering selves and 
preparatory unto divine impressions. 1 Hereby Solomon's 
sleep was happy. Thus prepared, Jacob might well dream 
of angels upon a pillow of stone. And the best sleep of 
Adam might be the best of any after. 2 

That there should be divine dreams seems unreasonably 
doubted by Aristotle. That there are demoniacal dreams 

1 Virtuous thoughts, SfC."] See an which resulted in the creation of woman, 
exquisite passage, in Religio Medici, It does not very clearly appear whether 
p. 113. Sir Thomas calls it the best sleep of 

2 the best sleep of Adam, 8(C.~\ The Adam, in allusion to its origin, or its re- 
: only sleep of Adam recorded, is that suit. 

which God caused to fall upon him, and 

2 A 2 



356 ON DREAMS. 

we have little reason to doubt. Why may there not be an- 
gelical ? If there be guardian spirits, they may not be in- 
actively about us in sleep ; but may sometimes order our 
dreams : and many strange hints, instigations, or discourses, 
which are so amazing unto us, may arise from such founda- 
tions. 

But the phantasms of sleep do commonly walk in the great 
road of natural and animal dreams, wherein the thoughts or 
actions of the day are acted over and echoed in the night. 
Who can therefore wonder that Chrysostom should dream 
of St. Paul, who daily read his Epistles ; or that Cardan, 
whose head was so taken up about the stars, should dream 
that his soul was in the moon ! Pious persons, whose 
thoughts are daily busied about heaven, and the blessed state 
thereof, can hardly escape the nightly phantasms of it, which 
though sometimes taken for illuminations, or divine dreams, 
yet rightly perpended may prove but animal visions, and na- 
tural night-scenes of their awaking contemplations. 

Many dreams are made out by sagacious exposition, and 
from the signature of their subjects ; carrying their interpre- 
tation in their fundamental sense and mystery of similitude, 
whereby, he that understands upon what natural fundamental 
every notion dependeth, may, by symbolical adaptation, hold 
a ready way to read the characters of Morpheus. In dreams 
of such a nature, Artemidorus, Achmet, and Astrampsichus, 
from Greek, Egyptian, and Arabian oneiro-criticism, may 
hint some interpretation : who, while we read of a ladder 
in Jacob's dream, will tell us that ladders and scalary ascents 
signify preferment ; and while we consider the dream of Pha- 
raoh, do teach us that rivers overflowing speak plenty, lean 
oxen, famine and scarcity ; and therefore it was but reason- 
able in Pharaoh to demand the interpretation from his magi- 
cians, who, being /Egyptians, should have been well versed 
in symbols and the hieroglyphical notions of things. The 
greatest tyrant in such divinations was Nabuchodonosor, 
while, besides the interpretation, he demanded the dream it- 
self; which being probably determined by divine immission, 
might escape the common road of phantasms, that might 
have been traced by Satan. 



ON DREAMS. 357 

When Alexander, going to besiege Tyre, dreamt of a Sa- 
tyr, it was no hard exposition for a Grecian to say, "Tyre 
will be thine." He that dreamed that he saw his father 
washed by Jupiter and. anointed by the sun, had cause to 
fear that he might be crucified, whereby his body would be 
washed by the rain, and drop by the heat of the sun. The 
dream of Vespatian was of harder exposition ; as also that of 
the emperor Mauritius, concerning his successor Phocas. 
And a man might have been hard put to it, to interpret the 
language of iEsculapius, when to a consumptive person he 
held forth his fingers ; implying thereby that his cure lay in 
dates, from the homonomy of the Greek, which signifies 
dates and fingers. 

We owe unto dreams that Galen was a physician, Dion an 
historian, and that the world hath seen some notable pieces of 
Cardan ; yet, he that should order his affairs by dreams, or 
make the night a rule unto the day, might be ridiculously de- 
luded ; wherein Cicero is much to be pitied, who having ex- 
cellently discoursed of the vanity of dreams, was yet undone 
by the flattery of his own, which urged him to apply himself 
unto Augustus. 

However dreams may be fallacious concerning outward 
events, yet may they be truly significant at home ; and where- 
by we may more sensibly understand ourselves. Men act in 
sleep with some conformity unto their awaked senses ; and 
consolations or discouragements may be drawn from dreams 
which intimately tell us ourselves. Luther was not like to 
fear a spirit in the night, when such an apparition would not 
terrify him in the day. Alexander would hardly have run 
away in the sharpest combats of sleep, nor Demosthenes 
have stood stoutly to it, who was scarce able to do it in 
his prepared senses. Persons of radical integrity will not 
easily be perverted in their dreams, nor noble minds do piti- 
ful things in sleep. Crassus would have hardly been boun- 
tiful in a dream, whose fist was so close awake. But a 
man might have lived all his life upon the sleeping hand of 
Antonius. 3 

3 sleeping hand of Antonius-] Who, sus, and therefore would have been rnu- 
awake, was open-handed and liberal, in nificent in his dreams, 
contrast with the close-fistedness of Cras- 



358 ON DREAMS. 

There is an art to make dreams, as well as their interpre- 
tations ; and physicians will tell us that some food makes tur- 
bulent, some gives quiet, dreams. Cato, who doated upon 
cabbage, might find the crude effects thereof in his sleep ; 
wherein the ./Egyptians might find some advantage by their 
superstitious abstinence from onions. Pythagoras might 
have [had] calmer sleeps, if he [had] totally abstained from 
beans. Even Daniel, the great interpreter of dreams, in his 
leguminous diet, seems to have chosen no advantageous food 
for quiet sleeps, according to Grecian physic. 

To add unto the delusion of dreams, the phantastical ob- 
jects seem greater than they are ; and being beheld in the 
vaporous state of sleep, enlarge their diameters unto us ; 
whereby it may prove more easy to dream of giants than pig- 
mies. Democritus might seldom dream of atoms, who so 
often thought of them. He almost might dream himself a 
bubble extending unto the eighth sphere. A little water 
makes a sea ; a small puff of wind a tempest. A grain of sul- 
phur kindled in the blood may make a flame like /Etna ; and 
a small spark in the bowels of Olympias a lightning over all 
the chamber. 

But, beside these innocent delusions, there is a sinful state 
of dreams. Death alone, not sleep, is able to put an end unto 
sin; and there may be a night-book of our iniquities; for 
beside the transgressions of the day, casuists will tell us of 
mortal sins in dreams, arising from evil precogitations ; mean- 
while human law regards not noctambulos ; and if a night- 
walker should break his neck, or kill a man, takes no notice 
of it. 

Dionysius was absurdly tyrannical to kill a man for dream- 
ing that he had killed him; and really to take away his life, 
avIio had but fantastically taken away his. Lamia was ridi- 
culously unjust to sue a young man for a reward, who had 
confessed that pleasure from her in a dream which she had 
denied unto his awaking senses : conceiving that she had 
merited somewhat from his fantastical fruition and shadow of 
herself. If there be such debts, we owe deeply unto sympa- 
thies ; but the common spirit of the world must be ready in 
such arrearages. 



ON DREAMS. 359 

If some have swooned, they may have also died in dreams, 
since death is but a confirmed swooning. Whether Plato 
died in a dream, as some deliver, he must rise again to inform 
us. That some have never dreamed, is as improbable as that 
some have never laughed. That children dream not the first 
half year ; that men dream not in some countries, with many 
more, are unto me sick men's dreams ; dreams out of the ivory 
gate, 4 and visions before midnight. 

4 the ivory gate. ] The poets suppose which true dreams proceed; the other of 
two gates of sleep, the one of horn, from ivory, which sends forth false dreams. 



360 NOT.E IN ARISTOTELEM. 



[NOT.E IN ARISTOTELEM.] 

[MS. SLOAN. 1874, fol. 81.] 

Libellum edidit, non ita pridem, Johannes de Launoy, Theo- 
logus Parisiensis, de varia Aristotelis fortuna ; unde celeberri- 
mum philosophum, interdum publice combustum, interdum 
restitutum, nunc decretis solennibus damnatum, alias iterum 
honoratum, octonam denique varietatem passum, in eadem 
Academia, constat. 

Habuerunt sane antiqui Christiani, Justinus, Clemens, Ter- 
tullianus, Augustinus, aliique plurimi, qua? scriptis tanti viri 
opponerent. Qui hodie a neotericis acrius et ad vivum 
sectus, tantum non animam agit : ut videatur mihi peripate- 
tica jam quasi ad incitas redacta, et vixaut ne vix eluctatura. 

Sed cum in Aristotele multa deficiant, multa fallant, multa 
itidem contradicant, non pauca tamen prosunt. Noli itaque 
integro operi valedicere ; sed dum physica parum teris et 
metaphysica oscitanter legis, caetera quidem magni facias, et 
indefessa manu verses. 

Problemata Aristotelis magno labore, sed successu im- 
pari, illustraverunt Petrus Aponensis et Alexander Aphro- 
disasus; praeclarius sane Petrus Septalius, magni nominis me- 
dicus. Sed cum genio minus libero, nee nova philosophia 
imbuto, ad mentem pbilosophi omnia fere exponat, saepe 
saepius rem minus attingit, nee animum veritatis avidum 
explet. 

Itaque ut quaesitorum Veritas et ratio melius constet, 
opera? pretium erit ea ad examen revocare, et, ubi fallunt 
antiqui canones, ad nova theoremata transire. Quod ut 
faciliori negotio praestes, en tibi selectiora aliquot, quibus 
intelligendis, cxaminandis, elucidandis, opcram pra? ceteris 
impendas. 



not.e in aristotelem. 361 

Sect. i. Prob. 17. 

A Vergiliis ad Zephyrum usque, qui longis morbis laborant, 
tolluntur e medio; id est, ab occasu pleiadum, circa 14 No- 
vembris, — ad principium veris, cum spirare solent Zephyri. 
Sive brevius, ab initio hyemis medicae ad veris initium. 

In locis humidis, ulcera in capite cito sanantur, in tibiis aegre. 

Hyems Borealis cum vere Austrino et pluvia, et sicca 
aestate, lethales facit Autumnos, potissimum pueris, aliis autem 
dysenteriae et quartanag fiunt. 

Si quis aere vuleneretur citius sanatur quam si ferro. 

Dentium stuporem (a/^wS/av) soivunt portulaca et sal. 

^Estivi labores balneo, hyemales inunctionibus, curandi. 

Odorata urinam movent, tarn semina quam plantag. 

Ad sanitatem carnem densare non oportet, sed rarefacere. 

In febribus paulatim, et saepe potio dari debet. 

In quartanis oportet non extenuare, sed ignem in corpori- 
bus adaugere. 

Sect. ii. 

Sudamus magis tergo quam anteriore parte ; superiores 
magis sudant quam inferiores partes ; in aqua etiamsi calida 
non sudant ; sudores in capite [minus] gravis odoris ; maxime 
sudamus in facie. 

Sect, [iv.] 

Moriens oculos sursum vertit, dormiens deorsum. 
Albi homines et quia maxima ex parte glauci, colorem 
corporis oculi color sequitur. 1 

Sect. vi. 

Inflexo corpore cubare melius. 

Surgentibus vertigo magis evenit quam sedentibus: ova 
cruda nequeunt circumvolvi. 

Super dextram cubantibus facilius somnus advenit. 

Sect. vii. 

Juxta ignem stantes non mingimus, si juxta fluvium irri- 
tamur. 

1 Albi, Sfc.\ This passage is almost illegible in MS. 



362 SOTM IN ARISTOTELEM. 

Ad tristium auditum exborrescimus, ut cum serra acuitur 
aut pumex secatur. 

Oscitantibus contra oscitamus. 

Sect. ix. 

Medium carnis ferula percussum album redditur, extremum 
rubrum ; ligno vero rubicundius medium. 
Spleneticorum cicatrices nigrae. 
Cseterae cicatrices nigrse, in oculo alba?. 
JEs et cyatbus applicatus sugillata dissolvunt. 

Sect. x. 

1 . Animalium alia tussiunt, alia non, ut homo, non autem bos. 

2. Homini soli, inter alia animalia, sanguis e naribus fluit. 
5. Homo tantum habet vitiliginem Xewwji'. 

12. Proles casterorum animantium, magis quam hominum, 
similem parentibus gerit naturum. 

17. Inter animalia homo habet minimum intervallum ocu- 
lorum, pro suo magnitudine. 

19. Qua? collum non habent, caput non movent. 

20. Homo inter animantia maxime sternutat. 

21. Lingua nulli animali pinguis. 

23. Animalia qua? non volant deponunt hymales pilos, 
praster suem. Oves et homines, bos et canis, et equi, de- 
ponunt. 

24. Ovibus expilatis molliores pili subnascuntur, homini 
duriores. 

25. Ovis pili quanto longiores tanto duriores, homini mol- 
liores. 

27. Homo jubam non habet, quia barbam. 

28. Omnia animalia pares pedes habent. 

33. Minori tempore animalia dormiunt, quam vigilant. 

36. Ubi vitiligo ibi canities. 

40. Omnium animalium homo maxime a nativitate claudus. 

42. Animalium solus homo calculo laborat. 

43. Non eructant jumenta, non bovcs et cornigcra, nee 
etiam aves. 

45. Hominibus umbilici magni, aliis non manifest!. 



NOT-ffi IN ARISTOTELEM. 363 

48. Quicunque sectionem, quas est per manura, habent per 
totam traductam, longsevi. 

50. Animalium homo maxime fumo afficitur. 

52. Bipeda in anterioribus pilosiora, quadrupeda in pos- 
terioribus. 

63. Quibus sub umbilicum majores sunt partes, quam qua; 
sunt versus pectus, lis brevis vita et imbecillis. 

Sect. xi. 

Sensibus a nativitate maxime auditu privamur. 

Surdi per nares loquuntur. 

Magna voce praediti natura calidi. 

Melius exaudiri quasque nocte solent. 

Si quis dolia et fictilia vasa vacua sepeliat, magis sonant 
asdificia quam si puteas aut fovea fuerit in domo. 

Aqua frigida ex eodem vase effusa, acutiorem sonum red- 
dit quam calida. 

Plorantes acutiorem vocem edant, ridentes graviorem. 

Voces hyeme graviores. 

Oscitantes minus audiunt. 

Lingua hassitantes (is^otpuvoi) melancholici. 

Melius audimus, spiritum continentes, quam emittentes. 

Sect. xv. 

Omnes Barbari quam Grasci in decern numerant. 

Sol per quadrilatera transiens, non rectilineas figuras sed 
circulares, ut in cratibus. 

Parelius non fit neque in medio ccelo constituto sole, neque 
supra nee infra sed ad latus. 

Extremum umbrae solis tremere videtur. 

Sect. xvi. 

Bullae haemisphasricae. 

Sect. xix. 

iEqualium doliorum et similium si unum sit vacuum, dia- 
pason consonat echo. 

Sect* xx. 
Cur irrigant mane, nocte, aut occidente sole ? 



364 NOT/E IN ARISTOTELEM. 

Cur citius excaulescat olus, quod e semine vestustiore, bimo 
aut trimo, quam quo de nova producitur ? 

Cur cepe solum tam acriter oculos mordet, origanus autem 
non ; atque alia acria ? 

Quae frigida aqua irrigantur dulciora evadunt, quam qua? 
calida. 

Sect. xxi. 

Panes albidiores videntur frigidi, quam calidi. 

Cur panes non saliti plus ponderant quam saliti, cum sal 
aqua gravius ? 

Frigidi panes madefacti, si se invicem tangunt, non coherent, 
calidi autem cohasrent. 

Farina aqua subacta melius coit quam oleo. 

Sect. xxii. 

Dulcia minus dulcia videntur calida, quam frigida. 

Sect. xxur. 

Mare albius est in Ponto, quam in iEgaeo . 

Mare, etiamsi crassius, guS/offrega, perspectius, aqua potabili. 

In Borealibus perspectius, quam in regionibus Australibus. 

Salem prius liquefacit aqua salsa, quam dulcis. 

In mare lavantes citius resiccantur. 

Maris partes prope terrain dulciores. 

In lacubus arena non fit, ut in mari et fluviis. 

In mari lapides et testae rotunda? fiunt. 

Sect. xxiv. 

Fundus vasorum non urit cum aquam bullientem contineat. 

Non super cffervescit (v#s§£eT) aqua byeme perinde ac 
a;state. 

Aqua ebulliens non exilit, ut pulmcntum ex pisis et elixis 
leguminibus, et argentum cum aqua injicitur. 

Pede quiescente in aqua calida, cur minus calida sentiatur 
quam mota. 

Calida in sole mqgis quam in umbra refrigeratur. 



N0T7E IN ARISTOTELEM. 365 



Sect. xxv. 



Media in nocte et meridie maxima fit tranquillitas. 
Noctu serenitas magis fit quam interdiu. 
Noctibus aestus praefocatiores (<miy?io6rigai.) 

Sect. xxvj. 

Cur dicitur, "Tertia lux nunquam nocturno aquilone calo- 
rat, laborat ? " 

Auster fcetidus. 

Ventus ante eclipses, magna ex parte. 

Auster non incipiens, sed finiens pluvius. 

Venti hyeme ab oriente, sestate ab occidente. 

Spirantibus austris, gravius se habent, et imbecillius, 
homines. 

Auster incipiens parvus, finiens magnus, Boreas e contra ; 
unde proverbium, " bonum est navigare incipiente Austro et 
finiente Aquilone." 

Post Austrum cito Aquilo, post hunc non cito Auster spirat. 

Austri sicci, et inaquosi, febriculosi. 

Ventus mane incipiens, durat magis. 

Aquilo interdiu vehemens, noctu autem cadit. 

Sect, xxvir. 

Fortes et plurimum vinosi. 
Tirnentes maxime tremunt voce, manibus, et labro inferiori. 
Timentes sitiunt et algent, alvo solvuntur, mingunt, et testes 
contrahuntur. 

Sect. xxxi. 

Perfricato oculo cessat sternutatio. 

Irati oculis maxime rubore tentantur, pudefacti auribus. 

Hominibus solis inter animalia oculi pervertuntur. 

Sect, xxxii. 

Cur urinatores sibi dissecant aures et nares. 
' Aliqui, dum aures scalpunt, tussiunt. 

Sinistra auris ocius consolidatur magna ex parte cum per- 
foratur. 



o66 NOTyE IN ARISTOTELEM. 



Sect, xxxiii. 



Sternutatio singultum solvit ; eructatio autem non sedat. 
Singultum solvit sternutatio, spiritus cohibitio, acctum. 
Sternutatio dormientibus non fit. 



End of Problems. 



OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 3G7 



[OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 1 ] 

[ms. sloan. 1848, fol. 44—48; 1882, fol. 136, 137; and additional mss. 
no. 5233, fol. 58.] 

In the doctrine of all insitions, those are esteemed most suc- 
cessful which are practised under these rules : — 

That there be some consent or similitude of parts and 
nature between the plants conjoined. 

That insition be made between trees not of very different 
barks ; nor very differing fruits or forms of fructification ; nor 
of widely different ages. 

That the scions or buds be taken from the south or east 
part of the tree. 

That a rectitude and due position be observed ; not to in- 
sert the south part of the scions unto the northern side of 
the stock, but according to the position of the scions upon 
his first matrix. 

Now, though these rules be considerable in the usual and 
practised course of insitions, yet were it but reasonable for 
searching spirits to urge the operations of nature by conjoin- 
ing plants of very different natures in parts, barks, lateness, 
and precocities, nor to rest in the experiments of hortensial 
plants in whom we chiefly intend the exaltation or variety of 
their fruit and flowers, but in all sorts of shrubs and trees ap- 
plicable unto physic or mechanical uses, whereby we might 
alter their tempers, moderate or promote their virtues, ex- 
change their softness, hardness, and colour, and so render 
them considerable beyond their known and trite employments. 

1 Observations, &c] "Generation probability, was written for and address- 
of Plants" was the title given by Dr. ed to Evelyn. 
Ayscough to this paper: which, in all 



368 OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 

To which intent curiosity may take some rule or hint from 
these or the like following, according to the various ways of 
propagation : — ~ 

Colutea upon anagris 

Arbor judas upon anagris 

Cassia poetica upon cytisus 

Cytisus upon periclymenum rectum 

Woodbine upon jasmine 

Cystus upon rosemary 

Rosemary upon ivy 

Sage or rosemary upon cystus 

Myrtle upon gall or rhus myrtifolia 

Whortle-berry upon gall, heath, or myrtle 

Coccygeia upon alaternus 

Mezereon upon an almond 

Gooseberry and currants upon mezereon, barberry, or 

blackthorn 
Barberry upon a currant tree 
Bramble upon gooseberry or raspberry 
Yellow rose upon sweet briar 
Phyllerea upon broom 
Broom upon furze 
Anonis lutea upon furze 
Holly upon box 
Bay upon holly 
Holly upon pyracantha 
A fig upon chesnut 
A fig upon mulberry 
Peach upon mulberry 
Mulberry upon buckthorn 
Walnut upon chesnut 
Savin upon juniper 
Vine upon oleaster, rosemary, ivy 



2 propagation.] A brief memorandum met with such a Catalogue (in MS. 
occurs here in the original, in these Sloan. 1843, fol. 44 — 48) I have not he- 
words: — " To insert the Catalogue," sitateel to transplant it hither as the one 
evidently showing that the author in- intended. Several of the names are so 
tended the list of his proposed e.xperi- illegible, that it is impossible not to fear 
ments to be here introduced. Having they may be incorrectly given. 



OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 369 

An arbutus upon a fig 

A peach, upon a fig 

White poplar upon black poplar 

Asp upon white poplar 

Wych elm upon common elm 

Hazel upon elm 

Sycamore upon wych elm 

Cinnamon rose upon hipberry 

A whitethorn upon a blackthorn 

Hipberry upon a sloe, or skeye, or bullace 

Apricot upon a mulberry 

Arbutus upon a mulberry 

Cherry upon a peach 

Oak upon a chesnut 

Katherine peach upon a quince 

A warden upon a quince 

A chesnut upon a beech 

A beech upon a chesnut 

An hornbeam upon a beech 

A maple upon an hornbeam 

A sycamore upon a maple 

A medlar upon a service tree 

A sumack upon a quince or medlar 

An hawthorn upon a service tree 

A quicken tree upon an ash 

An ash upon an asp 

An oak upon an ilex 

A poplar upon an elm 

A black cherry tree upon a tilea or lime tree 

Tilea upon beech 

Alder upon birch or poplar 

A filbert upon an almond 

An almond upon a willow 

A nux vesicaria upon an almond or pistachio 

A cerasus avium upon a nux vesicaria 

A cornelian 3 upon a cherry tree 

A cherry tree upon a cornelian 

An hazel upon a willow or sallow 

3 Cornelian.] Cornel-tree. ' 
VOL. IV. 2 B 



-'370 OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 

A lilac upon a sage tree 
A syringa upon lilac or tree-mallow 
A rose elder upon syringa 
An water elder upon rose elder 
Buckthorn upon elder 
Frangula upon buckthorn 
Hirga sanguinea upon privet 
Phyllerea upon vitex 
Vitex upon evonymus 
Evonymus upon viburnum 
Ruscus upon pyracantha 
Paleurus upon hawthorn 
Tamarisk upon birch 
Erica upon tamarisk 
Polemonium upon genista hispanica 
Genista hispanica upon colutea. 

Nor are we to rest in the frustrated success of some single 
experiments, but to proceed in attempts in the most unlikely 
unto iterated and certain conclusions, and to pursue the way 
of ablactation or inarching. Whereby we might determine 
whether, according to the ancients, no fir, pine, or picea, would 
admit of any insition upon them ; whether yew will hold 
society with none ; whether walnut, mulberry, and cornel 
cannot be propagated by insition, or the fig and quince admit 
almost of any, with many others of doubtful truths in the 
propagations. 

And while we seek for varieties in stocks and scions, we are 
not to omit the ready practise of the scion upon its own tree. 
Whereby, having a sufficient number of good plants, we may 
improve their fruits without translative conjunction, that is, by 
insition of the scion upon his own mother, whereby an hand- 
some variety or melioration seldom faileth — we might be still 
advanced by iterated insitions in proper boughs and positions. 
Insition is also made not only with scions and buds, but seeds, 
by inserting them- in cabbage stalks, turnips, onions, &c, and 
also in ligneous plants. 

Within a mile of this city of Norwich, an oak groweth upon 
the head of a pollard willow, taller than the stock, and about 



OBSERVATIONS ON GRAFTING. 371 

half a foot in diameter, probably by some acorn falling or 
fastening upon it. I could shew you a branch of the same 
willow which shoots forth near the stock which beareth both 
willow and oak twigs and leaves upon it. In a meadow I use 
in Norwich, beset with willows and sallows, I have observed 
these plants to grow upon their heads; bylders, 4 currants, 
gooseberries, cynocrambe, or dog's mercury, barberries, bit- 
tersweet, elder, hawthorn. 

4 Bylders.'] Qu. bilberry I 



2 B 2 



372 FRAGMENTS. 



[FRAGMENTS. 1 ] 

[BIBL. BODL. MS. RAWL. LVIII, 5 & 15.] 

[Part of a Lecture.] 

Cetaceous animals, as whales, grampusses, dolphins, though 
they live in water are not without lungs. I shall instance in 
the dolphin, as having had the opportunity to be at the dis- 
section of two of them. The lungs are in situation and figure 
like those of viviparous quadrupeds, but not so spongy, and of 
a thicker and flesh-like substance, and probably they may 
have a strong and forcible respiration. And because they 
live and feed in the water, Providence hath provided them 
with an AuXog, fistula, or spout, by which both air may be ad- 
mitted and water ejected, which hath been taken in at the 
mouth ; so that if they be kept too long under water they 
perish. Now because this remarkable passage is so variously 
delivered by writers, it may not be improper from ocular view 
to state something in this point. 

Pliny delivers that this fistula is on the back ; Aristotle, in 
his History of Animals, placeth it also in the back. Julius 
Scaliger, in his comment upon that place, hath these words. 
" Aut delphinum ignoravit Aristoteles aut nos ; nam quos in 
Adriatico quos in oceano Britannico vidimus fistulam versus 
occiput habent," have the fistula toward the occiput. Bello- 
nius saith it is between the eyes, and Rondeletius above the 
rostrum or snout. 



1 Fragments.] The first of these The second was very probably a sugges- 
" Fragments " was evidently intended don to Evelyn — as a passage in his pre- 
fer a passage in one of his son's lectures, posed " Chapter on Echoes." 



FRAGMENTS, 373 

Now that you may experimentally behold who is in the 
truth, and who widest from it ; that you may see that sight is 
the best judge ; and indeed that you may doubt no more, I 
shall produce the skull of a dolphin ; wherein you may ob- 
serve this passage contrived by nature and its situation ; not 
on the back as Aristotle and Pliny affirmed ; not clearly 
enough expressed by Scaliger, when he saith 'versus occiput ; 
nor sufficiently by Bellonius between the eyes ; but rather as 
Rondeletius de piscibus ; " post rostrum sive supra rostrum fis- 
tulam habet geminam qua? ad caput asperse arteriae pertingit 
interius:" you may see its situation about the rostrum, but the 
ductus is double and divided by a septum osseum, that it 
somewhat resembleth the foramina descending from the nos- 
trils unto the palate. This ductus is filled with a soft carnous 
substance, which openeth on the outside with a single orifice, 
resembling an old Greek sigma, or our letter C, at which the 
water is spouted out. 

(In the Chapter of Echoes, fyc.) 

It would be of no small moment and curiosity to contrive a 
whispering place ; for if the arching be elliptical, made by a 
line of a double centre, denoting the two foci of the ellip- 
sis, these whispering places may be made. For in the long- 
est diameter of an ellipsis there are two points, named the 
foci, always equi-distant from the centre, from one whereof if 
a line be drawn unto the circumference so reflecting, that 
the angle of reflection be equal unto that of incidence, they 
will reflect unto the other focus, and so the sound be convey- 
ed unto him whose ear lieth at it. And therefore if we whis- 
per at one focus, all the vocal rays which are carried unto the 
circumference of the ellipsis, are, by reflexion, all ended in 
the other focus ; and by the multitude and union of these re- 
flected rays, the voice be strongly heard at the other extreme, 

or focus ; not easily in the middle, unto which one 

the ray only arrive th. 

Nor to rest in the bare or fabric, but upon the 

same to inscribe the mechanical draught, wherein lie the 
causes and reasons of this admirable effect; the figure being 



374 FRAGMENTS. 

drawn in red or blue, extending the whole length of the arch, 
and each focus denoted by some mark or special colour, 
whereat may stand two figures of cupids, boys, or handsome 
draughts, with the mouth to one focus, the ear unto the 
other, according to the rule which containeth the mystery of 
this effect. 



OF GREENLAND. &75 



OF GREENLAND. 1 

[ms. rawlinson. cccxci.] 

If any trees grow in the country, and what sorrel and scurvy 
grass said to grow there : what others either on the land or 
sea shore : what shells likewise or other substances commonly 
or rarely found. 

To put the leaves of those few herbs which may be found 
in some book, so preserving their figure between the leaves 
of the book. 

"Whether any bees, flies, and the like insects, and to bring 
some thereof. 

Whether any such birds as we have here. 

Whether any snakes, worms or snails : whether any kinds 
of shell fish, what, either agreeable to ours or not. 

Whether all or any of their whales have teeth — to bring 
one of the least : what is found in their stomachs ; whether 
herbs, fish, both or neither : what is also found in the sto- 
machs of sea horses or morses : what herb it is they are said 
to feed on at the bottom of the sea : to bring a leaf thereof 
if it may be gotten. 

To bring the white of a whale's eye made hard by boiling. 

Whether the country be plane or mountainous : how the 
tides to ours : whether it raineth often, thundereth and light- 
eneth often : what winds most common. 

What quantity of salt a gallon or any other greater mea- 
sure of sea water aftbrdeth, if taken up at flowing water. 

What use they make of the stones or seed of whales. 

To bring the bladder of a whale or morse, cleansed and 
dried so that it may be blown up. 

The bigness of the stones and kidneys of whales, if not 
too big, to bring one dried, or one of a sea horse. 

1 Of Greenland.] These queries desirous of obtaining information respect- 
were in all' probability instructions for ing Greenland, 
some friend, by whom Sir Thomas was 



376 EXTRACTS FROM 



[EXTRACTS FROM COMMON PLACE BOOKS.] 

[ms. SLOAN, 1843.] 

Verses which I made upon several occasions. 1 

To one, to study and enquire into the occult and inside of his 
gold, not only to please himself in looking on it. 

Opto tibi Daricos, obryzos " opto Philippos, 

Cassareos necnon opto tibi aureolos ; 
Sed praeter faciem nosce interiora metalli, 
Ingenio nee sit ditior area tuo. 

O my love ! when shall it be 
That these eyes those eyes shall see, 
And in them once more discover 
The image of thy truest lover ? 
But since thou hast inconstant been, 

Inconstant still remain, 
For so perhaps by changing still, 

Thou may'st be mine again. 

Upon a covetous person in the jaundice. 

Aurescat deformi aurigine qui colit aurum ; 
Auratus non sis, aureus esse velis. 

Alloquitur podagram nanus podagricus ; — 
Quid sedere in presso nanorum pollice figis, 

Cogeris hie parva. nempe habitare casa. 
Latius ut regnes, magna et domineris in aula, 

Quaere Giganteos Herculeosque pedes. 

1 Verses which, fyc.~\ The arrange- lect all the verses together under this title 
ment of the extracts from this volume 2 obryzos.~\ Aurum obryzam, finest 
have been slightly altered, in order to col- gold. Plin, 33, 3. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 377 

Optans optat podagras paroxysmum brevem. 

Dum meus iEtnaeo sufflamine dactylus ardet ; 
Ut mihi dactylicus sit precor iste dolor 
Sit brevis exopto dactylicusque dolor. 

Sum Davus pulchre 3 vates, non Oedipus, inquit. 
Oedipus haud flam, sim quoque Davus ego. 

One in the gout wishing for King Pyrrhus's toe, which 
could not be burnt at his funeral pyre. 
O for a toe, such as the funeral 4 pyre 
Could make no work on — proof 'gainst flame and fire ; 
Which lay unburnt when all the rest burnt out, 
Such amianthine toes might scorn the gout ; 
And the most flaming blast the gout could blow 
Prove but an ignis lambens to that toe. 

An inscription upon a silver cup given to a physician for 
his free cure. 

Vendere quam poteras malles donare salutem. 
Mutua donatse dona salutis habe. 

Being in the country, a few miles from Norwich, I observed a 
handsome bower of honey-suckles over the door of a cottage of 
a right good man ; which bower I fancied to speak as followeth : 
Hie humilem et sanum potius recreare colonum 

Mallem, quam nasos pascere patritios, 
Et nares muliebre lue turpesque mephyti, 

Gallia quam peperit faedave Parthenope. 
Nee fauces olidas perjuraque guttura carpo 

Decocto ex foliis atque limare meis. 
Sed neque magnatum crudelia limina cingo, 

Et queis collatus Cerberus agnus erit. 
At domini dominaeque meae pia limina adorno 

Et quam non intrant visque dolusque domum. 
Talem, si peterent de ccelo numina terras, 

Jupiter intraret Mercuriusque casam. 

3 pulchre.'] "Placide." MS. Sloan.lSU. * funeral.]" Regal." MS. Sloan. 1874. 



378 EXTRACTS FROM 



[Miscellanies.'] 



The charnel house of St. Paul's, of London, was under a 
chapel on the north side of the church-yard. When that 
chapel was demolished, the bones which lay in the vault, 
amounting to more than a thousand cart-loads, were conveyed 
into Finsbury fields, and there laid in a moorish place, 5 with 
so much soil to cover them as raised the ground for three 
windmills, which have since been built there, which J. Stowe 
hath delivered in his Survey of London. 

To make an epigram or a few verses upon this subject, or 
of a windmill upon a mount of bones. 

The picture of Signor Verdero in a proper habit : — 
A suit of a mandrake or nightshade green, 
A cloak of a thistle-colour, faced with holly-green, 
A burdock-green hat, with a hatband of poppy-leaf, vert, 

set with emeralds and beryls, and a plume of parrot-green 

feathers, 
Stockings of an ivy-green, with sage-coloured garters, 
A rue-coloured sash or girdle, with brake-green fringe, 
Pantoffles of cabbage-colour, laced with sea-holly or eryngo 

green, 
Ribands all about, of fig-laurel and box green. 

In yellow meadows I take no delight ; 

Let me have those which are most red and white. 
That which makes meadows look so yellow, is the great 
abundance of ranunculus or crow-foot flowers. But of this 
burning and blistering plant neither horse nor cow will feed ; 
which made me the more observe it, when I have seen pea- 
cocks crop the flowers of it. Meadows are also yellow by 
the flowers of caltha palustris or marsh marigold, of which 

5 into Finsbury fields, fyc."] This spot bury; and this gives the title of Lord 
is now covered with a beautiful square, Mayor, as Lord of the Manor of Finsbury. 
taking its name from the manor of Fins- — Gray, 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 879 

cattle will not eat, nor also of argentina, which leaves a yellow 
flower, nor of jacobcea or ragweed, which overruns some 
grounds. But the flowers of sorrel are reddish, of clover- 
grass red, of sweet trefoil or suckling three-leaved grass, red 
or white ; of ulmaria or meadow-sweet white, as also of saxi- 
frage, chervill, cow-parsley, cardamine lactea or meadow- 
cresses, as also of lingua passerina ; of all which cattle will 
feed. 

What way King Mithridates took when being overcome by 
Pompey, he marched with his army, and took a strange and 
unknown journey on the north side of the Euxine sea, to 
come round about into Thracia, and so to war upon the Ro- 
mans. Again, whether he went by the north of the Masotis 
Palus, crossing the Tanais, or made a short cut, crossing the 
Bosphorus Cimmerius, and so marching through the Taurica 
Chersonesus, which is a much shorter cut. 

I cannot fancy unto myself a more acceptable representa- 
tion or state of things, than if I could see all my best friends 
and worthy acquaintance of forty years last past upon the 
stage of the world at one time. 

I attained my purpose, and came to reach this port by a 
bare wind, much labour, great pains, and little assistance. 

A way to know men from boys, or boyish men and manly 
boys, deducible from the character in Homer. 

A dialogue between an inhabitant of the earth and of the 
moon. 

A dialogue between two twins in the womb, concerning the 
world they were to come into. 

Question — Why do you give so much unto the poor? 
Answer — I have no less for what I give unto the poor, and 
I am also still indebted to them. 



380 EXTRACTS FROM 

A woodcock, in the total, weighed twelve ounces ; and the 
feathers weighed three quarters of an ounce. 

A goose weighed three pounds ten ounces in the total ; the 
feathers, ten ounces. 

A turkey weighed, in the total, twelve pounds eleven 
ounces ; the feathers weighed eleven ounces. 

A wild duck weighed, in the total, two pounds six ounces ; 
the feathers, in all, two ounces. 

A partridge, in the whole, weighed ten ounces ; the fea- 
thers weighed half an ounce. 

Robert Huchinson, at the Wheatsheaf, in St. Peter's, in 
Norwich, drank a gallon of brandy, burnt and sweetened, in 
the month of June, 1675, in the space of fourteen hours ; he 
drank it hot, fell into a fever, and complained of an extraor- 
dinary burning in the stomach, but recovered in seven days, 
with a great loathing of brandy after : he is aged fifty-six. 
Another man who drank with him drank also a gallon of 
burnt brandy for his share, and rode home into the country 
after it, and seemed not to suffer any more than a burning 
heat in his stomach for some days. He drunk a good quan- 
tity of beer after he had made an end of his gallon of brandy. 



[MS. SLOAN. 1848.] 

[Scripture Criticism.] 

" And they brought unto him one that was deaf," &c. unto 
" dumb to speak." [Mark vii, 32.] 

One that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech ; 
fioy/k&Xov, That is, one that suffered in both the nerves ; the 
primary whereby he was chiefly deaf, and the other branch- 
ing into the tongue and larynx, whereby his speech was very 
imperfect ; so that what words he could utter were abrupt, 
and dissonantly delivered. 

He put his fingers into his ears, and touched his tongue. 
He applied the visible way of cure unto both the suffering 
parts. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 381 

And his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue 
was loosed. His ears were opened when the obstruction of 
the auditory nerve was relieved. The string of his tongue, 
the vinculum of his speech, was released when the second 
branch descending upon the larynx and tongue, implicated 
with the motive nerve of the seventh conjugation, was opened 
and restored to its natural function. 

So that he spake plain, as he did before he was deaf. 
For, if he had been born deaf, we must multiply the miracle 
to conceive him to speak without instruction. 



[ms. sloan. 1869, fol. 12—60,62—118, collated with 1874 & 1885.] 

[Hints and Extracts; to his Son, Dr. Edward Browne.] 

Several hints which may be serviceable unto you and not 
ungrateful unto others I present you in this paper ; they are 
not trite or vulgai*, and very few of them any where to be 
met with. I set them not down in order, but as memory, 
fancy, or occasional observation produced them ; whereof you 
may take the pains to single out such as shall conduce unto 
your purpose. 

That Elias was a type of our Saviour, and that the mock- 
ing and railing of the children had reference unto the deri- 
sion and reviling of our Saviour by the Jews, we shall not deny, 
but whether their calling of him bald pate, crying, ascende 
calve, had any relation unto Mount Calvary, we shall not be 
ready to affirm. 

That Charles the Fifth was crowned upon the day of his 
nativity carrieth no remarkable consideration, but that he also 
took King Francis prisoner upon that day, was a concurrence 
of accidents which must make that day observable. 

Antipater that died on his birth-day, had an anniversary 
fever all his life upon the day of his nativity, needed not an 



382 EXTRACTS FROM 

astrological revolution of his nativity to know the day of his 
death. 

Who will not commend the wit of astrology ; — Venus born 
out of the sea hath her exaltation in Pisces. 

Whosoever understandeth the fructifying quality of water 
will quickly apprehend the congruity of that invention which 
made the cornucopia to be filled with flowers by the naiades 
or water nymphs. 

Who can but wonder that Fuchsius should doubt the purg- 
ing quality of manna, or derive aloe sucotina from succus citri- 
nus, which every novice now knows to be from Socotara, an 
island from whence 't is brought. 

Take heed of confidence and too bold an opinion of your 
work : even the famous Phidias so erred in that notable statua 
of Jupiter made in a sitting posture, yet so that if he had 
risen up he had borne up the top of the temple. 

Transcriptional erratas, ignorance in some particulars, ex- 
pedition, inadvertency, make not only moles but wens in learn- 
ed works, which notwithstanding being judged by their better 
parts admit not of reasonable disparagement. I will not say 
that Cicero was slightly versed in Homer, because in his books 
De Gloria he ascribeth those verses unto Ajax which were 
delivered by Hector. In the account of Hercules, Plautus 
mistakes nativity for conception. Pliny, who was well seen in 
Homer, denieth the art of picture in the Trojan war, and 
whereas it is plainly said, Iliad 2, 483, that Vulcan engraved 
in the arms of Achilles the earth and stars of heaven. And 
though I have no great opinion of Machiavell's learning, 
yet am I unwilling to say he was but a weak historian, be- 
cause he commonly exemplified in Ca?sar Borgia and the 
petty princes of Italy ; or that he had but a slight knowledge 
in Roman story, because he was mistaken in placing Commo- 
dus after the emperor Severus. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 383 

Wonderful without doubt and of excellent signification are 
the mysteries, allegories, and figures of Holy Scripture, had 
we a true intelligence of them, but whether they signified any 
such thing as Gamaliel, Rampegnoli, Venetus, and others, do 
put upon them, is a great obscurity and Urim and Thummim 
unto me. 

That the first time the Creator is called the Lord, in Holy 
Scripture, was twenty-eight times after he was called God, 
seems an excellent propriety in Scripture ; which gave him the 
relative name after the visible frame and accomplishment of 
the creation, but the essential denomination and best agreeable 
unto him before all time or ere the world began. 

Whether there be any numerical mystery in the omission 
of the benediction of the second day, because it was the first 
recess from unity and beginning of imperfection : and ac- 
cording to which mystery three angels appeared unto Abra- 
ham to bring him happy tidings, but two at the destruction 
of Sodom. 

Whether Tubal Cain, the inventor of smith's work, be 
therefore joined with Jubal, the father of musicians, because 
musical consonances were first discovered from the stroke of 
hammers upon anvils, the diversities of their weights disco- 
vering the proportion of their sounds a"s is also reported from 
the observation of Pythagoras, is not readily to be believed. 

The symbolical mysteries of Scripture sacrifices, cleansings, 

feasts, and expiations, is tolerably made out by Rabbins and 

ritual commentators, but many things are obscure, and the 

I Jews themselves will say that Solomon understood not the 

i mystery of the red cow. Even in the Pagan lustration of the 

) people of Rome, at the palilia, why they made use of the 

ashes of a calf taken out of the belly of the dam, the blood 

of an horse, and bean straw, hath not yet found a convincing 

or probable conjecture. 

Certainly most things are known as many are seen, that is, 



384 EXTRACTS FROM 

by parallaxes, and in some difference from their true and 
proper beings ; the superficial regard of things being of dif- 
ferent aspect from their central natures ; and therefore fol- 
lowing the common view, and living by the obvious track of 
sense, we are insensibly imposed upon by consuetude, and 
only wise or happy by coestimation ; the received apprehen- 
sions of true or good having widely confounded the substan- 
tial and inward verity thereof, which now only subsisting in 
the theory and acknowledgement of some few wise or good 
men, are looked upon as antiquated paradoxes or sullen the- 
orems of the old world : whereas indeed truth, which is said 
not to seek corners, lies in the centre of things ; the area and 
exterous part being only overspread with legionary vanities 
of error, or stuffed with the meteors and imperfect mixtures 
of truth. 

Discoveries are welcome at all hands ; yet he that found 
out the line of the middle motion of the planets, holds an 
higher mansion in my thoughts than he that discovered the 
Indies, and Ptolemy, that saw no further than the feet of the 
centaur, than he that hath beheld the snake by the southern 
pole. The rational discovery of things transcends their sim- 
ple detections, whose inventions are often casual and secondary 
unto intention. 

Cupid is said to be blind ; affection should not be too 
sharp-sighted, and love not to be made by magnifying glasses; 
if things were seen as they are, the beauty of bodies would 
be much abridged ; and therefore the wisdom of God hath 
drawn the pictures and outsides of things softly and amiably 
unto the natural edge of our eyes, not able to discover those 
unlovely asperities which make oystershells in good faces, 
and hedgehogs even in Venus' moles. 

When God -commanded Abraham to look up to heaven 
and number the stars thereof, that he extraordinarily en- 
larged his sight to behold the host of heaven, and the innu- 
merable heap of stars which telescopes now shew unto us, 
some men might be persuaded to believe. Who can think that 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 385 

when 't is said that the blood of Abel cried unto heaven, Abel 
fell a bleeding at the sight of Cain, according to the observa- 
tion of men slain to bleed at the presence of the murderer ? 

The learned Gaspar Schottus dedicates his Thaumaturgus 
Mathematicus unto his tutelary or guardian angel ; in which 
epistle he useth these words : cm, post Deum conditorem Dei- 
que magnam mairem Mariam, omnia debeo. Now, 1 though 
we must not lose God in good angels, and because they are 
always supposed about us, hold lesser memory of him in our 
prayers, addresses, and consideration of his presence, care, 
and protection over us, yet they which do assert them have 
both antiquity and Scripture to confirm them ; but whether 
the angel that wrestled with Jacob were Esau's good angel ; 
whether our Saviour had one deputed him, or whether that 
was his good angel which appeared and strengthened him 
before his passion ; whether antichrist shall have any ; whe- 
ther all men have one, some more, and therefore there must 
be more angels than ever were men together ; whether angels 
assist successively and distinctly, or whether but once and 
singly to one person, and so there must be a greater number 
of them than ever of men or shall be ; whether we are under 
the care of our mother's good angel in the womb, or whether 
that spirit undertakes us when the stars are thought to con- 
cern us, that is, at our nativity, men have a liberty and lati- 
tude to opinion. 

Aristotle, who seems to have borrowed many things from 
I Hippocrates, in the most favourable acceptation, makes men- 
j tion but once of him, and that by the bye, and without refer- 
ence unto his doctrine. Virgil so much beholding unto Ho- 
rnier hath not his name in his works ; and Pliny, that seems to 
borrow many authors out of Dioscorides, hath taken no notice 
lof him. Men are still content to plume themselves with 
(others feathers. Fear of discovery, not single ingenuity, makes 
jquotations rather than transcriptions ; of which, notwithstand- 
ing, the plagiarism of many holds little consideration, where- 

V ' The learned Gaspar Schottus, 8fc.~\ present paragraph in MS. Sloan. 1874 
-This passage is from a duplicate of the 

VOL. IV. 2 C 



386 EXTKACTS FROM 

of, though great authors may complain, small ones cannot but 
take notice. Mr. Philips, in his Villare Cantianum, trans- 
cribes half a side of my Hydrotaphia, or Urn Burial, with- 
out mention of the author. 2 

Many things are casually or favourably superadded unto 
the best authors, and the lines of many made to contain that 
advantageous sense which they never intended. It was 
handsomely said, and probably intended by Virgil, when on 
every word of that verse he laid a significant emphasis, una 
dolo divum si fcemina capta duorum; and tis not unlikely 
that in that other, consisting altogether of slow and heav- 
ing spondees, he intended to humour the massive and heav- 
ing strokes of the gigantic forgers, Mi inter sese magna vi 
brachia tollunt ; but in that which admitteth so numerous 
a transposition of words, as almost to equal the ancient num- 
ber of the noted stars, I cannot believe he had any such 
scope or intention, much less any numerical magic in another, 
as to be a certain rule in that numeration practised in the 
handsome trick of singling Christians and Turks, which is 
due unto later invention ; or that Homer any otherwise than 
casually began the first and last verse of his Iliad with the 
same letter. 

Some plants have been thought to have been proper unto 
peculiar countries, and yet upon better discovery the same 
have been found in distant countries and in all community of 
parts. 

Jul. Scalig. in Questionibus Familiaribus ; — 
Extra fortunam est quicquid donatur amicis. 

Many things are casually or favourably superadded unto 
the best authors, and sometimes conceits and expressions 
common unto them with others, and that not by imitation but ( 
coincidence, and concurrence of imagination upon harmony of 
production. Scaliger observes how one Italian poet fell upon 

2 Mr. Philips, §•<;.] This paragraph has a mark of erasure in the original. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 387 

the verse of another, and one that understood not metre, or 
had ever read Martial, fell upon one of his verses. Thus it 
is not strange that Homer should Hebraise, and that many 
sentences in human authors seem to have their original in 
Scripture. In a piece of mine, published long ago, 3 the learn- 
ed annotator hath parallelled many passages with others of 
Montaigne's Essays, whereas, to deal clearly, when I penned 
that piece, I had never read three leaves of that author, and 
scarce any more ever since. 

Truth and falsehood hang almost equilibriously in some 
assertions, and a few grains of truth which bear down the 
balance. 

To begin our discourses like Trismegistus of old, with 
" verum certe verum atque verissimum est," would sound ar- 
rogantly unto new ears, in this strict enquiry of things ; 
wherein, for the most part, probably and perhaps, will hardly 
serve the turn, or serve to mollify the spirits of positive con- 
tradictors. 

If Cardan saith a parrot is a beautiful bird, Scaliger will 
set his wits on work to prove it a deformed animal. 

Few men expected to find so grave a philosopher of Po- 

lemo, who spent the first part of his life in all exorbitant 

vices. Who could imagine that Diogenes in his younger 

: days should be a falsifier of money, who in the aftercourse of 

his life was so great a contemner of metal, as to laugh at all 

that loved it? But men are not the same in all divisions of 

their ages : time, experience, contemplation, and philosophy, 

i make in many well rooted minds a translation before death, 

and men to vary from themselves as well as other persons. 

Whereof old philosophy made many noble examples, to the 

r infamy of later times : wherein men merely live by the line of 

| 'their inclinations ; so that without any astrall prediction, the 

j; first day gives the last, " primusque dies dedit extremum." 

i Seneca. Men are as they were; and according as evil dis- 

3 in a piece of mine.~\ Viz. Religio sage has been , introduced in a note. 
Medici; see page 10, where this pas- 



8S8 EXTRACTS FROM 

positions run into worse habits, being bad in the first race, 
prove rather worse in the last. 

In vain we seek to satisfy our souls in narrow theories and 
close apprehensions of the divine essence, even from the re- 
vealed word, since we have a happy sufficiency in our own 
natures to apprehend the will and pleasure of God delivered 
in Holy Scripture ; it being neither of our concern nor capa- 
city to comprehend or reach his nature. The divine revela- 
tion in such points being not framed unto intellectuals of 
earth. Even the best of creatures have enough to admire in 
their higher created natures. Admiration being the act of 
the creature and not of God, who doth not admire himself. 

We consider not sufficiently the good of evils, nor fairly 
compare the mercy of providence, in things that are afflictive 
at first hand. The famous Andreas D'Oria invited to a feast 
by Aloisio Fieschi, with intent to dispatch him, fell oppor- 
tunely into a fit of the gout, and so escaped that mischief. 
When Cato intended to kill himself, with a blow which he 
gave his servant that would not bring him his sword, his hand 
so swelled that he had much ado to effect it, whereby any but 
a resolved stoic might have taken a hint of consideration and 
that some merciful genius would have contrived his preser- 
vation. 

The virtues, parts, and excellencies both of men and nations 
are allowable by aggregation, and must be considered by 
coacervation as well as single merit. The Romans made much 
of their conquests by the conquered ; and the valour of all 
nations, whose acts went under their names, made up the 
glory of Rome. So the poets that writ in Latin built up the 
credit of Latium, and passed for Roman wits ; whereas if Car- 
thage deducted Terence, /Egypt Claudian, if Seneca, Lu- 
can, Martial, Statius, were restored unto Spain, if Marseilles 
should call home Petronius, it would much abridge the glory 
of pure Italian fancy ; and even in Italy itself, if the Cisal- 
pine Gauls should take away their share, if Verona and Man- 
tua should challenge Catullus and Virgil, and if in other 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 389 

parts out of Campagna di Roma, the Venusine Apulians 
should pull away their Horace, the Umbrians their Plautus, 
the Aquinatians Juvenal, Volaterrani Persius, and the Pelig- 
nians of Abruzzo their Ovid, the rest of Rome or Latium 
would make no large volume. 

Where 'tis said in the book of Wisdom that the earth is unto 
God but as a sand, and as a drop of morning dew, therein 
may be implied the earth and water or the whole terraqueous 
globe ; but when 't is delivered in the Apocalypse that the 
angel set his right foot upon the sea and his left upon the 
earth, what farther hidden sense there is in that distinction 
may farther be considered. 

Of the seven wise men of Greece 'twas observed by Plutarch, 
that only Thales was well versed in natural things, the rest 
obtained that name for their wisdom and knowledge in state 
affairs. 

Whether the ancients were better architects then their 
successors many discourses have passed. That they were 
not only good builders, but expedite and skilful demolishers, 
appears by the famous palace of Publicola, which they pulled 
down and rased to the ground by his order in one day. 

We are noway doubtful that there are witches, but have not 
been always satisfied in the application of their witchcrafts, 
or whether the parties accused or suffering have been guilty 
of that abomination, or persons under such affliction suffered 
from such hands. In ancient time we read of many possessed 
and probably there are many still ; but the common cry and 
general opinion of witches hath confounded that of possession; 
men salving such strange effects from veneficial agents and 
out of the party suffering. Many strange things have been 
done beyond the salvo of human reason, which might proceed 
as well from possession as venefication. If the man in the 
gospel had now lived, who would not have said he had been 
bewitched, which few or none might then suspect? Or who 
now sayeth that Saul was bewitched? Many examples may 



390 EXTRACTS FROM 

occur of the like nature among us ; wherein, whether pos- 
session be not sometimes mistaken for venefication, may well 
be considered. 

Whether it might not be fitly added unto the questlones 
peregrince of Bartholomagus ; — how tender conceptions shall 
be ordered at the last day, and whether those before anima- 
tion shall be improved unto perfection? 

Whether that fiction be elegantly contrived, when Somnus 
is made to make Endymion sleep with his eyes open, that 
Luna might look upon them? since there is no beauty in 
open sleeping eyes, but a seeming deformity in them. 

Whether it were not more dulness in Polyphemus to omit to 
praise the eyes of his Mrs. Galatea, while he commendeth 
her other parts, than weariness to pass them over, lest he 
should consequently condemn his own ? 

Whether it be general that lepers have no lice ? 

Whether great ear'd persons have short necks, long feet, 
and loose bellies ? 

Whether in voracious persons and gourmands the distance 
between the navel and the sternon be greater than from the 
sternon unto the neck ? 

" An misericordes sint dyXwyovoi, faeminigenitores ;" how veri- 
fied by your observation and historical example ? since pity and 
mercy are affections of generosity, and generous persons are 
commonly of a masculine temper. 

How to make out those physiognomical notes of Aristotle 
concerning soft and effeminate persons ; " genuflexibilitas, in- 
clinatio capitis ad dextram, ambulationes duplices, oculorum 
circumspectiones ?" 

Whether haloes be so rare betwixt May and September 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 391 

as Gassendus delivereth from his observations in France, 
and whether his observation there be verified in other cli- 
mates ? 

To observe that little spot behind the ear whereof Omni- 
bonus Ferrarius takes notice and makes it a mortal sign in 
dysenterical persons ; and is also mentioned in the book De 
Ptistulis, ascribed unto Hippocrates, and translated by Golius, 
as Bartholinus hath delivered. Centur. 6ta. 

To observe whether animals drowned have no water in 
their lungs and weason. 

Whether, as there be most female witches, so most females 
are bewitched and why ? 

Whether, if observable occurrences were strictly taken 
notice of before the appearance of comets, they may not 
prove as remarkable as those that follow after, an equal space 
of time being taken before as after ? 

Whether as remarkable and great occurrences have not 
happened without the appearance of comets as any with, or 
some after them ? 

Whether northern comets or on this side of the equator 
have proved more fatal than southern, and whether smaller 
not sometimes more ominous than greater ? 

Since there be two major remedies in physic, bleeding and 
purging, which thereof deserves the preeminency ; since in 
the general purging cures more diseases : since the whole 
nation of the Chinese use no phlebotomy, and many other 
nations sparingly, but all some kind of purgative evacuation : 
and since besides in man there are so few hints for bleeding 
from any natural attempt in horses, cows, dogs, birds, and 
other creatures. 

Whether it be safe for obtaining a bass or deep voice to 
make frequent use of vitriol, and whether it hath such an 
effect? 



392 EXTRACTS FROM 

Whether posssession be not often mistaken for witchcraft, 
and many thought to be bewitched which are indeed pos- 
sessed ? 

If in the terraqueous globe all that now is land were sea, 
and all that is sea were land, to discover what great differ- 
ences there would be in all things, as to constitution of climes, 
tides, navigation, and many other considerables. 

To observe whether the juice of the fruit of Jicus Indica, 
taken inwardly, will cause the urine to have a red and bloody 
colour, as is delivered by some and commonly received in 
parts of Italy where it plentifully groweth ; and whether the 
juice of the prickly fig from America will not do the like? 

Whether ice be to be found in subterraneous cavities and 
deep caves in the earth ? 

To observe the gangleon in birds that are apt to imitate the 
speech of man, and what advantage they have by any such 
like part ? 

What to be hoped from that feminine practice, which I have 
known in pearl of the eye, to put a louse into the eye at night ? 

Whether mare's milk be properly used against worms, or 
sow's milk to procure sleep, to which end many women among 
us give it unto children ? 

Whether thistle apples, that is the bunches found upon the 
common small thistle, running into knops without flower or 
seed, do any thing to the intent that they are so much sought 
for by many ? 

The left rib of roasted beef powdered, a sovereign remedy 
against fluxes. 

That if a woman with child looks upon a dead body, the 
child will be pale complcxioncd. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. ! 393 

Why little lap dogs have a hole in their heads, and often 
other little holes out of the place of the sutures ? 

Why a pig's eyes drop out in roasting rather than other 
animals ? 

Why a pig held up by the tail leaves squeaking ? 

Why a low signed horse is commonly a stumbler ? 

What is the use of dew claws in dogs ? 

Whether that will hold, which I have sometimes observed, 
that lice combed out of the head upon a paper, will turn and 
move towards the body of the party, and so as often as the 
paper is turned about ? 

An pestis sit ex lege naturae, ut quaerit Cardanus ? 

An detur pestis artificialis ? 

An detur unguentum pestiferum, ex cadaveribus peste mor- 
tuorum confectum, ut in historia pestis Mediolanensis ? 

An pestis unquam grassetur inter pisces ? 

Whether services and cornel-trees be so dangerous unto 
persons which have been bit by a mad dog, as Codronchi and 
others mention. 

What kind of motion natation or swimming is, and to which 
to be referred ; whether not compounded of a kind of salition, 
and volation, the one performed by the hands, the other by the 
legs and feet ? What kind of motion sliding is ; whether it 
imitateth not the motus projectoram upon a plane, wherein 
the corpus motum is not separated a motore ? 

An foculi portatiles Belgarum sint monstrifici ? 

An Lastaurocacabus Athenasi sit olla patris (olla podrida) 
Hispanorum ? 



394 EXTRACTS FROM 

Whether the name of a palatium, or palace, began first to 
be used for prince's houses in the time of Augustus, when he 
dwelt in Monte Palatino, as Dion delivereth, or whether the 
word is not to be found in authors before his time ? 

Whether the heads of all mummies have the mouth open, 
and why ? 

Why solipeds, or whole hoofed animals, arise with their 
fore legs first, bisulcous with their hinder ? 

If a child dieth and the neck groweth not stiff, but con- 
tinueth flaccid many hours after, another will not long after 
die in the same house ; a groundless opinion of many women 
with us. 

Whether, where it is said ( Wisdom 7.), " Deus dedit mihi 
horum quae sunt veram cognitionem," that text implieth his 
knowledge in the metaphysics, that being a science de ente, 
as the other expressions imply his natural and moral know- 
ledge ? 

Whether Noah might not be the first man that compassed 
the globe ? Since, if the flood covered the whole earth, and 
no lands appeared to hinder the current, he must be carried 
with the wind and current according to the sun, and so in the 
space of the deluge, might near make the tour of the globe. 
And since, if there were no continent of America, and all that 
tract a sea, a ship setting out from Africa without other help, 
would at last fall upon some part of India or China. 

Whether that of David, " convertentur ad vesperam et fa- 
mem patientur ut canes," may be prophetically applied to the 
late conversion of the wild Americans, as it is delivered in 
Gloriosus Franciscus Redivivns, or the Chronicles of the 
Acts of the Franciscans, lib. 3. 

Hesiod delivers that none who planted the olive gathered 
of the fruit thereof. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 395 

Theophrastus affirmeth, that the olive grew not, except 
near the sea or within forty miles of it. 

Fenestella delivereth that olives were not to be found in 
Africa, Spain, France, nor Italy. 

• How the Macrocephali, or long-headed people, arose, Hip- 
pocrates hath instructed us. How the Chinese come to have 
such little feet, every history of that country delivereth. But 
how the people of Rovigno come to be lame, so that among 
seven thousand of that city, about a third part are lame, as 
Du Loir hath observed, is yet to be enquired. 

Diogenes, the Cynick, being asked what was the best re- 
medy against a blow, answered a helmet. This answer he 
i gave, not from any experience of his own, who scarce wore 
any covering on his head ; yet he that would see how well a 
i hejmet becometh a cynick, may behold it in that draught of 
I Diogenes, prefixed to his life, in the new edition of the Epi- 
[ tome of Plutarclis Lives, in English ; wherein, in the addi- 
t tional lives, he is set forth, soldier-like, with a helmet and a 
I battle axe. 

Aristotle, lib. animal. 

Whether till after forty days, children, though they cry, 
i weep not ; or, as Scaliger expresseth it, " vagiunt sed oculis 
ji siccis." 

I Whether they laugh not upon tickling ? 
I Why though some children have been heard to cry in the 
I womb, yet so few cry at their birth, though their heads be 
! out of the womb ? 

Traitte de la politique de France. In this French dis- 
s ! course, a hard character is given of the English, and this 
ri among the rest ; — a people fit only for handy strokes, and 
= ready execution, but incapable of managing a war with dis- 
cretion. To refute this by many examples, and even in our 
wars with the French. 



Whether there be any such consent between the horns 



396 EXTRACTS FROM 

and the hoofs in oxen, that the anointing of the horns may 
be of effect in the diseases of the hoofs, as Aristotle delivers, 
and Scaliger directly rejecteth not, lib. 8, Hist. Animal. "In 
podagra pedes tument verum non intereunt, sed ungulas 
amittant, melius continent delibatis pice calida cornibus." 

That a horse is a Zuov <pi\o\ourgov xai tpiXvdgov, may be granted ; 
that, farther considered, which Scaliger addeth in his com- 
ment, "Gaudent lavacris equi praesertim nigri, et maxime qui 
in fine aestatis nati sunt : " lib. 8. 

" Faeniculorum umbeilae, antequam comedantur, aperiantur 
et diligenter concutiantur, ut a vermibus emundentur, a quo- 
rum esu, pessima deveniunt symptomata ;" ex Balthasaro Pi- 
sanello. Enquire more diligently after these worms in due 
season. 

Observe farther the effect of Jacobus Doviretus's remedy 
against the elephantiasis, by a decoctio ulmi, used for many 
days in common drink and a little white wine. 

Observe farther the remedy of Marquardus against angi- 
nas and aposthemes of the throat ; " observatum est come- 
dentem ex cochleari hederse ligneo, et bibentem in aliquo 
vase ligneo hederae, nunquam vel raro in gutturis vel uvulae 
apostema incurrere." 

Whether the feeding on carp be so apt to bring on fits of 
the gout, as Julius Alexandrinus affirmeth ? 

" Mespili lignum collo appensum, mire ab abortu gravidas 
defendere. Confiteor in pleurisi tale remedium fuisse a me 
expertum idque certum et sanum remedium semper inven- 
isse." Baricellus. This is an et/poreston, and worth the 
trying ; the like we have known often to succeed upon the 
wearing of a girdle of sea horse leather, and the eaglestone. 

Cardanus, to try the alteration of the air, exposeth a 
sponge, which groweth dark when the air is inclined to mois- 
ture. Another way I have made more exact trial ; by putting 
a dry piece of sponge into one balance of a gold scale, so 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 397 

equally poised, with weights in the other balance, that it will 
hang without inclining either way. For then upon alteration 
of the air to moisture, the scale with the sponge will fall, and 
when the air grows hot and dry will rise again. The like may 
be done by favago marina, found commonly on the sea shore. 
The change of the weather I have also observed by hang- 
ing up a dry aplyssalus marinus, which grows moist and dry 
according to the air ; as also phasganium marinum, sea laces, 
and others. 

To observe that carbo odoratus, qui sub arthemisios ra- 
dicibus solstitio cestivo colligitur, because it is so highly com- 
mended by Hugenius, for a remedy against the epilepsy, if 
given forty days ; and Baricellus confirmeth it by his own ex- 
perience. 

Syrupus de spina cervina is of frequent and excellent use. 
Try it in tenesmo, which was the experienced medicine of 
Baricellus in that case, in the quantity of %\ aut |ii in vino 
albo aut aqua : the patient to eat sparingly after it, and to 
sleep. 

To observe that insect which a countryman shewed Bari- 
cellus, found in the flowers of Eryngium cichoreum, which 
readily cure warts ; est coloris Thalassini cum maculis rubris, 
et assimulatur proportione corporis cantharidi, licet parvu- 
lum sit. Acceperat ea rusticus, et singula in singulis ver- 
rucis digitis expressit unde exibat liquor. 

"Whether the flowers of verbascum or mullein shake and 
fall most in the morning ; illius enim plantce hcec est proprie- 
tas, ul sole accedente flores decidant. 

To make trial of this ; whether live crawfish put into spirits 
of wine will presently turn red, as though they had been 
boiled, and taken out walk about in that colour. 

In the head of the reddish grey snails without shells, I have 
often found stones or flat testaceous substances. To acquire 



398 EXTRACTS FROM 

some quantity of them ; to make trial of those qualities in 
them, as against quartans, by way of amulet ; in the strangu- 
ry, and for easy delivery if taken inwardly ; and against dry- 
ness and thirst, if held in the mouth in distempers. 

'T is a ludicrous experiment in Baricellus ; to rub napkins 
and handkerchiefs with powder of vitriol for such as sweat 
or have used to wipe their faces ; for so they become black and 
sullied. Whether shirts thus used may not do something 
against itch and lice. Whether shirts washed or well rubbed 
in quicksilver would not be good to that end. 

Since you are so much unsatisfied with the many rational 
medicines which you say you have tried for the gout, you 
have leisure enough to make trial of these empirical medi- 
cines : — 

Wear shoes made of a lion's skin. 

Wear a plaster of montacana upon your feet. 

Try the way of transplantation ; give poultices taken from 
the part unto dogs, and let a whelp lie in the bed with you. 

Use an ointment of ostrich, vulture, and hern's grease. 

Suffocate an eel or frog in your wine, to make thee little 
affected to wine. 

If you are not afraid to be lame without pain, try the re- 
medy of Agrippa, to put your feet in vinegar. 

Try the magnified amulet of Muffetus, of spider's lej 
worn in a deer's skin ; or of tortoise's legs cut off from the 
living tortoise, and wrapped up in the skin of a kid. 

Since you find no benefit in the noble plasters of the Duke 
of Wirtemberg, of King James and of Charles the Fifth, try 
the empl. ciconice made up of stercus ciconice. 

If you have a mind to proceed farther you may see what 
cure may be had from transplantation. And may also con- 
sider of the sigil of Paracelsus. 

To consider that of Cardan in his Encomium Podagra, 
whether the gout freeth and preserveth from the stone in the 
bladder and the pthysis of the lungs, which he reckons in 
many the dona podagra. 

Yet Sir Arthur Jenny, who had often fits of the gout, died 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 399 

of the stone in the bladder. He had a remarkable cough 
above forty years, but no proper pthysis when he died. 

Whether podagrical persons have the best palates, and are 
the choicest tasters of wine, and commonly discursive persons. 

Cur claudi venerei, gibbosi dolosi, strabi fraudulenti, calvi 
in actionibus prompti ? 

The emperor Severus, Budaeus, Erasmus, Julius Scaliger, 
great examples of the gout. 

Erasmus e cubili podagrse quicquid legi meretur expromp- 
sit : prasclarissima scriptorum monumenta podagrse debemus. 

Three magnified plasters set down by Zozelius de poda- 
gra : one of the Duke of Wirtemberg, another of King 
James, a third of Charles the Fifth ; to examine these well, 
and whether a plain anodyne cataplasm affordeth not better 
relief in red and inflamed gouts, which so impatiently endure 
plasters. 

Eat partridge's eggs. 

To consider and try the two notable amulets in that case, 

,i one from the feet of a tortoise cut off alive and 

< worn in kid's skin ; the other of Muffetus from spider's legs 
worn in a deer's skin. 

To examine the success and cures said to be wrought by 
I transplantation in that disease. 

j 
i 

To try that way of purging by lapis lazuli, unto which 

j Brasavolus, de medicamentis purgantibus, so much encou- 

i rageth. R Lap. lazuli prepar. 3j camphoree, anisi, cin. zin- 

i zib. mastick ; ana gr. vj. cum sue. salviae, vel diacatholicon, q. s. 

fiant pilulsex. C. first trying 1. laz. jij, which is also commended 

by Gioravanti to try also what effect it hath by infusion. 

Whether purging pomanders may prove of any effectual use. 

Gaddius in Scriptores upon William the Conqueror, writes 
t that he wrote a book de Supremo puniendi Judicio ; whether 
hereby be any more meant than that register which is called 
Doomsday Book. 

To cleanse and clear pearls by washing or steeping them 
i in May dew taken from lettuces. Boet. 



400 EXTRACTS FROM 

Whether a true emerald feels colder in the mouth than 
another. 

Whether the way of Amatus Lusitanus be to be followed, 
to clip the leeches after they are fastened unto the haemor- 
rhoids or other parts. Centuria 5ta. 

Whether aloe be so powerful a fecundating medicine as 
he confidently promiseth. 5ta. 

W T hether his test of fecundity which he peculiarly com- 
mended, be to be insisted upon ; coaguli leporis 3j. aqua 
calida dissoluti, et mulieri in balneo existenti exhibiti; si ventri 
dolores accidant Jcecunda est, si non, infcecunda. Cent. Qta. 

How far to rely upon his remedy for the increase of milk, 
from the powder of hippocampe, or cavallo marino, found in 
many shores of Italy. Centuria 4-ta. Since neither Diasco- 
rides, Mathiolus, nor others mention such quality, and chiefly 
receive it as remedy against the biting of a mad dog. 



Since these few observations please you, for your farther 
discourse and consideration, I would not omit to send you a 
larger list, scatteringly observed out of good authors, relating 
unto medical enquiry, and whereof you may single out one 
daily to discourse upon it ; which may be a daily recreation 
unto you, and employ your evening hours, where your affairs 
afford you the conversation of studious and learned friends. 

Plut. in vita Tim. 

Timoleon his sight beginning to fail he lost it at last alto- 
gether. Athanasus writes that as he was in his camp at Mylles, 
there came a white spot in his eyes that dimmed [his] eyes 
somewhat, so that every one perceived that he should lose his 
sight altogether. 

Plut. in vita Cleomenis. 

It chanced that Cleomenes marching thither, being very 
hot, drank cold water, and fell on such a bleeding withal that 
his voice was taken from him and he almost stifled. 



COMMON PLACE COOKS. 401 

Hippotus pricked Cleomenes in the heel, to see if he were 
yet alive; whether this were not a good way of trial upon so 
sensible a part. 

Now a disease took Antigonus, King of Macedon, whereon 
he died, which appeared a phthisis mixed with a sore catarrh, 
and fiercely crying in the fight, he tore his lungs worse than 
they were before. 

In vita Pyrrhi. 

Men hold opinion that he did heal those that were sick of 
the spleen, by sacrificing a white cock, and touching the place 
of the spleen with his right foot, they lying on their backs. 
There was none so poor that he denied that remedy, and took 
the cock he sacrificed for a reward, which pleased him very 
well. 

Ammianus Marcellinus in vita Juliani. 

A horseman's javelin pierced within his short ribs and stuck 
fast in the nether lappet or fillet of his liver : and by reason 
the wound opened very wide, and the tumour of the veins 
and arteries stopped his spirits, as also with drinking of a 
draught of cold water, he was easily dispatched this life. 

Ammianus Marcellinus in vita Joviani. 

He was found dead in his bed. It is said he could not en- 
dure the smell of his bedchamber newly plastered with mor- 
tar made of lime, or that he came to his end occasioned by 
an huge fire kindled of coals, others, that he crammed his 
belly so full that he died of a surfeit. Whether all these causes 
be not allowable ? 

Plut. in vita Julii Ccesaris. 

There fell a pestilent disease among them, which came by 
ill meats which hunger drove them to eat ; but after he had 
taken the city of Gomphes, in Thessalie, he met not only 
with plenty of victuals, but strangely did rid them of that 
disease ; for the soldiers meeting with plenty of wine, drank 
hard, and making merry, drank away the infection of the 
vol. iv. -2 D 



402 EXTRACTS FROM 

pestilence : in so much that drinking drunk they overcame 
their disease and made their bodies new again. The soldiers 
were driven to take sea weeds, called alga, and washing away 
the brackishness thereof with sea water, putting to it a little 
herb, called dogstooth, to cast it to their horses to eat. 

The country of Thessaly became the more considerable 
unto me, because it hath produced many famous persons, and 
been the seat of many notable actions : and more especially 
because the famous Hippocrates, and father of physicians, 
lived and practised in it, as may be collected from the oration 
of his son Thessa unto the Athenians, and the description of 
his life, by Soranus, annexed unto his works ; wherein 't is 
delivered that he was admonished by dream to live in Thes- 
saly, that he had an habitation in Thessaly, that the princes 
and rulers of the barbarian nation of Illyria and Pasonia sent 
unto him, as also the King of Macedonia, that he died in or 
about Larissa ; that he was buried between Gyrton and La- 
rissa, and has had of old a monument in those parts. And it 
may be also observed that in the books of Hippocrates, where 
he sets down the particular progress of diseases of his patients, 
unto life and death, together with their names and places of 
habitation, it may be observed that he mentions many places 
of Thessaly, but of any one place the greatest number of 
his patients were of Larissa. 

That America was peopled of old, not from one, but se- 
veral nations, seems probable from learned discourses con- 
cerning their originals : and whether the Tyrians and Car- 
thaginians had not a share therein may be well considered; 
and if the periplus of Hanno or his navigation about Africa 
be warily perpended, it may fortify that conjecture ; for he 
passed the straits of Hercules with a great fleet and many 
thousand persons of both sexes ; founded divers towns, and 
placed colonies in several parts of that shore ; and sailed in 
tolerable account as far about as that place now called Cabo 
de Tres Puntas. 

To these there is little question but the Carthaginians 
sometimes repaired, and held communication with them. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 403 

The colonies also being a people of civility conld not but 
continue the use of navigation ; so that either the Carthagi- 
nians in their after researches might be carried away by the 
trade winds between the tropics, or finding therein no difficult 
navigation might adventure on such a voyage ; and also their 
colonies left on so convenient a shore might casually, if not 
purposely, make the same adventure. 

The Chinese also could hardly avoid, at least might easily 
have, a part in their originals. For the east winds being very 
rare, and the west almost constantly blowing from their 
shore, being once at sea they were easily carried to the back 
part of America. 

If there were ever such a great continent in the western 
ocean, as was hinted of old by Plato, and the learned Kir- 
cherus considers might by subterraneous eruptions be partly 
swallowed up and overthrown, and partly leave the islands 
i yet remaining in the ocean, it is not impossible or improbable 
that from great antiquity some might be carried from thence 
upon the American coast, or some way be peopled from those 
parts. 

While Attahualpa, King of Peru, and Montezuma, King 
of Mexico, might owe their originals unto Asia or Africa, 

Since the Indian inhabitants are found, at least conceived, 
to have peopled the southern continent, whether these, after 
Idebating over terra incognita, might not pass or be carried 
over into Magellanica or the south of America, may also be 
enquired, and some might not come in at this door. 

If any plantations of civil nations were ever made from 
Icivil nations, how it comes to pass that letters and writing was 
unknown unto all the parts of America. 

Why no wonder is likewise made how the Islas de los La- 
'drones, or islands of thieves, were peopled, since they are so 
Tar removed from any neighbour continent. 

Strabo, lib. 4. 
Garumna et Ligeris. — Hi duo fluvii quodammodo parallel 

2 o 2 



404' EXTRACTS FROM 

sunt respectu Pyrenes, ac cum ea duas includunt parallel- 
ogrammas areas, quarum reliqua latera oceano et Cemmenis 
montibus describuntur. 

Whether Strabo rightly understood the whole current of 
these rivers while he illustrates their content by two pai*allel- 
ograms, which must be made out with so great a latitude, 
especially if you take not in the river Tarne, which runs into 
the Garonne, and whether this illustration be not more agree- 
able unto the Isara and Druentia, the Lisere, and the Du- 
rance, and the Mediterranean sea, the two other sides being 
made by the Rhodanus and the Alps ? 

To reconcile the differences between Hippocrates, de aere, 
aquis, et locis, and Avianus de Periplo Ponti Euxini, about 
the description of the river Phasis ; which the one makes 
a stagnant, the other a swift river ; Hippocrates a corrupt- 
ing water, Avianus affirms it will keep uncorrupted many 
years. 

Aristot. lib. 8, cap. 22, de hist. Animalium. 

How to make out that of Aristotle that all creatures bit by 
a mad dog become mad, excepting man : since by unhappy 
experience so many men have been mischieved thereby ; or 
whether it holdeth not better at second than at first hand, so 
that if a dog bite a horse, and that horse a man, the evil 
proves less considerable, as we seem to have observed in 
many. Whether St. Bellin's priests cure any after the hy- 
drophobia ; whether hellebore, tin, garlick, treacle, and pitlvis 
palmarii be the prime remedies against this poison ; and why 
the use of alyssum galeni is not more in request ; and how the 
cornel and service tree become such mischievous promoters 
of that venom ; and how far this venom takes place in Ireland, 
where they have no venomous creature, and not long ago very 
few quartan agues. 

What intent or what advantage the Helvetians might have, 
when quitting their country in Caesar's time, being hindered 
from coming into Province, they designed to march into Xan- 
toigne a country so remote from them. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 405 

How to make out that of Strabo, that the river Rhine runs 
parallel to that of Seine whereon Paris standeth, or that from 
the mouth of Rhine a man may see a part of Kent. 

Urbs Nemansus Arecomicorum caput. Sita est urbs in 
via qua? ex Hispania in Italiam ducit per aestatem commoda, 
hyeme et vere lutosa ac fluviorum eluvie molesta, fluviorum 
quidam scaphis trajiciuntur, alii pontibus instrati." How this 
to be construed when 't is seated in a dry soil, and the ordi- 
nary rivers of the Vidurle, and the Gardon eight miles from 
it, and since for the commodity of water they were fain to 
convey it by a subterraneous aqueduct, about ten miles off, 
conveying the water over the Gardon, by an unparalleled 
bridge, yet standing, and making that famous antiquity of 
Port du Gard, near Remolins, not far out of the way be- 
tween Avignon and Nismes. 

When Strabo delivereth that Nismes exceeded Narbona 
i in dominion but not in populosity, whether it must not be un- 
i derstood in order to his time, who lived in the reign of Au- 
i gustus ; and not so verifiable in the reign of Domitian, Ad- 
i rian, and Antoninus, who being born in that place, added all 

advantages unto it, as did also Adrian in raising to 

I his empress. And since he that beholds the circuit of the 

old ruined wall, will hardly conceive it to have been much 
j less than Paris, and larger at least than any other city in Gal- 
i lia ; and bearing still for its arms the crocodile bound to a 
j palm tree, so often to be met with in ancient medals, whether 
J it doth not retain as ancient arms as any city in Europe ? 

Whether the Romans had not as many or more theatres 
iand amphitheatres in a piece of Gallia, than in all their other 
conquests of Europe, out of Italy ; since southward of the 
1 Loir they left no less than fourteen ; as namely, at Poictiers, 
Pont de Sey, Sainctes, Perigueux, Bourdeaux, Bourges, 
Lyons, Vienne, Aurange, Tholouse, Nismes, Aries, Antibes, 
i and Naxbonne. 

When Annibal marched out of Spain for Italy, no mention 



40G EXTRACTS FROM 

is made how he passed the river Atax or Aude with his ele- 
phants ; whether he declined the Vidurle, or forded the Gar- 
don ; no mention I say is made of passing the rivers till he 
arrived at the Rhosne, which with great artifice, labour, and 
unquietness of his elephants, and also opposition of the Gauls 
on the other side, he got over ; how he passed the Isere, a 
great and rapid river, is not at all delivered ; at what part he 
crossed the Rhosne is not directly specified ; but since the 
Volca? and Arecomici which had fled to the other side op- 
posed him, 't is most probable he passed over from Vivarez, 
between Valence and Orange, or below the great and swift 
river of Isara, or L'Isere. For Hanno went twenty-five miles 
above, and crossed the Rhosne with his horse, to fall upon 
the rear of the Gauls, which faced Annibal's camp below, 
and where he was to pass ; so that they passed below the 
Isere to prevent a second trouble and have a better retreat. 
'T is also said by Livy, that Annibal being got over, sent a 
party of Numidian scouts to discover the Roman army, 
whereof the main body lay in Province ; which he probably 
would not have done if he had been encamped above the 
Isere. It is likewise delivered, that Cornelius Scipio, march- 
ino- out of Province unto the place of Annibal's camp, found 
him gone three days, so that probably concluding he must be 
passed the Isere, he thought it not safe to force his pass over 
the river against so strong a power, which was now beyond 
his approach. And whereas it is affirmed by Livy and Plu- 
tarch, that in four encampings he arrived to the concurrence 
of the river Soane and Rhosne, where Lyons now standeth, 
it may be conceived he made speedy marches to avoid Scipio 
behind him, and by all means declined battle, until he might 
come into Italy, when he hoped to have the Cisalpine Gauls 
to join with him. 

And surely though the longest this was the wisest way, to 
decline the maritime Alps, or march through Province, where 
the Roman army must have met him ; wherein Scipio seemed 
to have committed the oversight ; for if he had hastened to 
join with the many thousand Gauls which opposed Annibal's 
passing over the Rhosne, he had probably prevented the en- 
suing calamity of Italy ; whereas having lost that opportunity, 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 407 

he made hard shift to return into Italy, and could not meet 
with Annibal before he came to the Tesin by Pavia, where 
himself was like to lose his life, and the Romans lost the 
battle. 

'T was surely a noble sight to behold that numerous and 
mixed army, with elephants and baggage to force their way 
i over this impetuous river, and only second unto the siege of 
Alexia, and confederate strength of Gallia. Though the 
memorable battle of Charles Martel with the Saracens and 
numerous forces of Atius the Roman general, and Attila the 
Hun, and his- great defeat by Tholouse, [be of high con-, 
sideration. 

■ 

Which way Annibal took towards the Alps or over them, 
i is very uncertain, till we more clearly understand that passage 
of Livy, that parting towards them he marched not the direct 
way, but took the left hand toward the Tricastines, and so on 
the borders of the Vocontians unto the Tricorians ; and had 
no impediment till he came at the river Druentia, which is 
rendered the Durance. Now if he took the left hand in re- 
ference unto Gallia, he could not well come at the Vocontians 
iand the Durance ; if the left accounting from Rome, he could 
not well pass at the Pennine Alps, and mount Bernard, as is 
; commonly conceived, nor fall upon the Durance. 
I 

Whether the commodity of situation have not always been 
(the great advantage of places, and especially that of Lyons. 
| When Hannibal marched to the concurrence of the Soane and 
dthe Rhosne, where that city now standeth, there was no men- 
tion of Lyons, which upon the best record was built by Lu- 
cius Munacius Plancus ; and yet not longer after than in the 
itime of Strabo, it was in his expression the most populous 
place of all Gallia, except Narbonne. And by this conveni- 
ence, it still maintaineth the second place of France, as mak- 
ing the passage from England, France, Italy, Spain, and Ger- 
many ; and had been more advanced if the lieutenant of Nero 
had gone through with his design to unite the Soane and the 
Moselle, and so to have made a water passage from the mid- 
land sea unto the German ocean ; and the like some of the 



408 EXTRACTS FROM 

kings of France have seriously designed between the Aude 
and the Garonne. 

How to make good the account of Benjamin Tudelensis, 
the Jew, concerning Montpellier, or as he calls it, Montpes- 
lier, who passing that way from Spain unto Jerusalem, about 
five hundred years ago, hath thus delivered himself. " Locus 
est quo ex omni loco ad mercaturam confluunt Christianorum 
et Mohammedanorum pluritni, e regionibus Algarbiae, Lom- 
bardiaa, et regno magno illius Romas, universo Regno iEgyp- 
tio, terra Israelitica, et Grsecia, Gallia, Hispania et Anglia, 
adeo ut ex omnium linguarum populo ibidem reperientur, una 
cum Gervensibus et Pisanis." Whether this may be made 
out from history or probability since it hath no port nor any 
considerable river, and Marseilles not far off hath carried a 
main trade as the same author delivers, " hsec civitas maritima 
celeberrima est commerciis." 

Whether after all the mutations of Gallia, by nations, laws, 
and customs, the temper of the present Gauls makes not 
good that of the old, as Strabo hath set it down. " Animosi, 
stolidi, arrogantes, ornatus studiosi." 

Whether the Burgundians, who possessed both Burgun- 
dies, Lyonois, Dauphiny, and much of Provence, did politi- 
cally place the seat of their kingdom at Aries ? 

Whether the observation of Strabo concerning Gallia hold 
true in all nations, that the maritime inhabitants are the most 
fighting men ? 

How to salve that of Ptolemy who placeth the mouth of 
Rhenus in the latitude of 54, which is rather agreable unto 
the mouth of the river Elbe or Albis. 

Whether it must not be rather taken for an extraordinary 
then ordinary course of passage when 'tis delivered by Strabo, 
lib. 5. " A Placentia autem Ravennam secundo Pado naviga- 
tur, duobus diebus naturalibus," as Xilander hath rendered it? 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 409 

Since Italy at first view so tolerably resembleth a leg, whe- 
ther if the ancients had handsome or tolerable maps, it be not 
somewhat strange how Pliny should compare it unto an oak 
leaf, or Eustathius to an ivy ? 

Since a great part of Gallia Cisalpina was confessedly over- 
run and inhabited by Gallic nations, and the Galli, Senones, 
and Cenomani, are brought as far as from the countries about 
Sens and Lemaine, whether it be not more probable that the 
Heneti or Veneti came rather from the Gallic Veneti in Bri- 
tanie, when Vannes yet retains their name, than from the an- 
cient Trojans, as Strabo hath left some account, may well 
admit of doubt. 

How Ausonius, in a large description of Burdeaux, his own 
native city, omitteth any mention of the two famous antiqui- 
ties, thereof Palais de Tutele and Palais de Galien, or the 
Amphitheatre, the ruins thereof are yet to be seen in that 
city ? 

How Strabo, who mentioneth many ordinary rivers in Gal- 
lia, should omit the considerable streams of the Mosa and the 
Scaldis, the Maze and the Scheldt, and mention none between 
the Sequana and the Rhine. 

How Strabo can be made out, when he delivereth that that 
part of Britany which lieth against Gallia is the largest side 
thereof; or whether the Romans well understood the dimen- 
sions of this island before the time of Vespasian, when Agri- 
cola his lieutenant caused some ships to sail about the island. 

When Strabo saith that the old Britans paid for tribute 
"frsena eburnea," whether this must not be rather taken for 
such as were made of the teeth of cetaceous and great fishes, 
rather resembling than proper ivory or elephant's teeth, since 
Solinus observeth that they made use of such and made hafts 
of swords therewith, as they still do in more northern regions. 

Whether Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, were swallowed up 



410 EXTRACTS FROM 

in the earth as 'tis commonly conceived, or rather Dathan and 
Abiram, and yet not Corah ; who was burnt, if we strictly 
consult the original. And what in that point is alleged for 
it by Estius ? 

Whether that passage of Deut. 28, verse 68, " classibus 
reducet in iEgyptum," be not sufficiently made out by the 
record of Josephus, when Titus, after the taking of Je- 
rusalem, sent all or most under seventeen years of age into 
Egypt. 

If the prophet Jonah were contemporary unto Jeroboam and 
Osias, as good commentators determine, it is in vain to think 
he was the woman of Sareptha's son. 

"Whether, when he intended from Joppa unto Tarsis, he 
was bound for Tarsis in Cilicia, Tartessus in Baetica, of Spain, 
or Tarsis by which sometimes Carthage is called, it is not of 
moment to decide. 'T is plain that they were strangers of the 
ship, since every one called upon his God, and since they de- 
manded from whence he was ; which, although they did not 
by an interpreter, yet if they were of the colonies of the 
Phasnicians, either of Tartessus or Carthage, their language 
having no small affinity with the Hebrew, they might have 
been understood. 

The story of Jonah might afford the hint unto that of An- 
dromeda and the sea monster, that should have devoured her ; 
the scene being laid at Joppa by the fabulists : as also unto 
the fable of Hercules out of Lycophron, three nights in the 
whale's belly, that is of Hercules Phcenicius. 

Some nations of the Scythians affected only or chiefly to 
make use of mares in their wars, because they do not stop in 
their course to stale like horses. Quaere. 

Plutarch. — He that killed Caius Gracchus and cut off his 
head, was to be rewarded with the weight thereof in gold ; to 
advance the weight thereof he took out the brains and putting 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 41 I 

lead into it, made it weigh seventeen pounds and the third part 
of a pound. How much this exceedeth the ordinary weight 
of a head ? 

Plutarch. — To render their iron money unserviceable to 
other uses, the Lacedaemonians quenched it in vinegar. This 
way might make it brittle, but withal very apt to rust. In- 
quire farther of their drinking cup named cothon. 

Whether that rigid commonwealth were not more strict in 
the rule and order, than measure, of their diet, or how their 
provision cometh short of a regular and collegian diet, when 
every one brought monthly into the hall one bushel of meal, 
eight gallons of wine, five pounds of cheese, and two pounds 
and half of figs, beside money for sudden and fresh diet. 

What to judge of that law that permitted them not to have 
lights to guide them home from the common hall in the night, 
that so they might be emboldened to walk and shift in the dark. 

Though many things in that state promoted temperance, 
fortitude, and prudence ; yet were there many also culpable 
to high degrees ; as justifying theft, adultery, and murder: 
while they encouraged men to steal, and the grand crime 
thereof was to be taken in the action : while they admit of 
others to lie with their wives, and had not the education of 
their own children : while they made no scruple to butcher 
their slaves in great numbers : and while they had apothetes 
or places to make away with their children which seemed 
weak or not to strongly shapen as to promise lusty men : and 
therefore well needed that Pagan fallacy that these ways were 
confirmed and ratified by the oracle of Delphos. 

It was the custom of their midwives not to wash their child- 
ren with water but with wine and water, whereby, if they were 
weak, they extenuated and much pined. Which whether a 
reasonable test of constitutions may be doubted. 

Cato Utican being to convey a great treasure from Cyprus 
unto Rome, he made divers little chests and put into every 
one two talents and five hundred drachms, and tied unto each 
a long rope with a large piece of cork, that, if the ship should 



412 EXTRACTS FROM 

miscarry, the corks might shew where the chests laid at the 
bottom of the sea. A good piece of providence, and done 
like Cato. Whether not still to be practiced, if the make of 
our ships, with deck upon deck, would admit of it. 

Upon the 16th day of October, Caspio was overcome by 
the Cambrians, and Lucullus obtained a battle over Tigranes 
and the Asian forces, scarce to be matched since. From this 
and the like a hint may be taken to compose an historical ca- 
lendar, affixing unto each day the famous battles, actions, 
events, and occurrences, which authentic accounts and best 
records afford from ancient and not too late delivery. Which 
may daily serve to revive to mind, the greatest memorials of 
time ; wherein may be observed how thin some days, how full 
some others have been, in the great concerns of the world, and 
some days sufficient to afford the discourse of a volume. 

How the ancients made the north part of Britain to bend 
so unseasonably eastward, according to the old map, agree- 
able unto Ptolemy ? Or how Pliny could so widely mistake 
as to place the Isle of Wight between Ireland and England, 
if it be not mistaken for the Isle of Man or Anglesea. 

Julius Caesar being hard put to it near Alexandria, leaped 
into the sea, and, laying some books on his head, made shift 
to swim a good way with one hand. Sertorius being wound- 
ed in a battle with the Cambrians, with his corslet and target 
swam over the river Rhosne. He that hath seen that river 
may doubt which was the harder exploit. 

Upon the memorable overthrow of the Cambrians, not far 
from Verona, by Marius and Catullus, the contention arose 
whose soldiers were most effective to the victory. For that 
decision Catullus conducted the ambassadors of Parma, then 
in the camp, to view the bodies of the dead, where they might 
behold the pila, or Roman javelots, in their bodies, which 
Plutarch saith had Catullus's name upon them. Whether 
this were not extraordinary, for we read not of such a con- 
stant custom to set their leader's names upon them. 






COMMON* PLACE BOOKS. 413 

The apology of Socrates in Plato, concludeth thus, when 
he was to drink the cup of poison. " Verum jam abeundi 
tempus et mihi morituro, vobis autem victuris: utri autem 
nostrum sit melius, omnibus quidem incognitum, soli autem 
deo notum, existimo." Whether this be fairly rendered by 
Cicero (Tusculan Qucest. lib. i.). " Utrum sit melius dii im- 
mortales sciunt, hominum autem neminem existimo?" For 
herein for deus he puts in dii immortales, whereas his charge 
was that he contemned the gods of Athens ; and in his last 
words, when men speak freely and without fear, he delivers 
himself not plurally, but, according as he believed, makes 
mention but of one God. 

When Julius Csesar, after a hard siege, took the city of 
Marseilles, he spared the same, and would not demolish it for 
the antiquity thereof. And whether it be not the most an- 
cient city of Gallia, as having a known erection by a colony of 
i the Phocenses, about the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, some 
i doubt may be made. For though these may be more ancient 
habitations, yet none of that continued story, civility, place, 
and walled ; especially if that be true which Justin deliver- 
eth, that the Massilians first taught the Gauls to wall their 
i towns. 

Whether not also the place of most ancient civility, since 
i Caesar delivers that the Belgians were the most fierce and 
warlike nation of Gallia, as being less civilized and most re- 
i mote a cultu Provincial. Which country was civilized, and 
i much peopled by the Massilians, and who extended their co- 
] lonies along that shore from Aries to Niza and Antibes. And 
I though it be no university at present, whether it hath not 
1 been the most ancient place of study, in this western part of 
] Europe ; since in Strabo's time not only the Gauls but the 
1 Romans resorted thither rather than unto Athens. 

Upon a very great exclamation of a multitude, at the plays 
a and shows, some crows flying at that time over, fell unto the 
. ground, as Plutarch delivereth in the life of Titus Flamminius. 
Whether the reasons alledged by him attain the cause there- 
of? Plutarch, in vita Titi Flamminii. 



414 EXTRACTS FROM 

At the city of Gratianopolis, or Grenoble, in Dauphine, 
upon the swift river L'Isere, there is a bridge of boats, some- 
what like that of Rouen in Normandy ; contrived at first with 
great cost and pains. In the like kind the Roman labours 
were more notably carried on. Plancus, the Roman general, 
made a bridge over it in one day. What time was taken in 
building the admirable bridge of Trajan over the Danube, 
whose ruins are to be seen near Severin, in the confines of 
Valachia and Transylvania; it is not delivered in Dion, who 
so wonderingly writeth of it. But Caesar's bridge over the 
Rhine was raised in ten days, after that the materials were 
brought. In not many days they could build a large fleet, 
since we read in Valerius, that in sixty days the same trees 
made both a wood and a complete navy. Among the many 
strange and stupendous bridges of China, that of Phogen 
were worth the sight ; which being made over the river Cro- 
ceus, from one hill unto another, consisted but of one arch of 
no less than four hundred cubits over. 

The rivers of countries may commodiously be divided into 
principal, capital, or sea rivers, which immediately discharge 
into the sea; or else into accessionary, or such as are dis- 
charged into main rivers, and so immediately enter the sea. 

To exemplify in France : where are considerable, four less 
principal streams, Charente, Some, the river of Baiona, the 
Atax or Aude at Narbona ; four also main principal rivers* 
the Sequana or Seine, Ligeris or La Loire, the Rhodanus or 
Rhone, and the Garumna or Garonne. 

The considerable accessionary rivers run into one of the 
four great ones. 

Into the Seine run the Marne, the Oyse, the Yonne. 

Into the Loire on the south runneth the Allier, the Cher, 
La Crease, Vienne. On the north Le Loire, Sarire. 

Into the Rhone passeth the Araris or Soane, (having before 
received into itself the Doubis or Dou) the Isare or Lisere, 
and the Druentia or Durance. 

Into the Garonne are discharged the Dordanne, the Loch, 
and the Tarne. 

The advantages of these rivers were not neglected by the 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 415 

old Gauls and Romans in the conveyance of their commodi- 
ties ; which as Strabo delivers they sent up by the Atax, and 
so over land unto the Garunna, and likewise up the Rhosne, 
and so over land to the Seine, and so into the ocean. But 
when Diodorus Siculus delivers that the Romans brought 
their tin out of Cornwall into Gaul, and so by horses in thirty 
days, either unto the heads of the Po, or to the city Narbona ; 
they undertook a hard journey, and with little or no advan- 
tage of rivers. 

The considerable cities of countries are likewise commodi- 
ously divided into three magnitudes, subdividing every mag- 
nitude into as many degrees. 

To exemplify in France. In the first magnitude, and the 
first degree of that magnitude, Paris ; in the second degree 
of that magnitude, Lyons ; and the third, Rouen, Tholouse, 
Poictiers. 

In the second magnitude, and first degree thereof, Orleans, 
Bourdeaux, Angiers. 

In the second degree, Aix, Nantes ; 

In the third, Dijon, Grenoble, Marseilles, Avignon, Never s, 
Tours. 

In the third magnitude, and first degree thereof, Rennes, 
Carcassonne, Rochelle ; 

In the second of the third magnitude, Troies, Montpellier, 
Amiens ; 

In the third, Agen, Vienne, Valance, Sainctes. 

St. Vincent, whose name the noble cathedral of Lisbon 
beareth, was a courageous and undaunted martyr in the per- 
secution of Dioclesianus and Maximianus. Attacked at 
Evora, by Dacianus the Roman governor, and afterwards 
racked and tortured to death at Abyla, the Moors dispersed 
his bones at St. Vincent's, a place upon the Promontorium 
Sacrum of Ptolemy, now called the Cape of St. Vincent, the 
most western head-land of Europe. Upon my print of St. 
Vincent these few lines may be inscribed, 

Extorque, si potes, fidem, 

Tormenta, career, ungulae, 

Stridensque flammis lamina, 




41G EXTRACTS FROM 

Atque ipsa poenarum ultima, 
Moi's, Christianis ludus est. 

Prudentius in hymno St. Vincentii. 

Though in point of devotion and piety, physicians do meet 
with common obloquy, yet in the Roman calendar we find no 
less than twenty-nine saints and martyrs of that profession, in 
a small piece expressly described by Bzovius (in his Nomen- 
clature/, sanctorum prqfessione medicorum). A clear and na- 
ked history of holy men, of all times and nations, is a work 
yet to be wished. Many persons there have been, of high 
devotion' and piety, which have no name in the received 
canon of saints ; and many now only live in the names of 
towns, wills, tradition, or fragments of local records. Where- 
in Cornwall seems to exceed any place of the same circuit, 
if we take an account of those obscure and probably Irish 
saints to be found in Carew's survey of that country, afford- 
ing names unto the churches and towns thereof; which clearly 
to historify might prove a successless attempt. Even in 
France, many places bear the names of saints, which are not 
commonly understood. St. Malo, is Maclovius ; Disier, De- 
siderius; St. Arigle, St. Agricola ; St. Omer, St. Audomarus. 
Many more there are, as St. Chamas, St. Urier, St. Loo, 
Saincte Menehoud, St. Saulye, St. Trouve, St. Riquier, §t. 
Papoul, St. Oaen ; and divers others which may employ your 
enquiry. 

Plutarch in the Life of Agesilaus. 

Menecrates, the physician, arrogantly usurped the name of 
Jupiter, presuming, in a letter, he wrote unto Agesilaus, to 
subscribe in this manner, "Menecrates Jupiter unto King 
Agesilaus, greeting." Agesilaus wrote again unto him, " Age- 
silaus unto Menecrates, health." 

Whether this translation be not made rather unto the pre- 
sent practise, to subscribe names unto our letters, than unto 
the ancient mode either above or at the beginning of the let- 
ter, according as we may observe from many in Laertius, the 
epistolary works of Greek authors, and the epistle of Festus 
unto Felix, may be doubted. Or whether iinsruXai, in the 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 417 

original, ought to be translated, to subscribe ; and when the 
present manner of subscribing names began, and what ancient 
copy might be produced for our practise, may also be en- 
quired. 

Agesilaus was going up into the counsel house in the castle, 
where suddenly took him a great cramp in his left leg, that 
swelled extremely and put him to great pain. Men thinking 
it had been but blood which filled the vein, a physician being 
there opened a vein under the ancle of his foot, which made 
the pain to cease, but there came such abundance of blood 
that they could not stanch it, so that he swooned often, and 
was in danger of present death. In fine a way was found to 
stop it, and they carried him to Lacedaemon ; where he lay 
sick a long time, so that he was past going to the wars any 
more. Herein to consider the nature of the disease, the ra- 
tionality of the cure, and by what way probably they stanched 
the bleeding. 

Xenophon writes that his daughter's canathrum was no- 
thing more sumptuous than any others were. A canathrum 
in Lacedaemon, is a kind of coach or chariot, after the like- 
ness of griffins, harts, or goats, upon which they carried young 
wenches in solemn procession in the city. To make an icon, 
figure, or draught, of a canathrum, according to the best ac- 
counts which are left thereof. 

The punishment of such as fled from the battle, whom they 
called at Sparta trepidantes, was this. They can bear no 
office in the commonwealth ; it is a shame and reproach to 
give them any wives, and also to marry any of theirs ; whoso- 
ever meeteth them may lawfully strike them, and they must 
abide it, not giving them any word again ; they are compelled 
to wear poor tattered cloth gowns, patched with cloth of divei's 
colours ; and worst of all, to shave one side of their beards 
and the other not. Whether the severity of this law of La- 
cedaemon, and which sometimes they durst not put in execu- 
tion, were ingenious, rational, and commodious, or to be drawn 
into example. 

VOL. IV, 2 E 



418 EXTRACTS FROM 

Whether Pompey committed not two great oversights ii 
the war against Julius Caesar; the one in not returning out of 
Greece with his army into Italy, while Caesar was gone into 
Spain ; the other in deferring battle, and not setting upon 
Caesar when he was so distressed for victuals. 

In the city of Padua, Cornelius, an excellent soothsayer, 
was by chance, at that time when the battle of Pharsalia was 
fought, set to behold the flying of birds. He, as Livy re- 
porteth, knew the very time when the battle began, and told 
them that were present, even now they give the onset on both 
sides, and after cried out, O Caesar, the victory is thine. And 
every man wondering, he took the crown from his head, and 
said he would never put it on again, till the event had proved 
his art true. 

Pint, in vita Julii C. — Si questa relatione non si debbia 
riporre fra farfalloni degl' istorichi antichi di Lancellotto. 

In vita Alexandri. 

He understood, by the countrymen, that the river Ganges 
was tvvo-and-thirty furlongs over, and an hundred fathoms 
deep. Whether this may not be made out upon comparison 
with the river of Amazons, according unto the late descrip- 
tion thereof translated out of French. 

Thither came Nearchus's admiral unto him, who made re- 
port of what he had seen and done in his navigation. Alex- 
ander was so glad of that, as he was desirous to sail by sea 
himself, and so entering into the ocean by the mouth of Eu- 
phrates, to compass in all the coasts of Arabia and Africa, 
and thence into the Mediterranean sea, by the straights of the 
pillars of Hercules. Who can but wish this had been per- 
formed, although not by himself. A bold design it may seem 
in those days, and yet seeming far greater unto us than unto 
them, who might hope the coast of Africa ran nothing near 
so far southward as we now find it; nor how the coast of Af- 
rica bore out to make a large sail before they could attain 
the straits of Hercules. Yet Herodotus reports the same 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 419 

was clone before ; that Necho, King of Egypt, by the help of 
Phoenicians, sailed from the Red Sea, round about Africa, 
unto Cadiz. 

A Macedonian, as he digged in a certain place by the 
river of Oxus, to set up the king's tent, he found a certain 
fat and oily vein, which, after he had drawn out the first, there 
came out also another clearer, which differed nothing, either 
in smell, taste, or savour, from natural oil, having the gloss 
and fatness so like, as there could be discerned no difference 
between them ; the which was so much the more to be won- 
dered at, because that in all that country there were no olives : 
nor needed there any, this being a kind of petroleum spring 
and natural oil, not vegetable and artificial. 

Alexander, having won the city of Susa, he found to the 
value of five thousand talents weight of purple Hermione silk, 
which they had locked up safe, and kept the space of two 
hundred years, and yet the colour kept as fresh as if it had 
been newly made. Some say the cause why it was so well 
kept, came by means of the dying of it with honey in silks 
which before had been dyed red, and with white oil in white 
silks, which before had been dyed red. For there are silks 
seen of that colour that keep colour as long as the other. 
(To be farther considered by inquiries into tinctures). 

Plutarch in vita Crassi. 

Hyrodes the king fell into a disease that became a dropsy 
after he had lost his son Pacorus. Phraates, his second son, 
thinking to set his father forwards, gave him drink of the 
juice of aconitum. The dropsy received the poison, and one 
drove the other out of Hyrodes' body, and set him on foot 
again. 

Plut. in vita Themist. 

Upon the difference of the Athenians with the Lacedaemo- 
nians, before the sea fight with Xerxes, Themistocles said 
unto them, " If you will needs go your ways and forsake us, 
you shall hear, ere it be long, that the Athenians have another 

2 e 2 



420 EXTRACTS FROM 

free city, and have possessed again as much free land as they 
have already lost." 

Sir Walter Raleigh, lib. iii, History of the World; here 
withal he mentions a town in Italy belonging of old to the 
state of Italy, of which town he said, an oracle had foretold 
that the Athenians in process of time should build it anew ; 
"and here," quoth he, "will we plant ourselves, leaving unto 
you a sorrowful remembrance of my words." 

What city this was of Italy which he meaneth in his speech. 

To 1 be sure that no day pass, without calling upon God in 
a solemn formed prayer, seven times within the compass there- 
of; that is, in the morning, and at night, and five times be- 
tween ; taken up long ago from the example of David and 
Daniel, and a compunction and shame that I had omitted it 
so long, when I needfully read of the custom of the Maho- 
metans to pray five times in the day. 

To pray and magnify God in the night, and my dark bed, 
when I could not sleep ; to have short ejaculations when ever 
I awaked, and when the four o'clock bell 2 awoke me, or my 
first discovery of the light, to say the collect of our liturgy, 
" Eternal God, who hath safely brought me to the beginning 
of this day, &c." 

To pray in all places where privacy inviteth ; in any house, 
highway, or street ; and to know no street or passage in this 
city which may not witness that I have not forgot God and 
my Saviour in it ; and that no parish or town where I have 
been, may not say the like. 

To take occasion of praying, upon the sight of any church, 
which I see or pass by, as I ride about. 

Since the necessities of the sick, and unavoidable diversions 

1 To be sure, eye.] This, and the fol- tiering about for a considerable time on 
lowing nine paragraphs, seem to have Mousehold Heath, having lost his way 
been inserted in this volume by mistake, in a winter night's storm, at length was 
They were evidently not intended for the directed to the city, by the tolling of a bell 
perusal of his son, or of any one else. in this church of St. 1'eter Mancroft, the 

2 four o'clock bell."] A bell which residence of Sir Thomas Brown, when he 
tolls (or ought to toll, if the old sexton wrote this passage, and that of his editor, 
does not oversleep himself) in pursuance when he writes this note. 

of the will of a person who, after wan- 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 421 

of my profession, keep me often from church, yet to take all 
possible care that I might never miss sacraments upon their 
accustomed days. 

To pray daily and particularly for sick patients, and in ge- 
neral for others, wheresoever, howsoever, under whose care 
soever ; and at the entrance into the house of the sick, to say, 
" The peace and mercy of God be in this place." 

After a sermon, to make a thanksgiving, and desire a bless- 
ing, and to pray for the minister. 

In tempestuous weather, lightning, and thunder, either 
night or day, to pray for God's merciful protection upon all 
men, and his mercy upon their souls, bodies, and goods. 

Upon sight of beautiful persons, to bless God in his crea- 
tures, to pray for the beauty of their souls, and to enrich them 
with inward graces to be answerable unto the outward. Upon 
sight of deformed persons, to send them inward graces, and 
enrich their souls, and give them the beauty of the resurrection. 

Marcus Antoninus Philosophus wanted not the advice of 
the best physicians ; yet how warrantable his practice was, to 
take his repast in the night, and scarce any thing but treacle 
in the day, may admit of great doubt. 

Why Commodus, heated in the theatrical recreations, 
would drink his refrigerated wine only from the hand of a 
woman. If not for being over heated by the hotter hands of 
men. 

How to make out the effect, or what antidotal property 
there might be in the bodies of eunuchs, who only were able 
to bear that bituminous exhalation at Hieropolis, which prov- 
ed mortal unto other men and animals, as is positively deliv- 
ered by Dion. 

Every tenth day, the young Spartan striplings were pre- 
sented unto the Ephori, and such as were found to be fat 
were punished, as conceiving they used not sufficient exercise ; 
whether this rigour of Lycurgus were tolerable, or not too 
generally extended upon all constitutions, to punish thus in- 



V22 EXT K ACTS FROM 

definitely, and such which might probably be only peccant b) 
constitution. 

Plutarch in vita Alexandri. 

They found Darius laid on a couch, having many wounds 
and being almost at the last gasp, he called for cold water, anc 
drank it ; and after a few words gave up the ghost. Gravi- 
tur vulneratos et multum sanguinem effundentes admodum 
sitire notissimum. 

After Philip, the physician, had given the potion unto 
Alexander, the medicine beginning to work, overcame the 
disease, and drove for the time all his natural strength and 
powers into the lowest parts of his body, insomuch that his 
strength failed him, and his pulse did scarce beat, &c. An 
hoc satis medice dictum ? 

Callisthenes, being kept a prisoner, and being very fat, was 
eaten in the end by lice, and so died. 

Of others, who fell to quaffing who should drink most, 
there died forty-one persons, of an extreme cold that took 
them in their drunkenness. Eodem funguntur fato ebriones 
plurimi apud nos. 

Hephestion fell sick of an ague, but being a young man of 
war, he did not regard his mouth, but having spied an op- 
portunity, when his physician was gone unto the theatre to 
see sports and pastimes, he went to dinner and ate a roasted 
capon whole, and drank a great pot full of wine, which he had 
caused to be set in water, whereupon his fever took him so 
sorely that he lived not long after. 

Lysippus, of all others, hath perfectly drawn Alexander, 
holding his neck somewhat hanging downwards towards the 
left side : which was more agreeable to a person of a generous 
temper; inclinatio capitis ad dcxtram being, according to 
Aristotle, among the physiognomical notes of an effeminate 
temper ; and how well this is observed in the picture and sta- 
tue made of him. 

Pint, in vita Antonii. 

In the end they were compelled to live on herbs and 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 423 

roots, but they found few of them that men do commonly eat, 
and were enforced to taste of them that were never eaten be- 
fore, among the which there was one that killed them, and 
made them out of their wits ; for he that had once eaten of 
it, his memory was gone from him, and knew no manner of 
thing, but only busied himself in digging and hurling of 
stones from one place to another, as though it had been a 
great weight, and to be done with all possible speed. All 
the camp over were busily stooping to the ground, digging 
and carrying of stones from one place to another. But at 
last they cast up a great deal of choler and died suddenly, 
because they lacked wine which was the only sudden remedy 
to cure that disease. 

What plant this might be, considerable from the symptoms 
and cure by wine. 

Turkish History, in the Life of Morah, p. 1483. 

Count Mansfield died : the news whereof coming to Duke 
John Ernestus, already weakened with a fever fourteen days, 
he fell into an apoplexy. His body was opened, and not one 
drop of blood found, but his heart withered to the smallness 
of a nut. 

Plutarch in Demosthene. 

Touching the stammering of his tongue, which was very 
fat, and made him that he could not pronounce all syllables 
distinctly, he did help it by putting of little pebble stones into 
his mouth, which he found upon the sands by the river side, 
and so pronounced with open mouth the orations he had 
without book. How this might not produce the effect upon 
the causes of balbuties or blaesity assigned by Sanctorius, 
De vitandis erroribas hi medicina. 

He went into the temple, as though he would dispatch 
some letters, and put the end of the quill into his mouth and 
bit it as his manner was, when he did use to write, and 
held the quill in his mouth a pretty while together ; then feel- 
ing the poison to work, he spoke unto Archias, after which 
he prayed them to stay him up by the arm holes, for his feet 
began already to fail him, and as he passed by the altar of 



424 EXTRACTS FROM 

Neptune, he fell down, and giving one gasp, gave up the ghost. 
What poison this was ; whether the common and state poi- 
son of Athens, made out of the hemlock, whereof a drachm 
of the juice inspissated was a sufficient dose, as appears in 
the life of Phocion, whereby Socrates perished, and the ef- 
fects seem to have been somewhat like in Demosthenes. 

Suet, in vita Calig. sect. 23. 

Tiberius's brother he surprised and killed, because he 
smelled strongly of a preservative or antidote, as if he had 
taken the same to prevent his poisons ; whereas, for a con- 
tinual cough that grew still upon him, he used a medicine. 

Life of Dion. Plutarch. 

The surgeons were to search the wound of Sothis, who 
found that it was rather a scratch than any violent wound 
given him, for the wounds or cuts of a sword are ever deeper 
in the middest ; whether this may not be solved from the 
fashion and make of their swords, different from ours. 

Olearius. 

In the travels of Olearius, and in his description of Persia, 
he delivers that the Persians commonly cure the sting of a 
scorpion by applying a piece of copper upon the wound ; and 
that himself, being stung in the throat by a scorpion, was 
cured by the application of oil of scorpions, and taking trea- 
cle inwardly ; but that for some years after he was troubled 
with a pricking in that part, when the sun was in Scorpius. 

The princess of Coreski, taken prisoner by the Tartars, 
received a precious stone of rare virtue, which applied unto 
the eyes of the brother of the Tartar, whose prisoner she 
was, in a short time recovered his sight. Whether any such 
virtue probable or possible by that means. Turk. Hist, in 
the Life of Achmet. 

Ameida, intending to take away the sight of his father, 
Mulleasses, with a hot knife cut the sight of his eyes : the 
manner of this operation would be farther enquired. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 425 

Whether that of Psalm viii, may not be literally verified 
and fulfilled, when Christ entered Jerusalem, since according 
to that of Maccabees vii, "lac triennio dedi," the Jewish wo- 
men suckled their children three years, and they could speak 
before, or at that age. 



[MS. SLOAN. 1875.] ' 

[On the Laws of Motion and Gravitation.] 

Two very considerable qualities there are, concerning the na- 
tural motion of bodies in the universe, which order all bodies 
in due place and situation. 

That which disposes the situation and fastens them to the 
poles is the quality magnetical, which is discoverable in iron 
and loadstone, and some few others, beyond which nothing is 
strictly magnetical ; as is also discovered in the globe of the 
earth, whereby it is tied unto its poles, and making a constant 
elevation of every place, the pole constant, and the latitude 
and longitude of each region invariable ; whether the same 
dispositive quality or dispositive power unto one situation, be 
not in the stars of heaven is very questionable ; nor altoge- 
ther without reason that this power maintains the spots of 
the moon in one constant face, unto all eyes, and makes the 
moles in the western cheek invariably to regard us. Whe- 
ther the natures of things have not something magnetical, 
whereby disturbed from themselves they still return into their 
former point; and whether temperamental inclinations stay 
not so firm by this or anatomical quality, may be also consi- 
dered. 

The other doth order and dispose every body to take up 
his proper place ; that is, in order to the centre, nearer or far- 

1 Ms. sloan. 1875.] This volume Books, but, being principally on scientific 
contains many very curious, and some subjects, it has been printed as a fit corn- 
erroneous and fallacious experiments, and panion to No. 1869, which is almost en- 
observations. It appears both from the tirely literary. It should be observed 
hand writing and spelling, and from that the hand-writing in this volume is 
occasional dates, to have been written so bad, that it cannot but be apprehended 
earlier than other of his Common Place that many errors will remain. 



4^6 EXTRACTS FROM 

ther from it, which is by gravity and levity, or rather less gra- 
vity ; for things are not absolutely light, but comparatively 
to each other, ascending or descending according to their 
conjunction with other bodies. Wood will descend in the 
air, but bear from the centre in water. In this motion all 
heavy bodies bear not to the centre, as greedy of that posi- 
tion, every body remaining content in that place which is be- 
low a less heavy body, that could not sustain [it,] and ready 
to give place to another if not hindered ; and therefore the 
centre properly is due unto the heaviest body, and gold may 
challenge that place, which is the simply heavy, and never light 
in reference to other bodies. And though there lay a circle of 
a globe of liquefied gold, and such as were penetrate and 
drossive of other bodies, though the earth were perforated 
nothing would reach the centre, because the centre would 

and all things swim in gold, and the central relation 

would not break the rule of nature which ordereth every 
thing its place according to its gravity. 2 But things useful 
unto man were set where man might come at them, nor is it 
likely any thing lies at the centre but what is subservient unto 

the earth, through it fire, which men are so far 

from placing the heaviest body that they have placed it the 
lightest ; that is, fire, inservient to the generation of all things 
under the earth, and the greater circulation of nature without; 
and if the earth be divided into three orbs, two thereof con- 
tain but little of what we know and may only serve the other. 

They speak reason who say, if the earth were perforated 
and a bullet let fall, it would not rest immediately at the cen- 
tre, but by the impetus it conceiveth, move almost as far as 
the opposite surface. 

Clymical earth, as being lightest, hath least title unto the 
centre ; for though the elementated earth, as it stands im- 
pregnated with other principles, be the heaviest body in the 
universe, yet resolved near its element it proves the lightest 
part of any body except the oil or inflammable part, as will be 



- and though, iy<\] There are sevc- of liquid gold nothing could displace it, 

ral words in this sentence very illegible, because every oilier body, being lighter, 

He probably means that supposing the would remain on its surface. 
centre of the earth occupied by a globe 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 427 

,i evident unto any that shall separate the salt and ashes, shall 
so urge a body as to disturb the volate principles, oil, water, 
and then having the earth shall extract all salt from it ; for 
the dry and discontinued carcase remaining will weigh less in 

I) an equal ratio than so much water, but come very short of 

j salt which maketh ashes heavy, so many bodies that abound 
in earth are lighter than others which have it in smaller quan- 
tity, So are we deceived in buying of ashes, conceiving we 
have especial pennyworths if we have a great bulk and mea- 
sure, although in some there is much earth that greatens the 
bulk without store of salt which is the expected principle. 
Tanner's stuff having been long infused in their pits burns 

i well dryed, but makes a weak lye, unfit for cleansing of linen. 

I 

\On Coagulation.] 

So many coagulations there are in nature; and though we 
'content ourselves with one in the running of milk, yet many 
| will perform the same. 

The maws or stomachs of other animals, as of pigeons. 

The inner coat of the gizzard of wild ducks and teal, not 
the pike, or maw of a pike, which seems of strong digestion. 

Several seeds may do it, the best the seeds of carthamus, 
mot too much dried. 

Many others not, as not the seed of paeony. Myrobalans 
powdered do it. 

The milk of spurge doth it actively ; the milk of fig ; that 
iof lettuce; succory ; tragopogon ; apocinon. Whether saler- 
Idine? 

Whereby whey and cheese might be made more medical ; 
imilk of lettuce and sowthistle will not hold the colour, but 
(grow black and gummy, yet strongly coagulate milk. 

The opium and scammony. 

The inward skin of the gizzard of turkies will actively co- 
agulate ; so will the crop ; the chylus or half digested matter 
i in the crop did the like, and strongly. That in the gizzard 
i was too dry. 

The milk of a woman full of the jaundice, that nursed a 
child, infected the same ; yet the milk was blue and a laud- 



428 EXTRACTS FROM 

able colour, and would not be coagulated by runnet, nor after 
long stirring did manifest any colour or febrical tincture. 

To try and observe the several sorts of coagulations or 
runnets ; whether any will turn all kinds of milk, or whether 
they be appropriate. That of a hare we find will turn that 
of the cow. To observe further whether it will coagulate 
that of a mare or ass, or woman, and how the coagulum stands 
in multifidous animals; as in whelps and kittens, and also 
in swine and bats. The runnet of cows is strong, for it co- 
agulates the milk of herbs. The milk in whelps' maws did 
the milk of cows, but the runnet of cows, as we have tried in 
several womens' milk, will not coagulate the same. The run- 
net of rabbit coagulates well the milk of a cow. Neither that 
nor calf's runnet did make a good coagulum of mare's milk, 
leaving only a gross thickness therein, without serous separa- 
tion. 

Of the several sorts of milk and lacical animals ; of the 
several sorts of coagulums ; of all kinds of mineral coagula- 
tion. 

of tin with aquafortis 

of antimony 

of soap 

of the coagulum of blood 

of milk 

How several sayings concerning coagulum in authors may 
be understood ? 

How in the Scripture " sicut lac coagulasti me ? " 

How far the coagulating principle operateth in generation 
is evident from eggs which will never incrassate without it ; 
from the incrassation upon incubiture, when heat diffuseth 
the coagulum, from the chalazia or gellatine, which sometime 
three nodes, the head, heart, and liver. 

How its qualities made good in physic ? 

How in natural observations ? 

What runnet the Scythians used to separate mare's milk 
is uncertain; cow's runnet we have not found to do it, but the 
same we have effected by the maws of turkies. Whether 
the buttons of figs or the milk of spurge which arc strong 
coagulators ? Quaere. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 429 

Coagulum in the first digestion, in the second or blood, whe- 
ther not also in the last digestion or stomach, of every parti- 
cular part, when the coagulate parts become fine and next to 
flesh, and the rest into cambium and gluten. 

Whether the first mass were but a coagulation, whereby 
the water and earth lay awhile together, and the watery or 
serous part was separated from the sole and continuating sub- 
stance, the separated by coagulation, and the inner 

part flowing about them. 

The practice of the seems convenient unto 

experiment ; for the blood of man and pig, falling upon vine- 
gar, would not coagulate, but lie thin and turn of the colour 
of muscadell. 

Bled upon aquavitae, it did coagulate, though weaker, and 
maintained its colour. 

Upon vinegar, it keeps long without corruption, and be- 
cometh blackish. 

Bled upon a solution of saltpetre in water, it coagulates 
not, keeps long, and shoots into nitrous branched particles, 
which separated, it lasteth long, and contracteth the smell of 
storax liquida, and the glass or urinal being inclined, it strokes 
long figures conjoined by right lines. 

White dung of hens and geese coagulates milk. 

Mare's milk very serous, not equally running with coagulum 
[of] fig, except some cow's milk be added ; perhaps the Scy- 
thians used a mixture of goat's milk. Spirits of salt poured 
upon mare's milk, makes a curdling which in a little space to- 
tally dissolved into serum. 

Woman's milk will not coagulate with common runnet, 
try whether the milk of nurses that are concerned may be 
run. 

Mrs. King's milk, Octob. 23, (1650) would not run, but 
only curdled in small roundles like pin's heads, as vinegar 
will curdle milk. 

The semichylus or half-digested humour of young lobsters, 
in a cod's stomach, did it very well. 

The entrails of soles coagulated milk, so also the stomach 
of sandlings. The stomach of a tench would not, nor of a 
rat, nor of a whiting or gudgeon ; and that of smelts did it in 



430 EXTRACTS FROM 

winter ; the maw of a cod did it well ; the appendages about 
the maw indifferently also of smelts. 

Milk of different nature according to the different times of 
gestation, which is to be observed to know the differences of 
milk in several seasons, it being so commonly ordered, that 
cows come in the spring, so that milk grows thick about 
Christmas. 

Camborgia, which some suspect to be the juice of 

coloured with saffron or other yellow tincture, would not co- 
agulate. 

The verum coagulum seems seated in the inner skin of the 
gizzard, for the outward and carnous part would not do it. 

The maw of a bittern did it well. 

The mutings also of a bittern and a kestrell. 

The inward skin in the maws of partridges, or the sub- 
stance contained therein, not yet fully digested. 

Sow's milk run very well with runnet and skin of green 
figs ; even ripe do it well. 

Runnet beat up with the whites of eggs, seems to perform 
nothing, nor will it well incorporate, without so much heat as 
will harden the egg. 

The peculiar coagulum of stomachs to make stones, as be- 
zoar. 

Milk of poppy runs milk. 

The stomachs of turkies dry and powdered doth it well ; 
so also the dry and chaffy substance in the gizzard after some 
months, but the carnous substance not. 

The buttons of figs, which prove figs the next year, doth 
it very well, either green or dried ; salt alone will do it if plen- 
tiful ; whether saltpetre, salt upon saltpetre, or sal-gemmae; 
vide. 

The curdled milk in the stomach of a pig coagulates cow's 
milk. 

Adding salt cleanly, runnet may be made out of milk put 
into the maw of a turkey. 

As also a pig will do it very well. 

The appendages below the lower orifice of the stomach 
will coagulate milk, when the substance will not do it ; as 
tried in cods, these are filled with a little thick humour, very 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 431 

remarkable in salmon, wherein they are of exceeding large- 
ness. 

Buttermilk, or churn milk, will not be turned with runnet, 
but being warm will run itself, as will also milk in the summer. 
Try whether the inward part of the duodenum will do it, 
ji as the inward tunicle of the stomach. 

Whether if in quadrupeds ruminant the three former sto- 
machs, and not only the or last division next the guts. 

That of a sheep coagulated strong and soon ; the 

parcels of the great stomach not at all, or very slowly and 
weakly, the upper part of the duodenum did also coagulate 
milk. 

The milk of mares is very serous, and will not run with the 
cow's runnet ; in the summer we made it run with turkies giz- 
! zard, and fig's buttons ; the same in October we could not ef- 
I feet, neither with Turkey figs, cow's, nor pig's runnet ; whe- 
al ther it be so serous that the caseous parts cannot hold together 
i the other, may be doubted ; although, if unto an ounce of 
1 cow's milk you add an ounce of water, it will, notwithstanding, 
| coagulate in the caseous part, leaving the whey asunder. 

And if you mix equal parts of mare's and cow's milk, the 
I runnet will take place. 

The skin of a peacock's gizzard very well. 
As also the dried milk of spurge and lettuce, above a year 
I old ; the chylus of animals ; the chylus of plants ; the stomach 
I of an horse, and chylus contained in it, did very well coagu- 
1 late. 

I Beef taken out of the paunch of a kestrell four hours after, 
Si turned very strongly. 

!; A clean and neat seeming runnet may be made in the crop 
i of a turkey, and milk and salt put therein will coagulate and 
I grow hard like runnet ; but surely the same must be old to 
Ibe effectual, for after a month upon trial, we could not find it 
Jl to run cows' milk. 

The strawy substances in the stomach of a pig, turned milk 
\ well in October, also the fresh white dung of a goose did very 
li well, that best which is whitest probably. 
5 The inward skin of a duckling, six days old, as also the 
Jl hard and chaffy substances in the same did it very well. 



432 EXTRACTS FROM 

Spirits of salt and aquafortis, gently poured on milk, will 
strongly coagulate ; but in a woman's milk we find it not ef- 
fectual, which would not coagulate upon a large quantity, 
nor would salt in gross body effect it, nor the other common 
coagulums. 

Try whether the milk of children vomited will do it. 

The dung of chickens in some degree. 

The shells and half-digested fragments in a lobster's sto- 
mach that had nearly cut the skin did it. 

How butchers make sheep's blood to hold from concretion ; 
whether by agitation when it is fresh, and so dispersing the 
fibres which are thought to make the concretion ? Unto such, 
a great quantity of runnet added could make no concretion. 

Eggs seem to contain within themselves their own coagu- 
lum, evidenced upon incubation, which makes incrassation of 
parts before very fluid. 

Rotten eggs will not be made hard by incubation or de- 
coction, as being destitute of that spirit ; or having the same 
vitiated. They will sooner be made hard if put in before the 
water boileth. 

They will be made hard in oil, but not so easily in vinegar, 
which by the attenuating quality keeps them longer from con- 
cretion ; for infused in vinegar they lose the shell, and grow 
big and much heavier than before. 

Salt seems to be the principal agent in this coagulation, for 
bay salt will run milk alone if strongly mixed, and so it will, 
though mixed with some vinegar. Vinegar alone will curdle 
it, not run it. 

In the ovary, or second cell of the matrix, the white comes 
upon the yolk, and in the later and lower part, the shell is 
made or manifested. Try if the same parts will give any co- 
agulation unto milk. Whether will the ovary best ? 

The whites of eggs drenched in saltpetre will shoot forth 
a long and hairy saltpetre, and the egg become of a hard sub- 
stance ; even in the whole egg there seems a great nitrosity, 
for it is very cold, and especially that which is without a shell, 
(as some are laid by fat hens,) or such as are found in the egg 
poke or lowest part of the matrix, if an hen be killed a day 
or two before she layeth. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 433 

Several hens produce eggs commonly of the same form, 
some round, some long, neither strictly distinguishing the 
sex. 

The proper uses of the shell ; for the defence of the chick- 
fen in generation, promotion of heat upon incubation, and pro- 
tection therein least it be broken by the hen, either upon in- 
cubation or treading with her claws upon them, as also to 
keep and restrain the chicken until due time, when the hen 
often breaks the shell. 

Difference between the sperm of frogs and eggs. 

Spawn though long boiled, would not grow thick or coagu- 
late. 

In the eggs of skates or thornbacks, upon long decoction 
the yolk coagulates, not the greatest part of the white. 

If in spawn of frogs the little black specks will concrete, 
though not the other. 

The white part of the mutings of birds dried run milk, not 
leaving any ill savor. Try in that of cormorants, hens, tur- 
keys, geese, kestrels. 

The chylus in the stomach of a young hen strongly coagu- 
lated, the stomach also itself though washed. 

The white and cretaceous mutings of a bittern made a sud- 
den coagulation, the like hath the dung of ducks and hens. 

The coagulate stomach of kittens would not convert wo- 
men's milk, nor cows, though in good quantity ; which after 
coagulated by addition of calf's runnet. 

The chylus in a young rabbit run cow's and bitch's milk, 
1653. 

The seeds of the silver or milk thistle run milk also. 

Mucilaginous concretions are made by liquid infusions and 
decoctions, imbibing the gum and tenacious parts, until they 
fix and determine their fluidity. 

As is observable in gums, hartshorn, and seeds, especially 
lentous natures, as quince, psyllium, mallows, &c, when these 
tenacious parts are forced out by ignition, they afford no far- 
ther concretion, as in burnt hartshorn, wherein there are lost 
most of the separable parts, and so little of salt as makes the 
preparation questionable, if given with the same intentions 
with the other. 

VOL. IV. 2 F 



434 EXTRACTS FROM 

Wherein it is presumable the water may also imbibe some 
part of the volatile salt, as is manifested sometimes when it is 
exposed to congelation, and standeth long in pewter dishes ; 
some part fastening upon the crown or upper circle, and also 
discolouring the pewter. 

But whether the mucilages or jellies do answer our expec- 
tation of their quantities, while we think we have a decoction 
made of two ounces and half which affordeth a jelly of almost 
a pint ; the horns again after they were dried wanted not a 
drachm, the jelly dried left little but a small gummy substance. 

Half an ounce of ichthyocolla or isinglass, will fix above a 
pint of water ; and in half a pint of jelly of hartshorn there 
is not above two drachms. 

Much hartshorn is therefore lost in the usual decoction of 
hartshorn in shavings or raspings, where the greatest part is 
cast away. 

For the same may be performed from the solid horn sawed 
into pieces of two or three ounces or less, and the same 
pieces will serve for many jellies. 

The calcination of hartshorn by vapour of water is a neat 
invention, but whether very much of the virtue be not impaired, 
while the vapour insinuating into the horn hath carried away 
the tenacious parts and made it butter, and hath also dissolved 
those parts which make the jelly ; which may be tried if a de- 
coction be made of the water from whence the vapour pro- 
ceedeth, and especially if the calcination hath been made in 
vessels not perspirable. 

[On Congelation.] 

Natural bodies do variously discover themselves by conge- 
lation. 

Bodies do best and [most] readily congelate which are aque- 
ous, or water itself. 

Of milk the wheyish part, in eggs we observe the white, 
will totally freeze, the yolk, with the same degree of cold, 
grow thick and clammy like gum of trees, but the sperm or 
tread hold its former body, the white growing stiff that is 
nearest it. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 435 

The spirits of things do not freeze ; if they be plentiful, they 
keep their bodies from congelation ; as spirits of wine, aqua- 
vitce, nor is it easy to freeze such, when French wine cannot 
resist it. But congelation seems to destroy or separate the 
spirits, for beer or wine are dead and flat after freezing, and 
in glasses ofttimes the most flying salts will settle themselves 
above the surface of the water. 

Waters freezing do carry a vegetable crust foliated surface 
upon them, representing the leaves of plants, and this they 
do best which carry some salt or vegetable seminals in them. 
Rain water which containeth seminal atoms, elevated by ex- 
halations, making the earth fruitful where it falleth. Snow 
water will also do, as containing these seeds, and salt nitrous 
coagulum, whereby it was formerly concreted. The lyes or 
lixivium of herbs will do it well, but the juices of herbs or 
waters wherein these essential salts have been dissolved, far 
better, as we have tried in that of scurvy grass, chalie, net- 
tles. Jellies of flesh will do the like, as we have tried in that 
of cow's and calf's foot, wherein, though the surface be ob- 
scured, yet will there be several glaciations intermixed, and so 
excellently foliated, that they will leave their impression or 
figure in the next part of the jelly which remaineth uncon- 
gealed, and being beheld in a magnifying glass, either in the 
day or night against a candle, affordeth one of the most cu- 
rious spectacles in nature, nor will these little conglaciated 
plates so easily dissolve as common ice, as carrying perhaps a 
greater portion of carnel nitre in them. 

But, what is remarkable most of congelations, simple or 
compounded, they seem to carry in their surface a leaf of one 
figure, which somewhat representeth the leaf of a fern or 
brake,* from a middle and long rib spreading forth jagged 
leaves ; so a lixivium of nettles, wormwood, wild cucumber, 
scurvy grass, will shoot in the same shapes ; a solution of salt 
or sugar will do the like and also a decoction of hartshorn, 
and the salt distilled of the blood of a deer and dissolved in 
water, carried the same shape upon calcination ; but the shoot- 



* There is some regent salt which carrieth them into the form of brake or long 
rib jagged plant. 

F 2 



<fc>6 EXTRACTS FROM 

ings in the jellies of flesh carry smaller branches and like twigs 
without that exact distinction of leaves. 

But the exact and exquisite figurations, and such as are 
produced above the surface of the liquor, in the side of glasses 
by exhalation from the liquor compounded with, is best dis- 
coverable in urinals and long bellied glasses, and often hap- 
peneth over urines, where the figures are very distinct arising 
from a root, and most commonly resembling coralline mosses 
of the sea, and sometimes larger plants, whereof some do rise 
in so strong a body, as to hold their shapes many months, and 
some we have kept two or three years entire. 

Water and oil behave differently from congelation ; a glass- 
ful of water frozen swells above the brim, oil congelated sub- 
sideth. 

Congelation is a rare experiment ; is made by a mixture of 
salt and snow strongly agitated in a pewter pot, which will 
freeze water that's poured about it. But an easier way there 
is, by only mixing salt and snow together in a basin, and place- 
ing therein a cup of water, for when the snow doth thaw and 
the congealing spirits fly away, they freeze the neighbour bo- 
dies which are congealable; and, if the vessel wherein the 
snow melteth stand in water, it freezeth the water about it, 
which is excellently discerned by mixing snow and salt in an 
urinal, and placing it in water. 

This way liquors will suddenly freeze which a long time re- 
sist the diffused causes in the air, as may be experienced in 
wine, and urine, and excellently serveth for all figurations ; 
this way will in a short time freeze rich sack, and crust aqua- 
vit ce about the side of the cup or glass, if weak and with a 
light addition of water. 

A small quantity of aquavitce, mingled with water, is not 
able to resist this way of congelation ; but therein the ice 
will not be so hard and compact, and hollow spaces will be 
left at the surface. 

That the sea was salt from the beginning, when that prin- 
ciple was cast into the whole mass of this globe, and not oc- 
casioned by those ways the ancients dreamt of, seems almost 
beyond doubt : wherein salt was so tenderly sprink- 
led as not to make that part inhabitable, and therefore, how- 



COMMON. PLACE BOOKS. 487 

ever some seas near the tropic where the same is strongest 
be conceived so to contain more salt, the seas with us do 
hardly make good five in the hundred. 

It is no easy effect to condense water and make it take up 
a lesser space than in its fluid body ; congealed into ice it 
seems to lose nothing, but rather acquireth a greater space 
and swelleth higher, as is manifestible in water frozen in eau- 
res 1 and glasses. 

This way eggs will suddenly freeze through their whole 
bodies. 

Eyes will freeze through all the humours and become in 

short time like stones. By this way upon only the 

watry humour will congelate under the cornea, and shew like 
a cataract or albugo, the iris also loses its colour, and this way 
the humours may be taken out distinctly; the hardest to freeze 
is the crystalline, yet laid upon snow and salt it groweth hard 
and dim, as though it had been boiled. 

Whether^such a congealing spirit be not the raiser of catar- 
acts, gutta serena, apoplexies, catalepsies, and the like may 
be inquired. 

In the congelation of snow there is much space required, 
and dissolved it will not occupy half the space it possessed 
before, for it is congealed in a vapourous body and in some 
rarefaction from its original of water. 

Mineral water or quicksilver by taking off the 

fluidity, takes up a greater space than before, although al- 
lowance be made for the body that forceth it. 

Salt and snow pursue their operations most actively, while 
it freezeth : and in coldest weather dissolve sooner, for when 
it begins to thaw, the operation is troublesome ; the snow 
loseth his tenacity, grows hard and brittle, and salt thrown 
upon it makes it harder for a little space, and is longer in dis- 
solving it. Salt answereth awhile to send back the parting 
spirit upon itself, and mixing with it while it holdeth fast, 
makes a little congelation. 

Lime unslaked mixed with snow would dissolve it ; not 
freeze water set into it. 

1 eaares.~] This may be pannes in meant ewers — spelt, according to French 
MS. but I am inclined rather to think he derivation, caurcs. 



438 EXTRACTS FROM 

Snow dissolved, without salt, would not freeze water set in 
it. Herein we may also sometimes observe the very motion 
and stroke of the coagulum ; for when the snow and salt are 
aptly conjoined, and the liquor to be congealed be put in a 
flat thin cup of silver, if it chance to dissolve at that time, 
in any quantity, it will instantly run curdled whey ; the spirit 
separated will make a curdled cloud at the bottom or side of 
the cup, and fix that part first ; for, contrary unto common 
congelation, if the cup standeth upon snow, and that at the 
bottom thaweth it, the liquor first freezeth at the bottom, and 
while the liquor in the flat cup freezeth within the basin, the 
outside of the basin will be thick frosted, and if it stands will 
adhere unto the table. 

It is observable in this way of congelation, that the liquor 
freezeth last in the middle of the surface, as being furthest 
from the action of the snow and flying spirit ; nor is this 
only effected by snow and salt, but by snow and saltpetre or 
alum ; but the quickest congelation [is] by snow and salt, the 
other mixture remaining longer without dissolution: and 
therefore, on some earth snow lieth longest, and seldom long 
near the sea side ; and if two vessels be filled, the one with 
snow alone, the other with a mixture of salt, the salt snow 
will dissolve in half the time, and ice in the like manner. 

This way it is possible to observe the rudiments and pro- 
gress of congelation ; it beginning first with strice, and having 
shoots like the filamental shoots of pure nitre, and the inter- 
stitial water becomes after conjoined. 

The same is also effected by ice powdered or broken like 
sugar between dry bodies, and mixed with salt ; and is also 
performable without mixture of salt bodies, by snow alone, as 
it falleth to solution, and the congelating spirit separateth; 
so water in a very thin glass set in a porringer of snow, and 
set upon salt will freeze, the salt being able to dissolve it 
through the pewter. And, therefore, catarrhs and colds are 
taken and encreased upon thaws ; the leaves of trees wi- 
thered and blasted where snow dissolves upon them; and 
something more than mere water fixed, because it spoileth 
leather, and alters the colour thereof to walk long in snow, 
especially when it melteth : and this congelative spirit, that 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 439 

penetrateth glass and metal, is probably the same which is 
felt so penetrating and cutting in winds, and according to 
frequent relations, hath left whole bodies of men rigid and 
stiff, even to petrification, in regions near the pole ; and may 
assign some reason of that strange effect on our men, some 
that were left in Greenland, when they touched iron it seemed 
to stick to the fingers like pitch, the same being mollified and 
made in the same temper as it is, by the acid spirits of sul- 
phur, if a red hot iron be thrust into a roll thereof. 

In the congealing of tinctures, as and saffron, if we 

narrowly observe it, there still remaineth whiteness, and the 
tincture seemeth to lie distant and less congealed. Starch, a 
strong congelation may be made, wherein the atoms of the 
powder may be distinguished, and sensibly observed to cast 
their colour upon parts, which they do not corporally attain. 

To freeze roughly, or make ice with elevated superficies, 
the water must be exposed warm, and the liquor thick, the 
better as in jellies, while the exhalation elevating the surface, 
is held in and frozen in its passage. 

Oil put upon snow, in an open mouth glass, and sharp at 
the bottom, makes a curdling which lasts a long time, and 
gives a mixed taste of snow and oil, pleasant unto the palate, 
and excellent against burning. 

Snow upon a thaw freezeth itself, while the spirits of some 
parts dissolved, flying out, do fix the neighbour parts unto 
them. 

Snow closely pressed, dissolves into about half its measure ; 
lying loose, and as it falleth, dissolving, takes up little more 
than a fifth part. 

Snow upon a thaw needeth no addition, and ice at that 
time will freeze, the pot being melted in it. 

Salt maketh snow to melt ; so may you bore a hole through 
ice with salt laid thereon, with armoniac. Sugar will also 
do the like but in a slower manner ; the like dully with pep- 
per. 

To make ice crack, throw salt upon it. 

Ice splits star-wise. 

In the making of ice with snow and salt, we find little va- 
riety in practice, and the reasons drawn peculiar upon the 



440 EXTRACTS FROM 

salt ; but this we have observed to be effected by other bo- 
dies, of no probability to produce such an effect, as without 
salt to effect it in a pot of snow, with ginger, pepper, liquorice, 
sugar, chalk, white-lead, wheat-flour, sulphur, husk of al- 
monds, charcoal. 

Water that is easily rarified will hardly or not at all admit 
of pressure, or be made to take up a lesser space than its na- 
tural body, and as it stands in its natural consistence. 

In snow it takes up a very much larger space than in water ; 
even in ice, which takes off the fluidity, and is a kind of fixa- 
tion, it will not be contained in the same circumference as 
before in its fluid body, a glass filled with water and frozen in 
salt and snow, will manifestly rise above the brim. Eggs 
frozen, the shell will crack, and open largely, and there will 
be found no hollow space at the top or blunter part which 
comes first out upon exclusion of the hen, and yet it will re- 
main of the same weight upon exact ponderation. Ice is 
spongy and porous, as may be observed upon breaking, and 
in glasses wherein it is frozen and seems not to be so close 
and continued as in its liquid form. Beside there are many 
bubbles ofttimes in it, which though condensed, are not of the 
congelable parts, and take up a room in the congelation ; 
which may be air mixed with the water, or the spirits thereof, 
which will not freeze, but separating from the pure water, set 
themselves in little cells apart, which upon the liquation make 
the spaws and froth which remaineth after, in standing ves- 
sels thawed, which makes all things frozen lose their quick- 
ness ; the spirits chased into several conservations, flying away 
upon liquefaction, and not returning to an intrinsical and close 
mixture with their bodies again ; and therefore an apple froz- 
en, and thawed in warm water, the spirits are called out, and 
giving a sudden exhalation, the same never tastes well after ; 
whereas put into cold water, they are kept in, and while they 
raise themselves through the mass again, and are not carried 
out by a warm thaw; and this way are noses and cheeks pre- 
served in cold regions, by a sudden application of snow unto 
them. 

The same assertion is verified in metallical water, or quick- 
silver, which is closer in its own body than by any fixation ; 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 441 

for either mortified or fixed, it takes up a much larger space 
than in its fluid body. 

Queere how oil ; — and whether metal, silver, and gold, li- 
quefied, takes not up lesser room than when it is cold and 
congealed again : but these having attained their natural con- 
sistence and closeness, seem to take up a larger space when 
they are forced from it, and therefore seem to shrink as in 
moulds ; and then in their cruding before solution to stretch 
and dilate themselves ; as is observable in iron pierced, which 
smoothly admitting a nail when it is cold, will not so easily ad- 
mit it being red hot. 

Why the snow lies not long near the sea side ; by reason it 
is dissolved by salt exhalation of the sea, or from the like in 
the earth near the sea, which partaketh of that temper. 

Why it is so cold upon a thaw ; by reason of the exhaling 
of those freezing parts which lie quiet in the snow before. 

Why snow maks a fruitful year and is good for corn ; be- 
cause it keeps in the terreous evaporatives, concentrates the 
heat in seeds and plants, destroys mice and the principles of 
putrefaction in the earth, which breedeth vermin. 

Why it changeth the colour of leather, making black shoes 
russet, which water doth not ; by reason of the admixture of 
nitrous and saline parts, which drink in the copperas parts 
which made the deep colour. 

The common experiment of freezing is made by salt and 
snow ; where salt dissolving the snow sends out the congealing 
spirit thereof, which actively is able to fix the fluid element 
about it. 

But the same effect will follow from other conjunctions, 
from vitriol, nitre, alum ; and what is remarkable, from bodies 
which promise no such effect, as we have tried in pepper, 
ginger, chalk, white lead, charcoal-powder, liquorice. 

And from ice itself stirred and beaten in a pint pot. 

[On Bubbles.] 

That the last circumference of the universe is but the bub- 
ble of the chaos and pellicle arising from the grosser founda- 
tion of the first matter, containing all the higher and diapha- 



442 EXTRACTS FROM 

nous bodies under it, is no affirmation of mine ; but that 
bubbles on watery or fluid bodies are but the thin gumbs of 
air, or a diaphanous texture of water arising about the air, and 
holding it awhile from eruption. They are most lasting and 
large in viscous humidities, wherein the surface will be best 
extended without dissolving the continuity, as in bladders 
blown out of soap. Wine and spirituous bodies make bubbles, 
but not long lasting, the spirit bearing through and dissolving 
the investiture. Aqua-fortis upon concussion makes few, and 
soon vanishing, the acrimonious effluvia suddenly rending 
them : some gross and windy wines make many and lasting, 
which may be taken away by vinegar or juice of lemon. And 
therefore the greatest bubbles are made in viscous decoctions, 
as in the manufacture of soap and sugar, wherein there is 
nothing more remarkable than that experiment, wherein not 
many grains of butter cast upon a copper of boiling sugar, pre- 
sently strikes down the ebullition and makes a subsidence of 
the bubbling liquor. 

Boiling is literally nothing but bubbling ; any liquor attenu- 
ated by decoction sends forth evaporous and attenuated parts, 
which elevate the surface of the liquor into bubbles ; even in 
fermentations and putrefactions wherein attenuation of parts 
are made, bubbles are raised without fire. 

Glass is made by way of bubble, upon the blowing of the 
artificer. 

Blisters are bubbles in leaves, wherein the exhalation is 
kept in by the thickness of the leaf, and in the skin, when the 
[membrane] thereof holds in the attenuated or attracted hu- 
mour under it. 

Fire blisters even dead flesh, forcibly attenuating the water 
in the skin and under it ; and cantharides and crowfoot raise 
blisters by a potential fire and armoniac salt in them, attenu- 
ating the humour in the skin and under, which stretches and 
dilateth the parts, prohibiting its evolution. 

Bubbles are white, because they consist of diaphanous hu- 
mour or air fermented ; and air under ice a thicker tergunt 
makes a grosser and stronger white, but in icterical and jaun- 
diced urine the bubbles are yellow, according to the tincture 
diffused through the water, which investeth the airy contents 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 443 

of its bubbles. Even man is a bubble, if we take his consi- 
deration in his rudiments, and consider the vesicula or bulla 
pulsans, wherein begins the rudiment of life. 

Froth or spume is but a coagulation or conglobation of 
bubbles, and gross skins are but the coats of bubbles sub- 
siding, or at least bodies which are fat and subphureous, 
keeping the surface, are apt to make them, and therefore are 
not without the active parts as is observable in the spume of 
iron and steel. 

Pitch and resinous bodies have also their bubbles, but they 
rise highest at the first, whilst the aqueous parts are attenuated, 
do copiously and crowdingly fly up, do elevate the viscous 
parts which largely dilate before their division, for that being 
spirit these bubbles are less, and if water be thrown upon it 
recover their force again ; as is also discernable in the ebulli- 
tion of soap, till the aqueous parts be spent, and the salt of 
the lixivium and oil and tallow entirely mixed. 

The bubbles of oil will not last, the air pierceth, opening or 
perspiring their thin coats ; water under oil makes not bubbles 
into the oil, but at the side or bottom. 

Water and oil do best concur to the making of bubbles, air 
or exhalation included in a watery coat, or air in an oily habit, 
as in oil boiled wherein there are some watery parts or va- 
porous attenuations that are invested in their eruption. 

Fire makes none, for that is too subtle to be contained and 
too fluid and moving to be contained ; not affecting a circle 
but a piramidal ascension, which destroys inclusion ; the near- 
est resemblance thereof is in water thrown upon strong oil, 
wherein the water suddenly rising seemeth to carry up a strong 
bubble about it. 

Quicksilver seems to have bubbles, being shaken together, 
but they are but small spherical bodies like drops of water, 
which hold in some bodies, to avoid discontinuation. 

[On Vegetation, Sfc] 

To manifest how lasting the seminal principles of bodies are, 
how long they will lie incorrupted in the earth, or how the 
earth that hath been once impregnated therewith, may retain 



414 EXTRACTS FROM 

the power thereof, unto opportunity of actuation, or visible 
production,— a remarkable garden where many plants had 
been, being digged up, and turned a fruitless ground, after 
ten years being digged up, many of the plants returned which 
had laid obscure ; the plants were blattaria, stramonium, hyos- 
cyamus flore albo, &c. ; and little less have we observed that 
some plants will maintain their seminality out of the earth, as 
we have tried in one of the least of seeds, that is of marjorum. 

How little snails or perriwinkles rely upon the water, and 
how duck-weed is bred, some light may be received from this 
experiment. In April we took out of the water little herbs 
of crow-foot and the like, whereon hung long cods of jelly; 
this put in water, and so into an urinal exposed unto the sun, 
many young perriwinkles were bred sticking to the side of 
the glass, some aselli, or sows, which fled from the water, and 
much duck-weed grew over, which, cleared once or twice, now 
hath grown again. 

That water is the principle of all things, some conceive ; 
that all things are convertible into water, others probably argue ; 
that many things which seem of earthly principles were made 
out of water the Scripture testifieth, in the genealogy of the 
fowls of the air ; most insects owe their original thereto, most 
being made of dews, froths, or water ; even rain water, which 
seemeth simple, contains the seminals of animals. This we 
observed, that rain water in cisterns, growing green, there aris- 
eth out of it red maggots, swimming in a labouring and con- 
tortile motion, which after leaving a case behind them, 

turn into gnats and ascend above the water. 

When the red worm tends to transformation, it seems to 
acquire a new case, and continues most at the surface of the 
water ; two motions are observable, the one of the red worm 
by a strong and laborious contorsion, the other, a little before 
it comes to a gnat, and that is by jaculation or sudden spring, 
which if it use not, it ariseth to the surface, and soon after 
ariseth into a gnat. 

Little red worms and less than threads are found in great 
numbers in ditches and muddy places, where the water is al- 
most forsaken ; whereof having taken a large number included 
in a glass, they would stir and move continually in fair wea- 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 445 

ther like eels, pulling some part of their bodies above the 
mud, and upon the least touch of the glass would all disappear 
and contract into the mud. They lived that remaining part 
of summer, and after a hard winter, showed themselves again 
in the succeeding summer. Therein I observed two things, 
the exquisite sense and vivacity of these imperfect animals, 
which extended unto two years. 

All solid bodies are rendered liquid before they are quali- 
fied for nutriment ; and the solidest bodies seem to be sus- 
tained by the thin bodies of waters, as is very remarkable in 
trees, especially oak, and birch, and sycamore, wherein the 
nutriment ascendeth in a mere body of water, as by wounding 
them at the spring is very discernible. 

Thus we also observe that plants will be nourished long 
in rain water, as is very observable in mint, basil, and other 
plants, which being cropped, will shoot out roots, which will 
augment them by mere attraction of watery nutriment. 

Whether the quantities of plants may not this way be sen- 
sibly altered deserves experiment ; whether the liquor im- 
pregnated with colours may not communicate the same upon 
necessity of this single aliment ; whether smells may not be 
impressed ; whether when it purges corrected, and purgative 
qualities imbibed. 

If others answer, mint and basil, though they sprout largely, 
yet they will hardly afford flowers, much less seed ; — senecio, 
or groundswell, seems best to promise it. 

Groundswell, put into water in December, lived, was frozen 
in January, sent forth flowers in the end of February, flow- 
ered and vanished in the beginning of May. 

Bulbous roots, once shot, will flower there, and no wonder 
therein, for some will flower being hung up, having a sufficient 
stock of moisture for flowers that are precocious. 

Plants will not only grow in the summer, but also in the 
winter if they be such as then continue green, as scurvy grass 
and groundswell. They will hold best which are put into the 
water with their roots, otherwise they will either not shoot 
them forth in the winter, or be long about it ; as we tried in 
scurvy grass. Rue stood almost three months, without put- 
ting any roots forth, fresh and verdant; spurge stood well 



446 EXTRACTS FROM 

with the root, as chamomile, and featherfew, and parsley. 
Mint and scordium, put in about July, stood and grew all 
summer, shot plentiful roots, from whence came fresh sprouts 
out of the glass when the other decayed, and some now stand 
under water, Feb. 17. Mint grew up in several branches in 
April, and now groweth, June 28. Mint, set in water in May, 
grew up, and seemed to die, but sprouted again about Oc- 
tober, stood all winter, and grew up in many branches the 
next spring. 

Rue, set in October, without shooting any roots, grew 
about two inches in the winter, shot forth above forty roots 
in the spring, and grew much all the summer, flowered July 
and August. 

Scurvy grass grew all winter, flowered in the spring, but 
seeded not, other put in in February, near to flower, shot 
roots, flowered and seeded in May, and shot new leaves under 
water. 

Try how they will thrive in aqua vitae, wine, vinegar, oil, 
salt water. 

Many were put in, none grew or thrived, but suddenly de- 
cayed in aqua vitae, wine, vinegar, salt water ; oil draweth not 
at all, and so it dieth. 

Mint would not grow in water and sugar, nor in strong rose 
water, but, unto two ounces of water adding but two or three 
spoonfulls, it thrived and acquired a richer smell. Seeds of 
plants which seed in the water of glasses, prove fruitful, as 
tried in those of scurvy and spurge, which now grow at the 
spring, being sowed about September before. 

Asarum which had stood about two years in water, and 
twice cast the leaves ; of these the leaves given maintained 
their vomitive quality, 

How little, beside water alone, will support or maintain the 
growth of plants, beside the experiment of Helmont we have 
seen in some which have lived six years in glasses ; and asa- 
rum which grew two years in water and lived ; cast the leaves, 
maintained its vomiting quality. 

Fertile seeds sink, but when they germinate they rise up 
and come up to the top of the water, for then the seed fer- 
ments and swells, and breaks the closure or covering. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 447 

The seed of an almond or plum, at first when it is hollow 
and windy swimmeth, afterward sinketh, yet take out the nib 
and it sinketh. 

In bay leaves commonly used at funerals, we unknowingly 
hold in our hands a singular emblem of the resurrection ; for 
the leaves that seem dead and dry, will revive into a perfect 
green, if their root be not withered ; as is observable in bay 
trees after hard winters, in many leaves half, in some almost 
wholly withered, wherein though the alimental and aqueous 
juice be exhausted the radical and balsamical humour remain- 
ing though in a slender quantity is able to refresh itself again, 
the like we have observed in dead and withered furze. 

[On Tobacco.] 

Although of ordinary use in physic, the anatomy of tobacco 
is not discovered, nor hath HofFmanus in his work of thirty 
years relieved us. That which comes fermented and dyed 
unto us affords no distinct account, in regard it is infected with 
a decoction or lixivium, which is diverse according to different 
places, and some ascend no higher than urine. Adulterations 
proceed further, adding euphorbium or pepper, and some do 
innocently temper it with gum of guaiacum. 

The herb simply in itself and green or dried, is but flat, 
nor will it hold fire well upon ordinary exsiccation. Other 
plants are taken in the pipe but they want quickness and hold 

not fire only prick and draw by their fuligo, which 

all smoke will do ; and probably other herbs might be made 
quick and fire well, if prepared the same way, that is by fer- 
mentation, for in that alteration the body is opened, the fixed 
parts attenuated by the spirit, the oily parts diffused and the 
salt raised from the earthly bed wherein it naturally lieth ob- 
scure and heavy. 

It containeth three eminent qualities, sudorific, narcotic, 
and purgative ; from the subtle spirits and flying salt, sweat 
seems to proceed, for the ashes will not do it. The narcotic 
depends on the humor impurus ; for the vapour thereof con- 
tains it, and the burnt part loseth it, as in opium. Poppy 
seeds dried are ineffectual, and the green heads work most 



448 EXTRACTS FROM 

powerfully ; the same is observable in the mandichoca root, 
which being a strong poison, is harmless, being dried. The 
purgative quality lieth in the middle principle, which goes not 
away by a gentle heat ; for the water purgeth not, the smoke 
but very doubtfully, and seldom in clysters of the smoke of 
three or four pipefuls, nor in the salt thereof, neither inci- 
neration, but in the middle principles of the nitrous salt, and 
such parts as are to be extracted by tincture, infusion, or de- 
coction, whose actives remain in the menstruum, and therefore 
that which is decocted, and after dried, grows faint in the 
purgative quality, if it returneth. 

Of tobacco there is the male and female ; the male the best. 
Yellow rhubard is often taken for the true plant. 

Tobacco may be made or cured without a caldo, and will 
ferment and grow brown long laid together, and hung up will 
grow brown. To advance the same the caldo may be added 
before the rolling up, for then it will have a quicker taste and 
sweeter smell. 

The leaves first ripe make the best when they grow gummy 
and brittle ; they must be often cleared of the sprouts that 
grow upon the same stem, and the baschros left out. 

To make the best tobacco, these to be taken, and of the 
male ; and a good caldo used, and kept awhile, till time digest 
remaining crudities. 

[On the Ivy.] 

Concerning ivy these remarkable: — The leaves less indented, 
scarce angular toward the top ; like many herbs which laci- 
niate at the lower leaves, little at the upper. 

It beareth twice a year, spring and It groweth 

not about every tree ; most about oak, ash, elm, thorn; less 
about wich hasel ; hardly observed about firs, pine, yew. 

Whether it will not delight about trees that are perpetually 
green may be inquired. It seldom ariseth about holly or not 
to great bigness ; the perpetual leafing prevents the arise, or 

hindring the growth or twisting of to provide for 

themselves. 

Whether there be not also a dissimilitude in their motions, 
not one enduring the approximation of the other. 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 449 

That they follow the sun in their windings is hard to make 
out upon impartial observation ; hops do it more clearly, which 
nothing turning are commonly directed that way by the hus- 
bandman. 

Inquire how it ariseth from the primary root. 

Try whether ivy will bear when cut from the root ; whether 
it may have sufficient stock remaining for once, or whether it 
may not attract somewhat by the cerni. 

[On the Fig Tree.] 

Concerning the fig tree, some things are remarkable from 
its proper nature ; that it is a tree of plentiful sap and milk 
diffused throughout, which will drop from the trunk and 
branches if seasonably cut at the spring. 

That it is the general plant for admission of insition, en- 
grafting ; and though misletoe seldom or never groweth there- 
on, yet it becomes a fit stock for most plants. 

That it was the coagulum or runnet of the ancients, where- 
with they turned their milk and made cheese, as is remark- 
able from Aristotle de Animal, and illustrates that passage in 
Homer and Euripides, and might frustrate all the use of other 
herbs, and hath its name from thence and which we find so 
great effect ; and might therefore be medically used in the 
place of coagulum, which having that virtue may serve for 
dissolution of blood coagulated. 

That they have fruits without any flower, as jessamine 
flowers without fruit or seeds ; that these are the forerunners 
of fruit the year following, and stay in buttons all the winter, 
making figs the year after. 

Of this, two parables, remarkable in the Scripture. 

Cursed for barrenness, as being less tolerable in that tree 
than any, which is the stock of all other trees, and therefore 
more considerable that nothing grew upon it, on which all 
other trees will grow, and in this consideration probably the 
phallus or virile neuter and the image of Priapus the god of 
fertility and semblance of fecundation was formed out of a fig- 
tree. And whether in the Hebrew notation there be any na- 
tural fertility implied, whilst we find it from a word that sig- 

VOL. IV. 2 G 



450 EXTRACTS FROM 

nifieth twins and plural generations, may admit of consider- 
ation. 

That our first parents covered their secret parts with fig- 
leaves, which tree was after sacred unto Priapus, I shall not 
deduce upon genteel imagination. 

[Scripture Criticism.] 

How properly the priority was conferred unto Aaron by a rod 
or staff, and why the staff and sceptre of the princes were 
chosen for this intention, philologists may conjecture ; in that 
they were the bodies and cognizances of their places, and 
were a kind of sceptre in their hands, denoting their power 
and supremacy, without which we find the princes of the 
Trojans, and which rod was ready in the hand of Ulysses. 
Thersites' shoulders felt it from the hand of Ulysses ; and 
Achilles, as the deepest oath, swears by his sceptre, that should 
never bud nor bear leaves again, as a thing impossible. This 
lash of divinty is in the hands of gods and goddesses. 

Whether there be any such implied in the vision of Jere- 
my, video virgam vigilantem or amygdalinum, as it is trans- 
lated, may be considered, for thereby the power and staff of 
the Assyrian king is implied. But in the contention of the 
children of Israel, and miraculous decision of priority testified 
by the rod of Aaron, which flowered and brought forth al- 
monds, you cannot but discern a look at the propriety of the 
miracle in that species of tree which is the first that blossom- 
eth, and leadeth in the vernal geniture unto all the body of 
trees. That most famous allegory of Scripture implies the 
head in that expression, " when the almond tree shall flou- 
rish," that is, " the head grow white like the flowers of al- 
monds," whose fruit was anciently called Kagoev, or the head. 

God that proposed the experiment only by blossoms, added 
also the fruit of almonds, the text not clearly making out 
leaves, but the buds of flowers, open flowers, and almonds ; 
and, therefore, if you have perused medals, you cannot but 
observe how derogatory unto the miracle the Jews have de- 
scribed in them, shewing the rod of Aaron laden only with 
leaves, and whether the have attained it best, and 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 451 

■7,hlf er f the .r igi r i when ,hey describe ;t ° n 'y *>«*. 

md the fruit without leaves. 

How the dove sent out of the ark should bring in a green 
live leaf according to the original, hath nothing of such won- 
er as to amaze expositors, how after ten months it should 
maintain that verdure, since the tree is continually green the 
aves dry, thick, and lasting, since plants at the bottom of 
I sea maintain that verdure, and since we receive the leaves 
esh among the olives which come from far countries and very 
te unto us. J 

How it should stand thus Ioug under water, may partly be 

tlr : r ertain detention ° f < he ■» «s 

bs and flows at that time, and the mixture of the fresh 

straff V ?°' e ° Cea " ° f that eIement ' and ~t«bly 
strated from hke examples in Theophrastus and Pliny. 

vophrashMst.^czp.l. Plin. lib. xiii, cap. ult. 

[On Chiromancy^ 

make further inquiry into that ehiromantieal doctrine of 
tholomeus Code., ,h at the acuteness of the tinea mensalh 
otes the acuteness of fevers, and great disposition thereto, 
•ersons where ,t extendeth high and near the fore finger 
Tomanhcre parvce, lib. vi, cap. 28 ' 

heat variety there is in the lines of the hand; almost no 
t conformity In the palm, they seem to be made bv the 
mlation of the metacarpus, or middle hand, from whence 
fchlTn, T f h V nfleXi0n0ftheli "'-nd fourth fin! 

Til !l u l° { the and middk *e natural line 

¥ the humb the line of life. The other lines are made 
>f the hgamen ts or t.es of the broad tendons unto the 
,s, or of divers hnes of fibres under the shin 

the first sort there are also master and principal lines 
m analogy to these, in creatures of five divisions of f"o ' 
es, monkeys, in frogs, with like lesser also, and in great 

ese are also observed in most digitate animals, and vari- 
toposed, as ,„ dogs, cats, &c. , in fin-footed birds, swans, 



2 G 2 



a kq EXTRACTS FROM 

[Experiments on Animals.] 
Observe how purges and narcotics aloe and opium do , work 
with other animals; in what quantity P-f °™ k J f ™ 
i. l-„. whether thev will with hens, and birds with Claw* 
hawks, whether they and cormorants, 

and gizzards wnat tney win uu fl w 

that seem to have but one gut, what they wdl do w.th fishes, 
as a pickerel or carp or eel. 

Three grains of opium works strongly upon a dog Ob- 
serve how much will take place with a horse, which subs stetk 
~* little sleep. Fishes are quickly intoxicated w, h b aU 
in what quantity with opium X What quanut, will take.it 
birds and animals with little heads? 

From two grains unto five we have g.ven unto a cockere 
Jhou any discernible sopition. Observe what place ,t , i 
Tat in birds without craws , where, falling mto the maw, tk 
heat may quicklier liquate it. 

Four unto a crow, without visible eftect. 

Six and eight unto dogs, making them dull, not profound 

t0 Terrains of aloe given unto a cock, produce bloody a 
cretions! carrying off the mucus of the guts ; which in bn 
are tender, and might be employed in puddings. 

Five grains we have also given unto turkeys withou effi 

of sleep • four unto a crow, and as much unto cocks and he 

Two grains given a pickerel, above a quarter long ; died 

twelve hours, stooled not; another, who had nothing giv 

survived. -i 

Sk grains of white hellebore given unto a young quad 
duced vertigo, but it survived. Ten of black hellebore « 
another produced no sensible alteration, but only freqj 
ejections or mutings. i Qeo .I 

We entered a mole, a toad, and a viper, in one glass . * 
half an hour the mole eat up half the viper, leaving th 
and harder parts ; destroyed the toad, eat part of the end 
died the next day; which I imputed not unto eating so 
a meal, for they will not commonly live above a day or M 

° f FifteeTgrains of opium given unto a young cormora 



COMMON PLACE BOOKS. 453 

seemed for some hours to be a little vertiginous and to go but 
i weakly, but seemed not to sleep at all. 

Five grains unto a young kestrel, did seem the like vertigi- 
nous and a little more sleepy ; not profoundly. 

Five unto a young heron did nothing ; given in paste it was 
1 excluded in an hour. 

Twenty-one grains of aloes powdered, given unto a young 
i cormorant, wrought often, thin and yellow, the bird well after it. 
Two drachms of hemlock given unto a cormorant ; died in 
two hours after, vertiginous. 

Of crocus metattorum, a drachm given unto a cormorant ; 
lived a week after, vomited much ; being dead it was found 
still remaining in the bottom of the maw. 

[Receipts.] 

Two neat pickles may be contrived, the one of oysters stewed 
in their own vinegar, with thyme, lemon peel, onion, mace, 
pepper; adding Rhenish wine, elder vinegar, three or four 
pickled cucumbers. 

Another with equal parts of the liquor of oysters, and the 
liquor that runs from herrings newly salted, dissolving an- 
chovy therein, or pickling therein a few smelts, or garlick, 
especially the seeds thereof. 

High esteem was made of garum by the ancients, and was 
used in sauces, puddings, &c. If simply made with aromatic 
mixture, as is delivered, it cannot but have an ungrateful smell, 
however a haut gout, for it was the liquor or the resolution 
of guts of fishes, salt and insolated. 

This same way may be tried by us yearly, and is still con- 
tinued in Turkey. 

And may be made out of the entrails of mackarel, the liquor 
that runs from the herrings which may dissolve anchovies, and 
with a mixture of oysters and limpets and the testaceous 
fishes, whereof every one makes his own pickle, and varieth 
the taste of sea water. 

The neatest way is to have pickles always ready, wherein 
we may make additions at pleasure, or use them simply in 
sauces. The ancients loaded their pickles with cummin seed 
and the like, distateful unto our senses. 



454 CLASSICAL PASSAGES, 

[MS. SLOAN. 1882, FOL. 143.] 

[Fossil Remains found in Norfolk.] x 



. 



This bone was found about a year past, by Winterton, on the 
sea shore, in Norfolk. 

The cliff had been much broken by high tides and the rage 
of the sea, many hundred loads falling down as it often doth 
upon this coast, the cliffs being not rock but earth. 

Upon the same coast, but at some miles distance, divers 
great bones are said to have been found, and I have seen one 
side of a lower jaw containing very large teeth petrified, far ' 
exceeding the teeth of the biggest ox. 

It was found after a great flood near to the cliff, some thou- 
sand loads of earth being broken down by the rage of the sea. 

That it came not out of the sea it might be conjectured, 
because it was found so far from it, and from the colour, for 
if out of the sea it would have been whiter. 

When the outward crust is taken off, it answereth the grain 
of the bones of whales and other cetaceous animals, compar- 
ing it with a piece of whale's scull that I have by me. 

This last month in a grave of Earsham churchyard, were 
found sixteen large teeth but of a different bigness, whereof 
this is one brought me and taken for a giant's tooth, but it 
very well resembleth the tooth of an ox, as you may observe 
by comparing it. 



[MS. SLOAN. 1862 AND I860.] 

[Classical jwssages selected for mottoes.]' 
Boletus domino. — Juvenal. The best meat for the best. 

1 And presented to the Royal Society, Valete anagrammata! Nil miki vobiscum ! '', 
\666.-Hoohe's Postlmmous lVorks,Y>.3]3. — shows his estimation of such things. 

2 In MS. Sloan. 1843, there occur se- The following sentences are selected from 
veral Anagrams sent me by my ever honor' Nos. 18(>2-18(iG, (which form but one 
ed friend Sir Philip Wodehouse, and volume) in order to shew one of the uses 
others; some, however, are not altoge- to which Browne turned his classical 
ther fit for publication ; and Sir Thomas's reading. 

own exclamation immediately following, 



SELECTED FOR MOTTOES. 455 

refert, 

Quo gestu lepores, et quo gallina secetur. Juv. Sat. v, I. 124. 
In small matters a decorum is to be observed. 

Plurima sunt, quae 

Non audent homines pertusa dicere laena. lb. I. 130. 

Poor men dare not speak what they think ; 
Or must not, if you make it debent. 

Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. lb. xv, /. 8. 
The servant more honoured than the master — 
The man honored; the lord neglected. 

Nefas illic foetum jugulare capellse: lb. lin. 13. 

Carnibus humanis vesci licet .... 

They strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. 

Quis gremio Encladi, doctique Palaemonis adfert 
Quantum grammaticus meruit labor? lb. viii, /. 215. 

Upon the Free school door at Norwich. 

Qui nunquam visae flagrabat amore puellae. 

Juv. lib. i, Sat. \\, I. 114. 
A blind man in love. 

Pocula adorandae rubiginis. lb. xiii, I. 148. 

Upon an antique vessel. 

1 Hoc pretio squamae ? lb. iv, /, 25. 

Who would give such high prices for trifles ? 

i Quare si sapies viam vorabis. Catul. xxxvi, 7. 

To a friend to come in haste. 

. . . nimis uncis 

Naribus indulges. lb. I. 40. 

Upon one that exceedeth in scoffing. 

Tenerum et laxa cervice legendum. Pers. i, 98. 

Upon a smooth and easy poem. 



456 CLASSICAL PASSAGES, ETC. 

Et qui cceruleum dirimebat Nerea delphin. Pers. i, 94. 

Upon my picture of a dolphin. 

Per me equidem sint omnia protinus alba. Pers. i, 110. 

All is well for me. 

Qui sale multo 

Urbem defricuit. Horat. S. i, x. 4. 

Ben Jonson. 

Hoc meruit fundi de Ganimede merum. Mart, 13, cviii. 

Upon super-excellent wine. 

Libros non legit ille, sed libellos. lb. xi, i, 5. 

Upon a book dedicated to a prince. 

Qui scribit nihil, et tamen poeta est. lb. x, cii. 

Upon a stolen piece, or piece of plagiarism. 

Haeredem scripsit me Numa : convaluit. 
Upon one whose hopes are unexpectedly and narrowly 
disappointed. 

Neronianas hie refrigerat thermas. Mart, iii, xxv, 4. 

Upon one of a very cold temper. 

O nox, quam longa est, quag fecit una senem. 
Upon Gonzaga imprisoned, who in one night grew grey. 

Et mare percussum puero, fabrumque volantem. Juv. i, /. 54. 
Upon my large picture of Icarus and Dcedalus. 

Unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoraeis. lb. iii, /. 229. 
An inscription upon the kitchen-garden door. 

Omnes tanquam ad vivaria currunt. lb. I. 303. 

Whither all sharking or shifting people resort, as it were 
their pasture, to London. 



23l\ Cftmnas Brofow'ss lourney 



DR. PLOT. 

[MS. SLOAN. NO. 1899.] 

Auguste the 1 5th, 1693. 

This morninge I went to Greenwhiche witli Dr. Plot ; from 
the landing place wee went directly up to Blackeheath. A 
little beyonde the bowlingreen, Watlingstreet, one of the Ro- 
man highways, appeard very conspicuous, running directly to 
the corner of the parke, where we loste it, but recoverd it 
againe in lesse then halfe a mile, where it passes by two 
tumuli in a pointe of lande between Dover roade and an other 
running towards Liegh ; and some of the present roade going 
up Shooters hill is parte of it. Upon the heathe between 
Wellinge and Crayforde it passes on the righte hand of the 
great roade, and somtimes between two horse ways. Att 
Crayforde wee inquired for some deep perpendicular pits, 
mentiond by Lambert? and placed in this parishe, thoughe 
wee coulde flnde none here : in halfe a mile of Dartforde and 
in that parishe wee met with several, some of chalke and 
some of sand. I had not the opportunity of being lett downe 
into any of them, but as far as I can perceive they are of the 
same forme of some others in Chadwell wood, in Essex, about 
three miles from Grayes. There are two cuts of them in 
Camden, and he supposes that the Britains dug chalke out 
of them, but surely that was not theire purpose, for it seems 
improbable that they shoulde dig several fathom deep for 



158 DR. THOMAS BROWNE'S JOURNEY 

chalke when they might haue it neer the surface of the earth, 
and I was in one which was 9 fathoms deep which had nothing 
but sande in it ; this pit was scarce a fathom broade till I 
came within three yards of the botom where it expatiates it- 
selfe and is of a circular form,* belieue the Britains upon an 
incursion of the enemie hid themselves, their cattle, goods, 
and corne, in these caverns, as Tacitus says the Germans did, 
and as the Hungarians doe at present, when they are invaded 
by the Turkes ; the countrey people in Essex call them the 
Danes holes : att Dartforde they haue noe name for them, 
one John Lowe who hues nearest them tells us that in Dart- 
forde and neer it there are about fortie of these pits. 

On the sixteenth, on Dartforde Brent, we perceived the 
Roman waye running on the righte hande of the great roade ; 
it strikes downe a lane, and passes on the ***** hand of a 
farme, called Woodcocks hall, and an other named Blacke sole ; 
some remains of wee found in stone wood, and these led us 
to Bettysham, a hamlet in Southfleet : here we left the Roman 
waye and went to Swanscombe, which takes its name from 
Swaine, the Dane; who, in one of his invasions, came up 
Ebsfleet, now a rivulet, which passes under Stone bridge; he 
incamped here or very neer it. Lamberte says it was att 
Greenhithe ; but after a stride inquiry att both these places, 
wee coulde neither hear of or see any remains of Swains in- 
trenchments, or Swanscombe castle, which Philpot says was 
an honour : perhaps Mr. Weldons house stands on the cas- 
tle, and the Danishe fortifications ar dug away att Greenhithe. 

On the seventeenth wee found something of v the way at 
Chinglewell, and on the north side of Cobham parke, they 
haue taken the advantage here to set the parke pale on it. 
Cobham house is an antient noble bricke building ; the rooms 
are stately and well furnished ; the chymney pieces are rnoste 
of them marble, well carvde and polished ; in order to finde 
where the Roman way passed the Medway at Durobrovis, 
now Rochester, it was rational to enquire for the moste ford- 
able, and were informed that att the pointe of lande over 
against Fricndsbury church, att lowe water, it was not aboue 
three or foure foote water and that in our grandfathers days, 

* Sic. 



WITH DR. PLOT. 459 

by the helpe of an horses head, any one might passe the 
river ; we coulde finde nothing of the waye att either of these 
places; in the afternoone going up Chatham hill wee coulde 
perceive nothing of the waye, but aboue the hill it runs on 
the left hand hedge going to Raynham, the burying place of 
the Tuftons Earles of Thanet ; on the right hand of the waye 
to Newington it passes on the right hand of the waye, and 
neer the towne it seems to fall into the Dover-roade about 
halfe a mile from Newington ; on the left hand is a fielde 
called Crockeflelde (from the infinite number of urns that 
have been found here) Burton says that some thousand of 
urns were here dug up, and will haue this to bee Durolevum, 
though the distance between that and Durovernum, now Can- 
terbury, does not agree, and I belieue that these bones were 
reposited here after some suddain ingagement, and that it 
was never a Roman station. About two miles from hence 
there is a hill called Standarde hill, and is saide to haue been 
once graced with the Roman eagle. Watling street falls 
into the roade at Caicolhill, between that and Greenstreet ; 
it is much demolished but fair enough in this village. On 
the left hand about a mile from hence in Castlewoode, wee 
founde some trenches running one into an other, and perhaps 
mighte bee the olde Durolevum, the distance between that 
and Durovernum agree better then any other place that we 
haue met with. Att Ospringe beacon wee met with some of 
it again, att Ospringe beacon nothing of it appears between 
that and Feversham, it being worne away here as it is in all 
valleys ; here wee sought for the chalke pits as Dr. Childery 
supposes they doe not resemble those att Crayforde, but are 
as broade att the top as any where and containe a good com- 
passe of grounde ; it is likely that the Britains might builde 
their hovels or place their tents in these bottoms to protect 
them from ill weather : the next daye till wee came to the 
lower end of Bougton street it appeard not att all ; but here 
is prittie plaine on the right hand of the roade, thence run- 
ning to the beacon, and so to be seen at divers places between 
that and Harble downe. About a quarter of a mile from hence, 
on the left hand, is a round hill steep and high, on all sides but 
the easte. Wee haue met with several such, but whether they 



460 DR. THOMAS BROWN e's JOURNEY 

bee fortified by art or nature is disputable. Between this and 
Canterbury the waye is worne out. At Canterbury there 
are two remarkable things not taken notice of by Sumner, 
viz. in the N. E. staircase in the castle are several verses 
of the psalms curiously cuti n Hebrew characters, yet visible 
in the stone worke. Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, daughter to Sir 
Thomas Moore, Chancellour of England, after his fathers 
execution kept his head in her closet till her death, and then 
orderd it to bee inclosed in lead and placed on her coffin. 
She married one Mr. Roper, whose successours are now liv- 
ing in St. Dunstans parishe, in Canterbury, in the vaulte of 
which family, her body and Sir Thomas's head are reposited. 
Wee made an excursion to Chilham to view the burial place 
of Quintus Durus Laberius, a Roman tribune, slaine by the 
Britains ; his tumulus is not rounde as all other Roman ones I 
have yet met with, but is a ridge of earth, much resemblinge 
a Roman waye, seventy paces long and twentie broad, it is in 
a fielde of Mr. Diggs's neer a mill, and within a * of a 

mile of his house, which was raised out of the ruins of Chilham 
castle, whose trenches incompasse moste of the towne, and 
the keep is att present Mr. Diggs's brewhouse. Three mile 
and an halfe from Canterbury, in Iffin wood, wee founde a 
fortification on a rising grounde, the possession of John Le 
Mot Honeywoode, Esq. of Cogshul, in Essex; it has two 
trenches ; the innermoste contains two acres and the other 
seven att least. If we coulde distinguish the Britishe for- 
tresses from others, wee might conclude that this was one, 
and that to which Cassar forced the Britains to retire to, for 
after he had left his navy (which laye then wide of Sand- 
whiche) under the commande of Q. Atrius, says thus of him- 
selfe, progressus millia passuum circiter duodecim hostium 
copias conspicatus est Mi esse dis ad Jiumen jjrogressi ex 
loco superiore nostros prohibere, et prcelium committere 
cocpcrunt repulsi ah equitatu in silvis se abdiderunt locum 
nacti egregie naturd et opere munitum quod domestici belli 
causa tit videatur ante prapar aver ant. This fortification is 
the exact distance from his navy, which he assigns it is neer 
a river, and has several wells neer it which must bee requisite 

* Sic. 



WITH DR. PLOT. 461 

for such an intrenchment. Aug. 27, wee went to Sandwhich, 
and in our waye founde the Roman Watling street, on the left 
hand of the roade where my Lorde Winchelsheas parke- 
wall stands upon ; it is conspicuous att Fishepoole hill and 
Little Bourne, but moste aparent by Wyngham churche in 
the mill medowe ; and on a green about halfe a mile on this 
side of Ashe, it is prittie plain, having a large tumulus neer 
it. On the left hand of the green it pointed S. E. by S., and 
was worne awaye between that and Richboroughe. 

From Sandwhich wee went to Richborowe, the olde Rutu- 
pium, the ruins of which station are of a square forme con- 
taning about hue acres of land. The northe wall is 168 paces 
longe, the southe 126, and the weste 160, the easte wall is 
fallen away and overgrowne with bushes tho' the other three 
are loftie, and thicke composed of flinte, and double ridges 
of Roman bricke, compacted together with a mortar made of 
cockleshells and sand ; the chief entrance was on the weste 
side; in the northe wall there is a little posterne. Neer this is 
an other fortification of earth having foure entrances to it ; it 
takes up about an acre of lande. , Some authers giue an ac- 
counte K. Ethelberte received St. Augustine in his palace of 
Richboroughe in the Isle of Thanet, whether Richboroughe 
was in that islande is not certaine ; though possible, for the 
Stowre might formerly haue its course over Goshall and Fleet 
marshes, that parte of the countrie being as lowe as the 
channel in which the river now runs, and upon the digging 
of ditches in this parte of the level great quantities of cockles, 
periwinkles, and other shels are found. Whilste wee were 
here wee gathered some from the surface of the earthe, 
which is no small argument to proue that Richboroughe was 
once in the isle of Thanet. Neer the ferry from Sandwiche is 
a rounde risinge ground, including neer thirtie acres ; here 
stood Stonar,by some thought to bee Lapis Tituli. The found- 
ations of buildings are turnde up by the plowe every daye. 
Peter Van Slade who had one of the farms here, raised the 
bancke that lies between the two farms with parte of the 
foundation he dug up here. In our returne to Canterbury 
wee sawe Wingham churche, it is in very good repair, and 
amongst other monuments has one very beautifull erected in 



462 DR. THOMAS BROWN e's JOURNEY, ETC. 

memory of several of that branch of the Oxendine family, 
which is now seated att Deane here in this parishe, this tombe 
is in a neat chappel paved with blacke and white marble, here 
is an other handsome tombe for Sir Ed. Palmer and his 
lady. 

On Iffindowne about halfe a mile beyond Stubbington, that 
part of Watlingstreet which is paved and raisd high with 
flinte is to bee seen, it runs by Eye and Divels courte hall, 
leaving it on the right hand as it had done Stubbington before 
and goes to Harmansoale and points.* It is yet so entire 
that passeingers is for the ease of their horses, where they can, 
leaue this waye, and choose the sof ground ; so that in divers 
places the Roman waye is overgrowne with bushes ; att Hemp- 
ton hill, within lesse then three miles of Hyde, it turns to the 
right hand and winds about to the left againe, going downe 
that hill to Stanforde where it is quite worne out; between 
this and Hyde, is an antient seat called Oustern hanger parke, 
builte by Oeske King of Kent, and as tradition goes his sworde 
was kepte here in succeeding ages, and gaue name to the 
house. Halfe a mile from hence is Saltwood castle the firste 
builte by Vske a Kinge of Kent, and much repaired by Wil- 
liam Montforde, constable of Dover castle, and afterwards 
by William Courtney, archbishop of Canterbury, his arms 
are over the easte gate, the only parte of the castle which 
is inhabited, tis of an oval forme from easte to weste, it is 
twentie five rods in lengthe, in 1580 it suffered much by an 
earthquake. 

* Sic. 



AN ACCOUNT OF 



Cije jHamtscript Collections 



SIR THOMAS & DR. E. BROWNE. 



Sir Thomas Browne left a very considerable mass of letters 
and manuscripts, principally his own, but including also some 
which he had collected ; — especially the MSS. of Dr. Arthur 
Dee. A small portion found their way into the Bodleian 
Library, through the medium of Dr. Rawlinson ; but how or 
when he obtained them, I have not been able to ascertain. 
They are in Nos. 58, 108, 390, and 391, of the Rawlinson 
MSS. No. 58 is composed very largely of fragments and 
letters relating to Dr. Edward Browne's travels ; but bound 
up without any arrangement. I have printed several of the 
letters, and one or two fragments from it. From No. 108 I 
have printed about 20 letters : it contains also some extracts, 
probably by Dr. Edward Browne, from various authors, and 
some memoranda and commonplaces by Sir Thomas. From 
No. 390 has been obtained the " Catalogue of MSS. $•<?." 
which has enabled me to determine, with some degree of cer- 
tainty, what unpublished papers Browne left, and thus to 
satisfy myself, that the present is a complete collection of 
his works. No. 391 is occupied almost entirely with letters ; 
— of which I have printed about 25. The fragment Of Green- 
land, vol. iv, p. 375, is from this volume ; which contains, be- 
sides, copies of Sir K. Digbys Letter to Browne, and the 
Brampton Urns, both which have been collated with the 
printed editions. 

But the far greater portion of the Browne MSS. comprising 
those of the father, son, and grandson, with large medical and 



464> ACCOUNT OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 

miscellaneous collections which had fallen into their hands, 
were disposed of, soon after the death of the latter, to Sir 
Hans Sloane. On his decease, they ultimately reached the 
National Library in the British Museum ; where they are 
now contained in about 100 volumes, occupying, with few ex- 
ceptions, the consecutive numbers from 1825 to 1923, inclu- 
sive, besides some other numbers. 1 

In order to exhibit these collections with some degree of 
clearness, I have printed the Rawlinson catalogue, — drawn 
up, in all probability, but just before they were sold ; — and 
have attached to each article the number which I have ascer- 
tained it to bear at present. Some, however, have escaped 
my search. Of the 100 consecutive numbers between 1824' 
and 1924, some are blank, not attached to any volume ; 2 some 
refer to MSS. not belonging to the Browne collection; 3 and 
some to articles which, though they belong to it, are not in- 
cluded in the Rawlinson catalogue. Among the latter are 
some volumes of correspondence, 4 two MSS. of the younger 
Dr. T. Browne, 5 and several commonplace books, 6 whereas 

1 Nos. 1745, 341S, and 4039, contain letters; and No. 1797, a catalogue of 
plants, and a number of Medical Observations in Dr. Edward Browne's handwrit- 
ing. No. 2, among the Miscellaneous Papers, eye. of the catalogue, is No. 5233, of 
the Additional MSS. of the British Museum. 

2 1849, 1855, 1879. 

3 1829, 1831, 1832, 1835, 1840, 1850, 185S, 1871. 

4 1847, 1911, 1912, 1913. 

5 Nos. 1845 and 1846. The former contains Extracts and Medical Exercises, 
by Dr. Thomas Browne, Jun. The latter is the volume spoken of Mr. D'Israeli, 
in his Curiosities of Literature, as " the imperfect MS, collection made by the cele- 
brated Sir Thomas Browne," — and from which he has given some extracts. Mr. 
D'Israeli relied (as the consulter of these MSS. ought to be able safely to rely) on the 
description given in Ayscough's catalogue of them, at p. 882, viz. "Sir Thomas 
Browne. Extracts from Bootes, and Miscellaneous Observations :" — whereas, the 
volume is in the handwriting of his grandson. In his first edition, Mr. D'Israeli 
was led to refer his extract to Plot's Staffordshire, by the fact of the MS. opening with 
two pages of transcript from that work : but the passage was from Hacket's Memo- 
rial of Abp. Williams, p. 213, fol. Bond. 1693. The volume is a jumble (sadly 
confused in the binding) of extracts from Thomas of Walsingham,, Bartolomeus de 
Cotton, Mat. Paris, and a score others. 

G For example, 1843; See Ilawl. Cat. No. 7, 4to. — 1848; which is, in truth, a 
mere mass of rough papers, bound together; from which I have gleaned nothing 
but the collation of one or two passages, in the Tracts, a Catalogue, at p. 368, and 
a criticism, at p. 380, vol. iv. — 1862; see No. 25, 4to. — 1865; No. 31, 4to. — 
1869 ; 36, 4to. — 1874. Several portions of which are enumerated in the catalogue, 
Nos. 40 — 44; but a considerable part is, in fact, a commonplace book. — 1882 and 
1885, also contain similar rough drafts, and hints for passages in his various works. 
— The fact is that when the collection passed into Sir Hans Sloane's possession, 
it contained a number of letters and miscellaneous papers, which were so mentioned 
in his own MS. catalogue, and were not bound up till after he had them. 



OF SIR THOMAS AND DR. E. BROWNE. 465 

the catalogue names but one, which I have referred to MS. 
Sloan. 1866. 7 In several instances I find that a volume 
containing one or more of the articles enumerated in the 
catalogue, also contains some not in it. 8 

But my great object in making so careful an analysis of the 
present catalogue has been, to ascertain whether any of the 
works which Sir Thomas left in manuscript, had escaped me. 
Of the 112 numbers contained in the catalogue, there are but 
16 which I have not either found or accounted for; and of 
these one only (No. 23, 4to.) is ascribed to Browne. Ano- 
ther article (No. 7, 4to.) for some time eluded my search : yet 
I was satisfied that the two dialogues there mentioned must 
have been written, or *hey would not have been described so 
fully : but a reference to Sir Hans Sloane's own catalogue 
at length satisfied me that such was not the fact, and that 
the article in question was MS. Sloan. No. 1843; in which 
the titles only, and not the dialogues, are to be found : — he 
calls the volume " Subjects for Tracts, Sir T. B. &c." The 
only remaining article (No. 23, 4to. — Tractatus Varii per 
T. Browne, M.D.) appears certainly to have passed into Sir 
Hans Sloane's possession, for he mentions it and ascribes it 
to Sir Thomas Browne : but, as certainly, it is no longer to 
be found ; and my consolation is, the probability that it was 
the " duplicate in 4to." of the Latin Tracts contained in No. 
1827, and printed in my fourth volume. — (See No. 5, fol. and 
No. 23, 4to.) Supposing this conjecture to be true, and sup- 
posing that the following catalogue comprises a complete list 
of the works of Sir Thomas, which remain in MS. excepting 
those in the Bodleian Library, — then it follows, that I may 
safely assure my readers, that the present is a Complete 
Collection of the works of that distinguished writer. 

7 See Rawl. Cat. No. 32, 4fo. 
8 In No. 1828, for example, the last two, on the Philosopher's Stone, and on the 
Art of Navigation, (Aysc. p. 510 and 701.) Again at fols. 207 to 296 of MS. 
Sloan, 1839, Moral Essays, (Aysc. Nos. 9 to 14 :) and in No. 1844, Astronomical 
Tables, (No. 2. Aysc.) 



VOL. IV. 2 H 



466 ACCOUNT OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 



[bibl. bodl. mss. rawlinson. 390. no. 11.] 

A Catalogue of MSS. written by and in the possessio?i of 
Sir Thomas Browne, M.D. late of Norwich, and of his 
Son, Dr. Edward Broivne, late President of the College of 
Physicians, London. 

Folio. 

No. 1. A very ancient MS. (Poetry) upon vellum, finely illumi- 
nated. 

MS. Sloan. 1825 : — thus described in Ayscough's Catalogue, p. 819 ; — 1S25, 1. 
Thos. Occleve, De Itegimine Principis. Aug. In Perg. lb. p. S32 ; — 1825, 2. 
An Old Poem on Death, on vellum. 

No. 2. Relatione del Clariss * Vineentio d'Alessandri, Ambascia- 
dore al Re di Persia, per la Ser ma ' Republica di Venetia. 

MS. Sloan. 1826. Aysc. p. 364. — Besides this article, (the only one men- 
tioned either in Ayscough's or the present catalogue,) which occupies but 
9 folios, the volume contains narratives of embassies to, or particulars re- 
specting, the Papal States, Tuscany, Savoy, Ferrara, the Venetian Republic, 
Spain, France, Poland, Muscovy and Tartary. 

No. 3. Some Anatomical Lectures. 

These Lectures were probably bound up with other papers ; perhaps in MS. 
Sloan. 1833. Nos. 1914 and 1915 contain Dr. E. Browne's Lectures, from 
1675 to 1678; and 2 vols, entitled Syllabus Musculorum Corporis ltumani ; 
1687 to 1698. But these volumes are 4to. not folio. 

No. 4. Mr. Thos. Browne's (second son of Sir Thomas) Account 
of his journey from Bordeaux to Paris. — Letters on several occa- 
sions. — Sea-coasts described and neatly drawn. 

MS. Sloan. 1745. Now first printed :— vol. i, p. 17-22, and 128-149. 

No. 5. Miscellanies, by Sir Thos. Browne. — 1. Discourse upon 
the Ancient Oracles. 2. Observations upon the place Troas, so 
often mentioned by St. Paul, in his Epistles. 3. Some remarks 
upon the Impropriety, Falsity, or Mistakes in Pictural Draughts. 
4. De Re Accipitraria, or a Discourse of Falconry, Hawks, or 
Hawking. 5. Of Languages. 6. Remarks upon several Texts of 
Scripture; — with several other Tracts on various subjects. 

MS. Sloan. 1827. Upon the fly-leaf of this volume are fastened two slips of 
parchment, (probably cut from the original cover,) thus labelled, in Sir 
Thomas's hand writing: — Of Oracles. De Re Accipitra. §c. (also in Ato.) 
Aiuico Ardua Med. ( Ys in 4to. also.) The duplicate of the former portion 
was very possibly the copy from which Abp. Tenison printed the Miscellany 
Tracts. That of the latter portion, (the Latin Tracts,) I suppose may have 
been No. 23,. 4to. of the present catalogue, which I cannot discover in Br. 
Mus. The present volume (like most of the other Browne MSS. in the 
Br. Mus.) has been so deranged in the binding, and Ayscough's catalogue 



OF SIR THOMAS AND DR. E. BROWNE. 467 

of it is so inaccurate, thai I shall give a fresh sketch of its contents, stating 
what use has been made of them. 
Fol. 1— — 9. On Oracles — Collated with Tract xi. 

10—13. On Troas— Collated with Tr. x. 

14 — 16. On Impropriety or Falsity, &c. — Now first printed, vol. iii, 
p. 157-160. 

17, 18. On the Dead Sea— Collated with Tract x. 

19. Of v/hat kind those little fishes — Collated with Tr. iii. 

20—22. On Haman hanged— Collated with Ps. Ep. v, 21. 

23—26. On Hawks and Hawking— Collated with Tr. v. 

27 — 40 and 50. On Languages, but intermixed in the binding — Collated 
with Tr. viii, and various readings given, vol. iv, p. 195-212. 

40—43. On Tumuli — Collated with Tr. ix. 

44 — 48. De Peste — Now first Printed, iv, 277-380. 

49—55 and 57. Brief Reply to Queries — Ditto iv, 281-286. 

55 — 57. Ditto, On the Hoopi bird. — Aysc. — A part of Tr. iv. 

58, 59. Musick of the Ancients, &c. — Collated with Tr. vi, and vii. 

59, 60. Naval Fights— Noiv first printed, iv, 287-289. 

60 — 86. To the end of the volume extend the Latin Tracts — And are 
now first printed, vol. iv, 290-312. 

No. 6. A Genealogical Account of the Families in Suffolk, with 
their arms variously drawn and illuminated. 

Does not seem to have passed into the Sloanian Collection ; at least I have not 
been able to trace it. 

No. 7. Modo breve a prender la lengua Biscayna. Compuesto 
por ell do ' Rafael Nicoleta, presby ,0 "de la muy leal y noble Villa de 
Bilboa, 1653. 

Neither can I find this in Mus. Br. See it mentioned, vol. iv, 199. 

No. 8. Receipts for making Syrupi et Pilulae Alterantes et pur- 
gantes. 

MS. Sloan. 1828, (No. 4, Aysc.) is headed as above, with " Gualteri Charlton," 
in addition. Ayscough calls it, Pharmacopoeia Londinensis, correct, a Gualt. 
Charlton. 

No. 9. An Account of the Bishops and Deans of Norwich. 

Not found in Mus. Br. This was probably sold, together with " Reperto- 
rium," (No. 9, 4to.) to Curll, for the Posthumous Works. I have not re- 
printed it, as it was not written by Sir Thomas. It is mentioned in the 
4th Vol. of Ballard's MS. Letters in the Bodleian Library, p. 58 ; as hav- 
ing been printed in the Posthumous Works, by permission of the Dean of 
Norwich, then Dr. Prideaux. 

No. 10. Original Letters written by King Charles I. 

MS. Sloan. 1828, (No. 3, Aysc. J This is called by Ayscough, K. James I, 
Letter to his Parliament, fyc. fyc. It is entered in Sr. Hans Sloane's MS. 
Cat., Letters by King James and King Charles the First to the Parliament. 

No. 11. A Genealogical Account of the Family of Norfolk. 
MS. Sloan. 1928? 

No. 12. Zoroastres, a Tragedy, written by the late Earl of 
Orrery, also a Comedy. 

MS. Sloan. 1828, (Nos. 1 and 2, Aysc.) 



468 ACCOUNT OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 

No. 13. Missale Romanum, upon vellum. 

Numbered 1829, in the MS. Sloanian Catalogue; but not now bearing that 
No., which is attached to an Svo. vol. of Remarks on French Poetry, fyc. 

No. 14. Sir Thos. Browne's Observations upon uncommon Birds, 
Fish, and other animals discovered in Norfolk. 

MS. Sloan. 1830. Besides the papers on Birds, Fishes, and the Ostrich, 
(printed in our 4th vol. pp. 313-339,) this vol. contains 3 letters to, and 
2 from, Dr. Merrett, (printed vol. i, pp. 395-403 ;) and on the last leaf a 
memorandum on the comparative height of Antwerp and Utrecht Steeples, 
and St. Peter's at Rome. 

No. 15. Mr. Thomas Browne's Journal with Sir Jeremy Smith, 
anno 1661, to Alicant, Tangier, &c. with curious draughts. 

MS. Sloan. 1910, fol. 1-45— The date however is 1665.— Printed, vol. i, 
p. 119-128. The vol. also contains Miscel. No. 4, No. 7, and 4to. No. 26, 
of the present catalogue, qu. vide. 

No. 16. An account of Ancient Medals. 

The Sloanian MS. Cat. adds in two parts, and numbers it 1832: which 
number however is now attached to a small oblong 4to. vol. (see Aysc. 
p. 384.) I am inclined to think the present article may be MS. Sloan. 1828, 
No. 5, Aysc. ;) which is a catalogue of 120 Roman Coins, in two parts. 

No. 17. Anatomical Dissections of several creatures ; with exact 
draughts, and some Physical Tracts. 

I am persuaded that this article has been cut up, and bound, here a bit and 
there a bit, fcomme a V ordinaire,) in MS. Sloan. 1833, amidst other and 
various subjects; — viz. lists of places visited by Dr. E. B., books which he 
had read, Latin Orations, Collections for his lectures, recipes and prescrip- 
tions, medical cases, letters, &c. I have printed a very small portion of the 
vol. viz. Letters ; four to his son Edward, one to Dr. Merrett, and one to 
Mr. Talbot, in vol. i, pp. 222, 231, 291, 309, 393, and 415. BouUmia 
Centenaria; Upon the dark thick mist, fyc. ; and Oratio, fyc. vol. iv, pp. 
340-352. 

No. 18. Relatione della Republica di Venetia fatta dal Marchese 
di Bedmare, Ambasc. del Re Catt' ca - presso della Republica. 
MS. Sloan. 1834. 

No. 19. An account of Europe. 

See the next article. 
No. 20. An account of Africa. 

MSS. Sloan. 1836, 1S37. The vols, comprise accounts of Europe, Africa, 
and Asia, and their principal states and countries, in 1675. 

QuAUTO. 

No. 1. Excerpta e Procli Eleinentis, &c. 

MS. Sloan. 1S38. A large 4 to. called by Ayscough a folio. — Proclus, Elementa 
Theologica. Very probably by Dr. Lushington : see vol. i, p. 467, Letter 
from Krowne to Aubrey. 






OF SIR THOMAS AND DR. E. BROWNE. 469 

No. 2. Miscellany Tracts, by Sir Thos. Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 1-48— Tracts 11, 10, 8— Collated with the former edi- 
tion. For the remaining contents of No. 1839, see articles, 4to. 14, 4, 15, 
16, 3, and 37. The 90 pages intervening between the last two numbers 
are occupied by a series of Moral Essays, which seem not enumerated in 
the present catalogue. 

No. 3. Physical Receipts. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 176-206. 

No. 4. Observations on Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 104-145. This was written by Sir Hamon L'Estrange, 
and sent by him to Sir Thos. Br. with a letter dated Jan. 16, 1653 ; which 
I have printed (vol. i, p. 369, from MS. Rawl. 391.) See notice of the 
MS. vol. ii, p. 173. 

No. 5. Critical notes upon several texts of Scripture, by Sir 
Thomas Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1841, fol. 191-262; Collated with Tract i. 

No. 6. Chemical and Alchemical Receipts. 

MS. Sloan. 1842. See Sir Thomas's detail of contents of the volume among 
Dee's MSS.— vol. ii, p. 464. 

No. 7. Tracts by Sir Thomas Browne: viz. 1. A Dialogue be- 
tween an Inhabitant of the Earth and of the Moon. 2. A Dialogue 
between two twins in the womb, concerning the world they were to 
come into, and other pieces. 

Who would have believed that a volume so distinctly described as containing 
Tracts on these two most curious subjects, would be found, on examination, 
to contain nothing more than the titles of them? Yet such is the fact. 
Surely the catalogue must have been drawn up either with intention to mis- 
lead, or by some one utterly incompetent to the task. Sir Hans Sloane 
has described the volume as containing " Subjects for Tracts, fyc. fyc." and 
it is numbered 1843 : — correctly. 

MS. Sloan. 1843 is a commonplace book, a very thin volume, containing 
Anagrams, Epigrams, Mottoes, and detached sentences, among which occur 
the two in question, as if memoranda for tracts to be written ; see vol. iv, 
379. The latter of the two subjects is mentioned in Hydriotaphia as affording 
an opportunity "handsomely to illustrate our ignorance of the next world, 
&c." — see vol. iii, 486. 

No. 8. Differentia Verborum [ ? ] usuve similium, una cum 
diversis ejusdem vocabuli significationibus, per E. Browne, M.D. 

MS. Sloan. 1844, (1, Aysc.) 

No. 9. Repertorium, or some account of the Tombs and Monu- 
ments in the Cathedral Church of Norwich, 1680. 

Not in Mus. Br. Probably the copy used in printing the Posthumous Works. 

No. 10. A Diary of the Conferences and Proceedings in the 
Treaty at London, 1604, between King James I, King Philip III, 
of Spain, and Albertus Archduke of Austria. 

MS. Sloan- 1851. 



470 ACCOUNT OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 

No. 1 1 . Physical and Chirurgical Receipts. 
MS. Sloan. 1852. 

No. 12. A Poetical Paraphrase on the VII Penitential Psalms, 
finely written upon vellum. 
MS. Sloan. 1853. 

No. 13. Speculum Philosophise, Johannis Dastini. 
MS. Sloan. 1854. Mentioned by Browne, among Dee's MSS. vol. i, p. 465. 

No. 14. Travels in Bohemia, Austria, &c. by Sir Tho. Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 50-103, probably. — From the name attached to this ar- 
ticle, it is clear that the catalogue was drawn up by some one ignorant of the 
history of the family, or he would not have ascribed these Travels to the 
father instead of the son. 

No. 15. Tractatus de Peste, &c. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 14G-1C1. This is not a duplicate of the paper on the 
plague, printed vol. iv, p. 277. Ayscough has called the article Qucestiones 
Medicce. 

No. 16. Fraus Pia, Comoedia. Lat. Elegant. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 162-175. 

No. 17. Miscellaneous Tracts, written by the Lord Bacon, Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Oliver St. John's, &c. Also Speeches in the 
House of Lords, in the Reign of Charles I, with other papers. 

MS. Sloan. 1856, (Nos. 1-11, Jysc.) 

No. 18. Theriaca Divina Benedicti; scripsit Anno 1599. 
MS. Sloan. 1857. Among Dee's MSS. see fol. i, p. 464. 

No. 19. A Course of Chemistry. 

Not found in the museum. The Sloanian catalogue numbers it 185S ; but MS. 
Sloan. 1858 is a very different thing. 

No. 20. An Historical and Chorographical Description of Suf- 
folk, written in the year 1602. 
Not found. 

No. 21. Moral Discourses, English, upon vellum, very ancient. 
MS. Sloan. 1859. 

No. 22. A Game at Chesse, a Comedy, written by Tho. Mid- 
dleton, an. 1620. 

Not found. 

No. 23. Tractatus Varii, per T. Browne, M.D. 

In the Sloanian catalogue this is said to be per Sir Titos. Browne, M.D. and 
is numbered 1860; which however is not to be found in Mus. Brit. See 
the remarks under the next article. 



OF SIR THOMAS AND DR. E. BROWNE. 471 

No. 24. An Account of a Voyage to East India. Also several 
Letters from Dr. Edward Browne to Sir Thomas, relating to Anti- 
quities, &c. in foreign parts, never printed. 

In Cat. Sloan, numbered 1S61. In Mus. Br. I found a vol, numbered 1860- 
1861, containing the articles in the present number, but not the Tractatas 
Farii, which therefore is missing. Ayscough however catalogues 1860 as 
containing the Voyage of M. Escaliot (which is printed, vol. iv, p. 43) and 
the letters, some few of which also are printed; i, pp. 154, 15S, 169, 174, 
186: butof 1861, he says deest: but erroneously ; for it is 1860 which deest. 

No. 25. Concerning some Urns found in Brampton Field in 
Norfolk, 1667. 

In my preface to Garden of Cyrus, Hydriotaphia, and Brampton Urns, I have 
conjectured the copy of the latter, contained in 1862, fol. 26-37, to have 
been that from which Curll printed. Perhaps however it is more probable 
that it was a duplicate, as well as those in 1S69, p. 60 — and MS. Rawl. 
391. — No. 1862 now contains mere sketches of passages for several of his 
works — viz. Hydriotaphia and Christian Morals, fol. 1-8, and 38-94; Letter- 
to a Friend, 8-25 ; Brampton Urns, 26-37. It forms one volume with 
1866, and is in fact, a Commonplace Book. 

No. 26. The Diary of George Weldon and Abraham Navarro's 
Journey to the Court of the Great Mogul, anno 1688, with the 
account of an Expedition to Carthagena. 

MS. Sloan. 1910, fol. 89— fin. 

No. 27. An Historical and Chorographical Description of Norfolk. 
Probably with No. 20. 

No. 28. Chymical Experiments. 
MS. Sloan. 1863? 

No. 29 and 30. Traite de TEuchariste. 

MS. Shan. 1864. 
No. 31. Treatise of Geography and other Tracts. 

MS. Sloan. 1865 ? It is possible that this may be the volume ; but I strongly 
doubt it, and if it be, it is very ill described. It contains in Dr. Ed. B's 
hand writing, Prescriptions, Anatomical Observations, many pages of Ex- 
tracts from various authors, Hobbes's De Mirahilibus Pecei, a paper of 36 
pages, Institutiones Logicce, and Flamstead's Account of the Comet of 1680. 
Besides these, is an account of Europe, in the early part of the volume, and 
this is the only geographical paper it contains. 

No. 32. Commonplace Book, by Sir Thomas Browne. 

Sir Hans Sloane's catalogue determines this to be the MS. Sloan. No. 1866: 
yet I have preferred to select my specimens of his Commonplace Books 
from 1869, 1874, and 1875 — only comparing 1S66 with the others in 
similar passages. The only extract I have printed from it, is the Account 
of a Thunderstorm," — at p. 353, vol. iv, and some latin passages at p. 453. 

No. 33. Holy Bible Epitomized, in latin verse, upon vellum. 

MS. Sloan. 1870. 



472 ACCOUNT OF THE MANUSCRIPTS 

No. 34. Verses, Epigrams, &c. English and Latin. 

MS. Sloan. 1867. 
No. 35. Letters from Dr. Edward Browne in his Travels. 

MS. Sloan. 1S68. Many printed in the early part of vol. i, from page 60 
to 114. 

No. 36. Essays upon several subjects, by Sir Thos. Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1869? This number has supplied a considerable portion of the 
Commonplace Books which I have printed; see iv, p. 381. It contains a 
copy of Brampton Urns, fol. 60. 

No. 37. Oratio Celeberrima Dom T. Browne, coram Prs. Coll. 
Med. 

MS. Sloan. 1839, fol. 299-316 and 1833, fol. 146-150, See vol. iv, 343. 

No. 38. Probationes ex Grotio. Graece. 
MS. Sloan. 1872. 

No. 39. Thomas Norton's Ordinal, being a Treatise of Alchymie 
in Verse; very ancient; neatly written. 

MS. Sloan. 1873. Among Dee's MSS. vol. i, 464. 

No. 40. A Book of the Use of the Crosse Staffe, by Thos Gol- 
ding; written in 1660. 
MS. Sloan. 1874, fol. 1-17. 

No. 41. Ordinances made by the Lord Keeper Coventry, with the 
advice and assistance of Sir Julius Caesar, master of the Rolles, 
for the Redress of Sundry Errors, Defaults and Abuses in the High 
Court of Chancery. 

MS. Sloan. 1874, fol. 18-20. 

No. 42. Brevis Animalium Adumbratio ad mentem et methodum 
Peripatheticam. 

MS. Sloan. 1874, fol. 21-37. 

No. 43. Fragmenta Miscellanea, by Sir T. Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1874, fol. 38-91. For Notm in Aristotelem, — a portion of these 
"Fragmenta," See vol iv, 360. 

No. 44. Museum Clausum; or Bibliotheca Abscondita; containing 
some remarkable things, Books, Antiquities, Pictures, Rarities of 
several kinds, scarce or never seen by any man living. By Sir 
Thos. Browne. 

MS. Sloan. 1874, fol. 92-110— Collated with Tract xiii, vol. iv, p. 239. 

No. 46. 2 Area Arcanorum, abstrusae HermeticeeScientiae Ingres- 
3 No 45 is omitted in MS. 



General ^ntiejc* 



GENERAL INDEX. 



A. B. Strictures on Digby's Observations 
on It. M. ii, xxx. 

Abgarus, king of Edessa, his picture of 
our Saviour, iii, 111. 

Abraham, picture of, sacrificing Isaac, 
P. E. v, ch. 8, iii, 113, 114. How 
incorrect; Isaac not then a little boy, 
1 13. A type of Christ bearing his 
cross, ib. More absurd pictures of 
this incident, ib. n. His grave at 
Beersheba, 392. 

Absalom, whether hanged by his hair? 
iii, 328. 

Academia naturce curiosorum, i, 309. 

Aconitum Jujemale, in flower in Jan. i, 48. 

Acta eruditorum, i, lxv, n. Remarks 
on R. M. and on the author, ii, xv, n. 

Acteeon, fable of explained, ii, 221. 

Adam, whether an hermaphrodite, ii, 30. 
Thought by some to have been thirty 
years old at his creation, 57. Au- 
gustine hereon, ib. n. Whether a 
negro? iii, 272. His apple, what, 296. 

Adam and Eve drawn with navels, P. E. 

v, ch. 5, iii, 99-102. By whom so 
drawn, 99 and 99, n. incorrectly — and 
why, 99-102. This opinion examin- 
ed and controverted, 99, n. Adopted 
by Dr. J. Bulwer, 100, n. Still more 
absurd pictures of, 99, n. 

Adam, Dr. Walter, on the osteological 
symmetry of the camel, &c. iii, 424, n. 

Adams, description of England, with 
maps, i, 338. 

Adipo-cire, iii, 479. 

Adolphus Cyprus, i, lxxiii. 

JEWan Claudius, his Hist. Animalium and 
Varia Histuria contain some false, 
some impossible things, ii, 238. 

iEneas Sylvius, his epp. quoted, i, 188. 

iEschylus, said to have been brained by 
a tortoise dropped by an eagle on his 
pate in mistake for a rock, iii, 365. 
An argument drawn from this against 
the motion of the earth, ib. 



iEsop, his Fables, done into Eng. by 
L'Estrange, i, 370, n. 

^tites, or eaglestone, fabled to promote 
delivery, ii, 356. What it is, 355, n. 

iEtius, mention of the basilisk, ii, 414. 

Agat, his collection, i, 103. 

Agen, E. B. at, i, 105. 

Agricola, Geo. De Mineral, et Metall. i, 
183, 185, 188. 

Agriculture, Jewish, iv, 152. Ancient, 
155., 

Agues, a powder against, i, 47. Quar- 
tan, many cases, 228. Seldom twice, 
227. At what seasons, 266. A charm 
against, iii, 1S2. 

Ahasuerus, iii, 160. 

Ahaz, sundial of, iii, 142, 297, n. 

Aikin, John, M. D. his life of B. ; parti- 
culars respecting, i, Pre/. 11, n. Re- 
probates the asperity of German criti- 
cism on Br. lxviii. Remarks on B. 
lxxxiii. 

Air, Boyle's Experiments on, i, 169. 
Curious particulars respecting its na- 
ture, ii, 485-489. Safety lamps, 489, n. 
Change of, sometimes too late to try, 
iv, 38. 

Aix, see Aken. 

Aken, [or Aix-la-chapelle,] i, lxxix, 243. 
E. B's. account of, 102. 

Albertus, Magnus, his works on natural 
science to be received with caution, 
ii, 241. His error concerning crystal, 
267. Says that garlick hinders the 
attraction of loadstone, 306. Says 
the diamond is broke by goat's blood, 
334. 

Alboin